Sararin Samaniya na Duniya

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Hoton NASA yana nuna yanayin duniya a faɗuwar rana, tare da silhouetted Earth
Hasken shuɗi yana warwatse fiye da sauran raƙuman raƙuman ruwa ta iskar da ke cikin sararin samaniya, yana kewaye da Duniya a cikin wani shuɗi mai haske idan aka gani daga sararin samaniya a cikin jirgin ISS a tsayin 335km (208 mi) .
Haɗin yanayin duniya ta ƙara, ban da tururin ruwa. Ƙananan kek ɗin yana wakiltar iskar gas wanda tare ke haɗa kusan 0.043391% na sararin samaniya (0.04402961% a cikin watan Afrilu 2019 taro ). Lambobi galibi daga 2000 ne, tare da CO</br> CO da methane daga 2019, kuma ba sa wakiltar kowane tushe .

Sararin samaniyar duniya, wanda aka fi sani da iska, shine iskar gas ɗin da ke riƙe da ƙarfin Duniya wanda ke kewaye da duniyar kuma ya samar da yanayin ta na duniya . Yanayin Duniya yana kare rayuwa a doron ƙasa ta hanyar haifar da matsin lamba wanda ke ba da damar ruwa mai ɗorewa ya kasance a farfajiyar Duniya, yana ɗaukar hasken rana na ultraviolet, yana dumama farfajiyar ta hanyar riƙe zafi ( tasirin greenhouse ), da rage matsanancin zafin rana tsakanin dare da rana ( zafin rana. bambancin).

Ta ƙarar, busasshiyar iska ta ƙunshi 78.08% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, da ƙananan gas. [7] Har ila yau, iska tana ƙunshe da adadin tururin ruwa, a matsakaita kusan kashi 1% a matakin teku, da 0.4% akan sararin samaniya. Haɗin iska, zafin jiki, da matsin yanayi suna bambanta da tsayi. A cikin yanayi, iska dace da amfani a photosynthesis da terrestrial shuke-shuke da kuma numfashi na nazarin sasannin dabbobi ke samuwa ne kawai a Duniya ta troposphere .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Farkon yanayin duniya ya ƙunshi iskar gas a cikin nebula na rana, da farko hydrogen. Yanayin ya canza sosai a tsawon lokaci, wanda abubuwa da yawa suka shafa kamar volcanism, rayuwa, da yanayin yanayi. Kwanan nan, ayyukan ɗan adam shima ya ba da gudummawa ga canje -canjen yanayi, kamar dumamar yanayi, raguwar ozone da zubar da acid.

Yanayin yana da taro kusan 5.15 ×  kg, [8] kwata -kwata uku yana cikin kusan 11 kilometres (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) na farfajiya. Yanayin ya zama siriri tare da kara tsayi, ba tare da takamaiman iyaka tsakanin yanayin da sararin samaniya ba . Layin Kármán, a 100 kilometres (62 mi) ko 1.57% na radius na Duniya, galibi ana amfani dashi azaman kan iyaka tsakanin sararin samaniya da sararin samaniya. Ana iya lura da tasirin yanayi yayin sake shigar sararin samaniya a sararin sama kusan 120 kilometres (75 mi) . Ana iya rarrabe yadudduka da yawa a cikin yanayi, dangane da halaye kamar zafin jiki da abun da ke ciki.

Nazarin yanayin duniya da hanyoyinsa ana kiranta kimiyyar yanayi (aerology), kuma ya ƙunshi filayen subfields da yawa, kamar canjin yanayi da kimiyyar sararin samaniya . Majagaba na farko a fagen sun haɗa da Léon Teisserenc de Bort da Richard Assmann . Nazarin yanayi mai tarihi ana kiransa paleoclimatology .

Abun da ke ciki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Ma'anar tururin ruwa na yanayi

Manyan abubuwa guda uku na sararin duniya sune nitrogen, oxygen, da argon . Tururin ruwa yana lissafin kusan 0.25% na sararin samaniya ta hanyar taro. Haɗin tururin ruwa (iskar gas) ya bambanta sosai daga kusan 10 ppm ta ƙarar a cikin mafi ƙarancin yanayin yanayi zuwa 5% da ƙima a cikin zafi mai zafi, da iska mai yawa, da kuma yawan sauran iskar gas. sharud busasshiyar iska (ba tare da tururin ruwa ba). Sauran iskar gas galibi ana kiran su iskar gas, daga cikinsu akwai iskar gas, musamman carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, da ozone. Bayan argon, wanda aka riga aka ambata, wasu gas masu daraja, neon, helium, krypton, da xenon suma suna nan. Iskar da aka tace ta haɗa da adadi mai yawa na sauran sinadarai . Abubuwa da yawa na asalin halitta na iya kasancewa a cikin gida da yanayi na canzawa kaɗan kaɗan kamar aerosols a cikin samfurin iska wanda ba a tace ba, gami da ƙura na ma'adinai da abun da ke cikin halitta, pollen da spores, fesa ruwa, da tokar dutsen . Hakanan ana iya samun gurɓatattun masana'antu daban -daban azaman gas ko aerosols, kamar chlorine (na asali ko a cikin mahadi), mahaɗan fluorine da ƙaƙƙarfan tururi na mercury. Ana iya samun mahaɗan sulfur kamar hydrogen sulfide da sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) daga asalin halitta ko daga gurɓataccen iska na masana'antu.

Manyan abubuwan busasshen iska, ta ƙara
Gas Juzu'i (A)
Suna Formula a cikin ppmv (B) a cikin %
Nitrogen N 2 780,840 78.084
Oxygen O 2 209,460 20.946
Argon Ar 9,340 0.9340
Carbon dioxide



</br> (Disamba, 2020) (C)
CO</br> CO 415.00 0.041500
Neon Ne 18.18 0.001818
Helium Ya 5.24 0,000524
Methane CH 4 1.87 0,000187
Krypton Kr 1.14 0,000114
Ba a haɗa shi a cikin busasshen yanayi:
Tururin ruwa (D) H 2 O 0–30,000 (D) 0-3% (E)
bayanin kula:



</br>

(A) ƙaramin juzu'i yana daidai da juzu'in mole don iskar gas kawai,</br>    Hakanan duba ƙarar (thermodynamics)</br> (B) ppmv: sassa a kowace miliyan ta ƙara</br> (C) Haɗin CO</br> CO yana ƙaruwa a cikin shekarun da suka gabata</br> (D) tururin ruwa yana kusan kashi 0.25% ta taro akan cikakken yanayi</br> (E) tururin ruwa ya bambanta sosai a cikin gida

Matsakaicin matsakaicin nauyin busasshiyar iska, wanda za a iya amfani da shi don ƙididdige ɗimbin yawa ko don juyawa tsakanin gutsuttsuran ƙwayar cuta da ɗimbin yawa, kusan 28.946 ko 28.96  g/mun. Wannan yana raguwa lokacin da iskar ta yi ɗumi.

Matsakaicin yawan iskar gas ya ci gaba da kasancewa har zuwa kusan 10,000 metres (33,000 ft) .

Fraan ƙaramin juzu'i na manyan abubuwan da ke cikin sararin duniya a matsayin aiki na tsayi bisa ga tsarin sararin samaniya na MSIS-E-90.

Tsayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yanayin duniya Ƙananan yadudduka huɗu na yanayin a cikin girma 3 kamar yadda aka gani diagonally daga sama da ƙima. Layer da aka zana don sikeli, abubuwan da ke cikin yadudduka ba za a auna su ba. Aurorae da aka nuna anan ƙasan yanayin zafi na iya samuwa a kowane tsayi a cikin wannan yanayin sararin samaniya.

Gaba ɗaya, matsin lamba da yawa yana raguwa tare da tsayi a cikin yanayi. Koyaya, zazzabi yana da bayanin rikitarwa mai rikitarwa tare da tsayi, kuma yana iya kasancewa mai ɗorewa ko ma ƙaruwa tare da tsayi a wasu yankuna (duba sashin zafin jiki, a ƙasa). Saboda ƙirar gaba ɗaya na bayanin zafin jiki/tsayi, ko ƙima, ya kasance mai ɗorewa kuma ana iya auna ta ta sautin balloon na kayan aiki, halayen zafin jiki yana ba da ma'auni mai amfani don rarrabe yadudduka yanayi. Ta wannan hanyar, ana iya raba yanayin duniya (wanda ake kira stratification) zuwa manyan yadudduka biyar: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, da exosphere. Tsawon layuka biyar sune kamar haka:

  • Exosphere: 700 zuwa 10,000 kilomita (440 zuwa 6,200 mil)
  • Yanayin yanayi: 80 zuwa 700 km (mil 50 zuwa 440)
  • Mesosphere: 50 zuwa 80 km (31 zuwa 50 mil)
  • Stratosphere: 12 zuwa 50 km (kilomita 7 zuwa 31)
  • Troposphere: 0 zuwa 12 km (0 zuwa mil 7)

Sararin Exosphere[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Exosphere shine saman saman sararin samaniyar duniya (watau iyakar sararin samaniyar). Ya shimfiɗa daga thermopause, a saman yanayin zafi a tsayin kusan 700 km sama da matakin teku, zuwa kusan 10,000 km (6,200 mi; 33,000,000 ft), inda ta shiga cikin iska mai haskakawa .

Wannan Layer galibi ya ƙunshi ƙarancin ƙarancin hydrogen, helium da wasu abubuwa masu nauyi da suka haɗa da nitrogen, oxygen da carbon dioxide kusa da exobase. Atoms da molecules sun yi nisa sosai ta yadda za su iya tafiya daruruwan kilomita ba tare da sun yi karo da juna ba. Don haka, exosphere ba ya yin kamar gas, kuma barbashi koyaushe yana tserewa zuwa sararin samaniya. Waɗannan barbashi masu motsi suna bin hanyoyin ballistic kuma suna iya ƙaura zuwa ciki da waje daga magnetosphere ko iskar rana.

Sararin exosphere ne da nisan sama Duniya for meteorological mamaki ya zama zai yiwu. Koyaya, auroras na duniya - aurora borealis (fitilun arewa) da aurora australis (fitilun kudancin) - wani lokacin suna faruwa a cikin ƙananan exosphere, inda suke haɗewa cikin yanayin zafi. Exosphere ya ƙunshi yawancin tauraron dan adam da ke kewaya Duniya.

Sararin Thermosphere[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  The thermosphere shine na biyu mafi girma na sararin duniya. Ya zarce daga mesopause (wanda ke raba shi da mesosphere) a tsayin kusan 80 kilometres (50 mi; 260,000 ft) har zuwa thermopause a tsayin tsayin 500–1,000 kilometres (310–620 mi; 1,600,000–3,300,000 ft) . Tsayin thermopause ya bambanta da yawa saboda canje -canje a ayyukan hasken rana. Saboda thermopause ya ta'allaka ne a ƙananan iyakar exosphere, ana kuma kiranta exobase . Sashin ƙasa na yanayin zafi, daga 80 to 550 kilometres (50 to 342 mi) sama da saman Duniya, ya ƙunshi ionosphere .

Yanabgi na yanayin zafi a hankali yana ƙaruwa da tsayi kuma yana iya hawa har zuwa 1,500 °C (2,730 °F), kodayake ƙwayoyin gas ɗin sun yi nisa sosai don yawan zafin jiki a yanayin da aka saba ba shi da ma'ana sosai. Iskar ba ta da ƙima sosai ta yadda kwayoyin halittar mutum ɗaya (na iskar oxygen, alal misali) ke tafiya matsakaicin 1 kilometre (0.62 mi; 3,300 ft) tsakanin cin karo da wasu kwayoyin. [9] Kodayake yanayin yanayin yana da yawan adadin kwayoyin halitta tare da babban kuzari, ba zai ji zafi ga ɗan adam a cikin hulɗa kai tsaye ba, saboda yawansa ya yi ƙasa sosai don gudanar da babban adadin kuzari zuwa ko daga fata.

Wannan Layer gaba ɗaya ba ta da gajimare kuma ba ta da tururin ruwa. Koyaya, abubuwan da ba na hydrometeorological kamar su aurora borealis da aurora australis ana ganin su a wasu lokuta a cikin yanayin zafi. Tashar sararin samaniya ta duniya tana kewaya wannan layin, tsakaniN. Shi wannan Layer inda yawancin tauraron dan adam da ke zagaya duniya suke.

Mesosphere[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Mesosphere shine na uku mafi girman yanayin sararin duniya, yana mamaye yankin sama da stratosphere kuma a ƙasa da yanayin zafi. Yana haɓaka daga madaidaiciyar madaidaiciya a tsayin kusan kilomita 50 (31mi; 160,000 ft) zuwa mesopause a kilomita 80-85 (50-54 mi) sama da matakin teku.

Yanayi na wuri yana raguwa tare da ƙara tsayi zuwa mesopause wanda ke nuna saman wannan tsakiyar sararin samaniyar. Shi ne wuri mafi sanyi a Duniya kuma yana da matsakaicin zafin jiki a kusa da -85 C (-120 digris F; 190 K). .

A ƙasa da madopause, iska tana da sanyi matuqa har ma da ƙarancin ƙarancin tururin ruwa a wannan tsayin za a iya jujjuya shi zuwa gajimare mai kumburin polar-mesospheric noctilucent. Waɗannan su ne mafi girman gizagizai a sararin samaniya kuma ana iya gani da idanu idan hasken rana ya haskaka su kusan awa ɗaya ko biyu bayan faɗuwar rana ko makamancin haka kafin fitowar rana. Suna da sauƙin gani yayin da Rana tana kusa da digiri 4 zuwa 16 a ƙasa da sararin sama. Fuskokin da ke haifar da walƙiya da aka sani da abubuwan da ke faruwa na ɗan lokaci (TLEs) suna faruwa a wasu lokutan a cikin mesosphere sama da tsawa. Hakanan mesosphere shine Layer inda yawancin meteors ke ƙonewa akan ƙofar yanayi. Ya yi yawa sama da Duniya don isa ga jirage masu amfani da jiragen sama da balloons, kuma ya yi ƙasa sosai don ba da damar sararin samaniya. Ana samun damar shiga mesosphere ne ta hanyar harba rokoki da jiragen sama masu amfani da roka.

Sararin Stratosphere[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Sararin Stratosphere shine na biyu mafi ƙasƙanci na sararin duniya. Yana ta'allaka sama da troposphere kuma an rabu da shi da tropopause . Wannan Layer ya zarce daga saman troposphere a wajen 12 kilometres (7.5 mi; 39,000 ft) sama da saman Duniyar zuwa madaidaiciya a tsayin kusan kilomita 50 to 55 kilometres (31 to 34 mi; 164,000 to 180,000 ft) .

Matsalar yanayi a saman stratosphere shine kusan 1/1000 matsin lamba a matakin teku . Ya ƙunshi lemar sararin samaniya, wanda shine ɓangaren sararin duniya wanda ke ɗauke da iskar gas mai ɗan yawa. Stratosphere yana bayyana matakin da yanayin zafi ke ƙaruwa tare da ƙara tsayi. Wannan hauhawar zafin jiki yana faruwa ne ta hanyar shan hasken ultraviolet radiation (UV) daga Rana ta hanyar lemar sararin samaniya, wanda ke takaita tashin hankali da cakudawa. Kodayake zazzabi na iya zama -76 dg F a tropopause, saman stratosphere yana da zafi sosai, kuma yana iya kasancewa kusa da 0 ° C.

Bayanin zafin jiki na stratospheric yana haifar da tsayayyen tsarin yanayi, don haka stratosphere ba shi da haɓakar iska da ke samar da yanayi wanda ya zama ruwan dare a cikin troposphere. Sakamakon haka, stratosphere kusan ba ta da girgije da sauran nau'ikan yanayi. Duk da haka, ana iya ganin girgijen pola stratospheric ko nacreous a wani sashi na wannan Layer na yanayi inda iska ta fi sanyi. Stratosphere shine mafi girman matakin da jirgin sama mai amfani da jirgin sama zai iya isa.

Sararin Troposphere[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Sararin samaniya na Troposphere shine mafi ƙasƙancin yanayin sararin duniya. Yana miƙawa daga farfajiyar Duniya zuwa matsakaicin tsayin kusan 12 km (7.5 mi; 39,000 ft), kodayake wannan tsayin ya bambanta daga kusan 9 km (5.6 mi; 30,000 ft) a ginshiƙan ƙasa zuwa 17 km (da 11 mi; 56,000 ft) a Equator, tare da wasu bambancin saboda yanayi. Troposphere yana ɗaure a sama ta hanyar tropopause, iyaka wanda aka yiwa alama a yawancin wurare ta jujjuyawar zafin jiki (watau Layer na iska mai ɗumi sama da mai sanyi), a wasu kuma ta wani yanki wanda isothermal tare da tsayi.

Kodayake bambance -bambancensu na faruwa, yawan zafin jiki yawanci yana raguwa tare da ƙara tsayi a cikin troposphere saboda mafi yawan abin da ake amfani da shi shine taɓarɓarewar makamashi daga farfajiya. Don haka, mafi ƙasƙancin ɓangaren troposphere (watau Dandalin Duniya) yawanci shine mafi kyawun sashi na troposphere. Wannan yana haɓaka haɗuwa ta tsaye (saboda haka, asalin sunan sa a cikin kalmar Helenanci τρόπος, tropos, ma'ana "juyawa"). Troposphere ya ƙunshi kusan kashi 80% na yawan sararin duniya. Troposphere ya fi kowa ƙarfi fiye da duk yadudduka na sararin samaniyar da ke ciki saboda babban nauyin yanayi yana zaune a saman troposphere kuma yana sa a matse shi sosai. Kashi hamsin cikin ɗari na jimlar iskar tana cikin ƙananan 5.6 km (3.5 mi; 18,000 ft) na sararin samaniyan troposphere.

Kusan duk tururin ruwa ko danshi ana samun sa a cikin sararin troposphere, don haka shine Layer inda yawancin yanayin duniya ke faruwa. Yana da asali duk nau'in nau'in halittar girgije mai alaƙa da yanayi wanda ke haifar da yaɗuwar iska mai ƙarfi, kodayake tsayin girgije mai ƙarfi na cumulonimbus na iya shiga cikin tarkon daga ƙasa kuma ya hau cikin ƙananan sashin stratosphere. Yawancin ayyukan zirga-zirgar jiragen sama na yau da kullun suna faruwa a cikin troposphere, kuma ita ce kawai madaidaicin da jirgin da ke tukawa zai iya isa.

Space Shuttle Niyya orbiting a thermosphere. Saboda kusurwar hoton, da alama yana birge stratosphere da mesosphere wanda a zahiri yana kwance sama da 250 km (160 mi) a kasa. A orange Layer ne troposphere, wanda ya bada hanya zuwa whitish stratosphere sa'an nan da blue mesosphere .

Wasu jerin sararin sama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin manyan sassan biyar da ke sama, waɗanda galibi ana azancinsu da, ana iya rarrabe wasu sararin da yawa ta wasu kaddar:

  • Shimfida na ozone yana kunshe a cikin stratosphere. A cikin wannan ɗanyen ɗanyen iskar ozone kusan kashi 2 zuwa 8 a kowace miliyan, wanda ya fi na ƙasa ƙima amma har yanzu yana da ƙanƙanta idan aka kwatanta da manyan abubuwan da ke cikin sararin samaniya. Yafi kasancewa a cikin ƙananan ɓangaren stratosphere daga kusan 15–35 kilometres (9.3–21.7 mi; 49,000–115,000 ft), kodayake kauri ya bambanta da yanayi da yanayin ƙasa. Kusan kashi 90% na ozone a cikin sararin duniya yana cikin stratosphere.
  • Yankin ionosphere yanki ne na sararin samaniya wanda ke haifar da ionized ta hanyar hasken rana. Yana da alhakin auroras . A lokacin awoyi na rana, yana miƙawa daga 50 to 1,000 kilometres (31 to 621 mi; 160,000 to 3,280,000 ft) kuma ya haɗa da mesosphere, thermosphere, da sassan exosphere. Koyaya, ionization a cikin mesosphere galibi yana ƙarewa cikin dare, don haka ana ganin auroras kawai a cikin yanayin zafi da ƙananan exosphere. Ionosphere shine ke haifar da gefen ciki na magnetosphere . Yana da mahimmanci a aikace saboda yana tasiri, alal misali, yaduwar rediyo a Duniya.
  • An bayyana yanayin sararin samaniya da heterosphere ta ko iskar gas ɗin ta haɗu sosai. Haɗin sararin samaniyar ya haɗa da troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, da mafi ƙasƙanci na yanayin zafi, inda tsarin sunadarai na sararin samaniya bai dogara da nauyin ƙwayoyin cuta ba saboda gas ɗin yana haɗuwa da tashin hankali. Wannan Layer mai kama da juna ya ƙare a turbopause da aka samu kusan 100 kilometres (62 mi; 330,000 ft), ainihin sararin sararin samaniya kamar yadda FAI ta karɓa, wanda ya sanya shi kusan 20 kilometres (12 mi; 66,000 ft) sama da mesopause.
A saman wannan tsayin hawan akwai heterosphere, wanda ya haɗa da exosphere da mafi yawan yanayin zafi. Anan, tsarin sunadarai ya bambanta da tsayi. Wannan saboda nisan da barbashi zai iya motsawa ba tare da yin karo da juna ba yana da girma idan aka kwatanta da girman motsi da ke haifar da haɗuwa. Wannan yana ba da damar iskar gas ta daidaita da nauyin kwayoyin, tare da masu nauyi, kamar oxygen da nitrogen, waɗanda ke kusa da kasan heterosphere kawai. Babban ɓangaren heterosphere ya ƙunshi kusan gaba ɗaya na hydrogen, mafi sauƙi. 
  • Shimfidan iyaka na duniya shine ɓangaren troposphere wanda shine mafi kusa da farfajiyar Duniya kuma abin ya shafe shi kai tsaye, galibi ta hanyar yaɗuwar tashin hankali . A cikin rana, galibin iyakokin duniya yana cakuda da kyau, yayin da da dare ya zama yana da daidaituwa tare da rauni ko gauraya. Zurfin faɗin iyakar duniya ya kai kusan 100 metres (330 ft) a sarari, kwanciyar hankali zuwa 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) ko sama da haka da rana a yankuna busasshe.

Matsakaicin zafin da ake samu a sararin samaniyar ƙasa shine 14 °C (57 °F; 287 K) ko 15 °C (59 °F; 288 K), gwargwadon abin tunani.

Abubuwan jiki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Template:Comparison US standard atmosphere 1962.svg

Matsin da kauri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Abmatsakaicin yanayi matsa lamba a teku matakin ne a tsare ta International Standard yanayi kamar yadda 101,325 pascals (760.00 Torr; 14.6959 psi; 760.00 mmHg) . A wasu lokuta ana kiran wannan a matsayin naúrar ma'aunin yanayi (atm) . Jimlar yawan sararin samaniya shine 5.1480 × 10 18 kg (1.135 × 10 19 lb), kusan 2.5% ƙasa da abin da za a iya samu daga matsakaicin matsin matakin teku da yankin Duniya na murabba'in 51007.2, wannan yanki yana ƙaura daga ƙasa mai tsaunuka na Duniya. Matsa lamba na yanayi shine jimlar nauyin iskar da ke sama da yanki a inda ake auna matsa lamba. Don haka matsin lamba ya bambanta da wuri da yanayi .

Idan duk daukakin sararin samaniya yana da daidaiton daidaituwa daidai da girman matakin teku (kusan 1.2 kg da m 3 ) daga matakin teku zuwa sama, zai ƙare kwatsam a tsayin 8.50 kilometres (27,900 ft) . A zahiri yana raguwa sosai tare da tsayi, yana raguwa da rabi kowane 5.6 kilometres (18,000 ft) ko ta hanyar 1/ e kowane 7.64 kilometres (25,100 ft), matsakaicin girman sikelin sararin samaniya a ƙasa 70 kilometres (43 mi; 230,000 ft) . Koyaya, an daidaita yanayin yanayi daidai gwargwado tare da daidaitaccen lissafi don kowane Layer wanda ke ɗaukar gradients na zafin jiki, abun da ke cikin kwayoyin halitta, hasken rana da nauyi a cikin lissafi.

A taƙaice, ana rarraba yawan iskar Duniya kamar haka:

  • Kashi 50% yana ƙasa da 5.6 kilometres (18,000 ft) .
  • 90% yana ƙasa da 16 kilometres (52,000 ft) .
  • 99.99997% yana ƙasa da 100 kilometres (62 mi; 330,000 ft), layin Kármán . Ta babban taron ƙasa da ƙasa, wannan yana nuna farkon sararin samaniya inda ake ɗaukar matafiya 'yan sama jannati .

Idan aka kwatanta, taron Mt. Everest yana kan 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) ; Kamfanonin jiragen sama na kasuwanci yawanci suna yin balaguro tsakanin 10 and 13 kilometres (33,000 and 43,000 ft) inda siririn iska ke inganta tattalin arzikin mai; balloons yanayi sun kai 30.4 kilometres (100,000 ft) da sama; kuma jirgin X-15 mafi girma a shekarar 1963 ya kai 108.0 kilometres (354,300 ft) .

Ko sama da layin Kármán, manyan tasirin yanayi kamar auroras har yanzu suna faruwa. Meteors na fara haske a wannan yankin, kodayake manyan ba za su ƙone ba har sai sun zurfafa zurfafa. Daban -daban yadudduka na ionosphere na Duniya, masu mahimmanci ga yaduwar rediyon HF, sun fara ƙasa da 100 km kuma ya zarce 500 km da. By kwatanta, da International Space Station da kuma Space Jigila yawanci kewayewa a 350-400 km, a cikin F-Layer na ionosphere inda suke haɗuwa da isasshen jan yanayi don buƙatar sake juyawa kowane monthsan watanni, in ba haka ba, ɓarna na orbital zai faru wanda zai haifar da komawa duniya. Dangane da aikin hasken rana, tauraron dan adam na iya fuskantar jan hankalin da ake gani a sama har zuwa 700-800 km da.

Yanayin wuri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Yanayin yanayin zafi a cikin kauri biyu masu kauri na sararin samaniya kamar yadda aka auna tsakanin Janairu 1979 da Disamba 2005 ta Microwave Unit Sounding da Advanced Microwave Unit a kan tauraron dan adam na NOAA. Kayan aikin suna yin rikodin microwaves da ake fitarwa daga ƙwayoyin oxygen a cikin yanayi. Source:

An tattauna rabuwar sararin samaniya zuwa yadudduka galibi ta hanyar magana da zafin jiki a sama. Zazzabi yana raguwa tare da tsayi daga matakin teku, amma bambancin wannan yanayin yana farawa sama da 11 km, inda zafin jiki ke daidaitawa ta hanyar babban madaidaiciyar tazara ta sauran ragowar sararin samaniyar. A cikin stratosphere, farawa sama da kusan 20 km, yanayin zafi ko sanyi yana ƙaruwa da tsayi, saboda dumama a cikin sashin ozone wanda ya haifar da kama babban hasken ultraviolet daga Rana ta iskar oxygen da iskar gas a wannan yankin. Har ila yau, wani yanki na ƙara yawan zafin jiki tare da tsayi yana faruwa a cikin manyan maɗaukaki, a cikin yanayin da ake kira thermosphere sama da kilomita 90.

Gudun sauti[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Saboda a cikin isasshen iskar gas na abun da ke ciki akai -akai saurin sauti ya dogara ne kawai akan zafin jiki kuma ba akan matsin gas ko yawa ba, saurin sauti a cikin yanayi tare da tsayi yana ɗaukar yanayin yanayin yanayin rikitarwa mai rikitarwa (duba hoto zuwa dama), kuma baya nuna canje -canjen altitudinal a cikin yawa ko matsin lamba.

Girma da yawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zazzabi da ɗimbin yawa a kan tsayi daga ƙirar ƙirar yanayi na NRLMSISE-00 (layuka takwas ɗin da ke cikin kowane "shekaru goma" suna kan cubes takwas 8, 27, 64, ..., 729)

  Yawan iska a matakin teku yana kusan 1.2 kg/m 3 (1.2 g/L, 0.0012 g/cm 3 ). Ba a auna ɗimbin yawa kai tsaye amma akanƙididdige shi daga ma'aunin zafin jiki, matsin lamba da zafi ta amfani da ƙimar jihar don iska (nau'in dokar gas mai kyau ). Nauyin yanayi yana raguwa yayin da tsawo ke ƙaruwa. Ana iya daidaita wannan bambancin ta amfani da dabarar barometric . Ana amfani da ƙarin samfuran ƙira don hango lalacewar orbital na tauraron dan adam.

Matsakaicin yawan sararin samaniya shine kusan quadrillion 5 (5 × ) tan ko 1/1,200,000 yawan Duniya. Bisa ga Cibiyar Nazarin Ƙasa ta Amurka ta Amurka, "Jimlar ma'anar sararin samaniya shine 5.1480 ×  kg tare da kewayon shekara -shekara saboda tururin ruwa na 1.2 ko 1.5 ×  kg, dangane da ko ana amfani da matsin lamba ko bayanan tururin ruwa; dan karami fiye da kimantawar da ta gabata. An kiyasta yawan tururin ruwa kamar 1.27 ×  kg da yawan busasshen iska kamar 5.1352 ± 0.0003 ×  kg ku. "

Kayayyakin gani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Solar radiation (ko hasken rana) ne da makamashi Duniya na'am daga Sun. Har ila yau, duniya tana sake fitar da radiation zuwa sararin samaniya, amma a cikin tsawon raƙuman ruwa da ba za mu iya gani ba. Wani sashi na radiation mai shigowa da fitar da shi yana shakar ko nunawa ta yanayin. A watan Mayun 2017, an gano kyallen haske, wanda ake ganin yana walƙiya daga tauraron dan adam mai tazarar mil mil daga nesa, an nuna haske daga kristal kankara a sararin samaniya.

Watsawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Lokacin da haske ya ratsa sararin saman duniya, photons suna hulɗa da ita ta hanyar watsawa . Idan hasken baya yin mu'amala da yanayin, ana kiransa radiation kai tsaye kuma shine abin da kuke gani idan za ku kalli Rana kai tsaye. Hasken kai tsaye haske ne wanda ya warwatse a sararin samaniya. Alal misali, a kan wani gizagizai rana a lokacin da ba za ka iya ganin your inuwa, babu wani kai tsaye radiation kai ku, shi ya duka aka wãtsa. A matsayin wani misali, saboda wani sabon abu da ake kira watsawa Rayleigh, guntun raƙuman raƙuman ruwa (shuɗi) suna watsewa cikin sauƙi fiye da tsawon raƙuman ruwa (ja). Wannan shine dalilin da yasa sararin sama yayi kama da shuɗi; kuna ganin hasken shuɗi mai warwatse. Wannan kuma shine dalilin da yasa faɗuwar rana take ja. Saboda Rana tana kusa da sararin sama, hasken Rana yana ratsa yanayi fiye da yadda aka saba don isa ga idon ku. Mafi yawa daga cikin shuɗin haske ya warwatse, ya bar jan haske a faɗuwar rana.

Shanyewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

M mãkirci na Duniya ke yanayi transmittance (ko shirin hana haske) don daban-daban wavelengths na electromagnetic radiation, ciki har da bayyane haske .

Kwayoyin halittu daban -daban suna shafan raƙuman radiyo daban -daban. Misali, O 2 da O 3 suna sha kusan duk raƙuman raƙuman ruwa fiye da nanometers 300. Ruwa (H 2 O) yana ɗaukar raƙuman ruwa masu yawa sama da 700 nm. Lokacin da kwayar halitta ta sha foton, yana kara kuzari na kwayar. Wannan yana dumama yanayi, amma kuma yanayin yana sanyaya ta hanyar fitar da radiation, kamar yadda aka tattauna a ƙasa.

Haɗaɗɗen iskar gas ɗin da ake kira absorption spectra "windows" na ƙarancin haske, yana ba da damar watsa wasu madaidaitan haske. Window na gani yana gudana daga kusan 300 nm ( ultraviolet -C) zuwa cikin kewayon mutane na iya gani, bakan da ake iya gani (wanda ake kira haske), a kusan 400-700 nm kuma yana ci gaba da infrared zuwa kusan 1100 nm. Hakanan akwai tagogin infrared da rediyo waɗanda ke watsa wasu infrared da raƙuman rediyo a tsawon raƙuman ruwa. Misali, taga rediyon yana gudana daga kusan santimita daya zuwa rakuman ruwa kimanin mita goma sha daya.

Yaduwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Fitarwa ita ce kishiyar sha, shi ne lokacin da wani abu ya fitar da radiation. Abubuwa sukan yi ta fitar da adadi mai yawa da tsayin raƙuman ruwa ta hanyar dogaro da karkatattun ƙyallen " baƙar fata ", saboda haka abubuwa masu zafi suna yawan fitar da ƙarin radiation, tare da gajerun raƙuman ruwa. Abubuwa masu sanyi suna fitar da ƙarancin radiation, tare da tsawon raƙuman ruwa. Misali, Rana kusan 6,000 K (5,730 °C; 10,340 °F) , mafi girman haskenta yana kusa da 500 nm, kuma ana iya gani ga idon ɗan adam. Duniya kusan 290 K (17 °C; 62 °F), don haka haskensa ya kai kololuwa kusan 10,000 nm, kuma yayi tsayi da yawa don ganin mutane.

Saboda yanayin zafi, yanayin yana fitar da hasken infrared. Misali, a cikin dare mai haske sararin samaniyar ƙasa yana hucewa da sauri fiye da daren girgije. Wannan saboda gajimare (H 2 O) suna da ƙarfi masu shayarwa da fitowar hasken infrared. Wannan kuma shine dalilin da yasa yake yin sanyi da daddare a wurare masu bisa.

Tasirin greenhouse effect yana da alaƙa kai tsaye da wannan shaye -shaye da tasirin iska. Wasu iskar gas a cikin yanayi suna sha da fitar da hasken infrared, amma basa hulɗa da hasken rana a cikin bakan da ake gani. Misalan gama -gari na waɗannan sune

CO

</br> CO da H 2 O.

Manuniya mai raɗaɗi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Illolin gurɓataccen yanayi na jujjuyawar yanayi akan sifar rana a sararin sama.

   

Ƙididdigar iskar iska tana kusa, amma ya fi 1 girma. Bambance -bambancen da ke cikin tsari mai rikitarwa na iya haifar da lanƙwasa hasken haske a kan dogayen hanyoyin gani. Misali guda ɗaya shine, a wasu yanayi, masu sa ido a cikin jiragen ruwa na iya ganin wasu jiragen ruwa kawai a sararin sama saboda haske yayi yawo a cikin alkibla ɗaya kamar lanƙwasar saman Duniya.

Ƙididdigar iskar iska ta dogara da yanayin wuri na sanyi ko zafi. yana haifar da tasirin juyawa lokacin da yawan zafin jiki ya yi yawa. Misalin irin wannan tasirin shine ƙaura .

Da'irar Yaduwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Kyakkyawan ra'ayi na nau'i -nau'i guda uku na manyan sel kewaya.

Dairar yaduwar iska a sararin samaniya shine babban motsi na iska ta hanyar troposphere, da hanyoyin (tare da kewayawar teku ) wanda ake rarraba zafi a kewayen Duniya. Babban tsarin sikelin sararin samaniya ya bambanta daga shekara zuwa shekara, amma ainihin tsarin yana da tsayayye saboda an ƙaddara shi ta hanyar jujjuyawar duniya da bambanci a cikin hasken rana tsakanin ma'aunin ma'aunai da sanduna.

Juyin Halittar Yanayin Duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Yanayin farko na sararin samaniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yanayin farko ya ƙunshi iskar gas a cikin nebula na rana, da farko hydrogen . Wataƙila akwai ruwa mai sauƙi kamar waɗanda aka samu yanzu a cikin ƙungiyoyin gas ( Jupiter da Saturn ), musamman tururin ruwa, methane da ammoniya .

Sararin samaniya na biyu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fitar iskar wutar volkeno, wanda ke cike da iskar gas da aka samar a lokacin matsanancin bama -bamai na duniya ta manyan taurari, ya samar da yanayi na gaba, wanda ya ƙunshi mafi yawa na nitrogen da carbon dioxide da iskar gas. Wani babban sashi na iskar carbon dioxide ya narke cikin ruwa kuma yayi aiki tare da karafa kamar alli da magnesium yayin yanayin duwatsu masu ƙyalƙyali don ƙirƙirar carbonates waɗanda aka ajiye azaman magudanar ruwa. An gano gurɓatattun abubuwan da ke da alaƙa da ruwa tun daga farkon shekaru biliyan 3.8 da suka gabata. [10]

Kimanin shekaru biliyan 3.4 da suka wuce, sinadarin nitrogen ya zama babban sashi na kwanciyar hankali na '' yanayi na biyu ''. Dole ne a yi la’akari da tasirin rayuwa ba da daɗewa ba a cikin tarihin yanayi saboda alamun alamun farkon rayuwa sun bayyana tun shekaru biliyan 3.5 da suka gabata. [11] Yadda Duniya a wancan lokacin ta kasance da yanayin dumamar yanayi don isasshen ruwa mai ruwa da rayuwa, idan Rana ta farko ta fitar da ƙarancin hasken rana 30% fiye da na yau, abin wuyar warwarewa ne da aka sani da " suma matashin Sun ".

Duk da haka, ajiyayyen record na sararin sama yana nuna ɗimbin ɗimbin ɗimbin ɗimbin ɗimbin ɗimbin ɗimbin yawa yayin cikakken rikodin farkon zafin zafin duniya - in ban da wani lokaci mai sanyi na kimanin shekara biliyan 2.4 da suka gabata. A ƙarshen Archean Eon wani yanayi mai ɗauke da iskar oxygen ya fara haɓaka, da alama an samar da shi ta hanyar photosynthesizing cyanobacteria (duba Babban Taron Oxygenation ), waɗanda aka samo su a matsayin burbushin stromatolite daga shekaru biliyan 2.7 da suka gabata. Farkon isotopy na iskar carbon ( rabon isotope rabo ) yana ba da shawarar yanayi mai kama da na yanzu, da kuma cewa an kafa ƙa'idodin keɓaɓɓen tsarin carbon tun farkon shekaru biliyan 4 da suka gabata.

Tsoffin narkakken ruwa a Gabon da ke tsakanin kimanin shekaru biliyan 2.15 zuwa 2.08 da suka gabata suna ba da rikodin na juyin halittar iskar Oxygen ta Duniya. Wataƙila waɗannan canje -canjen a cikin iskar oxygen ana iya motsa su ta balaguron isotope na Lomagundi.

Sararin samaniya na uku[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abubuwan da ke cikin iskar Oxygen a cikin shekaru biliyan da suka gabata [12]

Sake saken tsara nahiyoyi ta plate tectonics yana tasiri juyin halittar yanayi na dogon lokaci ta hanyar canza carbon dioxide zuwa da daga manyan kantunan carbonate na nahiyar. Free oxygen bai wanzu a cikin sararin samaniya ba sai kusan shekaru biliyan 2.4 da suka gabata yayin Babban Taron Oxygenation kuma ana nuna kamanninsa ta ƙarshen ƙarfe da aka ɗaure .

Kafin wannan lokacin, duk wani iskar oxygen da photosynthesis ke samarwa ana cinye shi ta hanyar oxyidation na kayan da aka rage, musamman ƙarfe. Molecules na oxygen kyauta bai fara tarawa a cikin sararin samaniya ba har sai yawan samar da iskar oxygen ya fara wuce samuwar rage kayan da suka cire iskar oxygen. Wannan batu yana nuna juyawa daga yanayi mai ragewa zuwa yanayi mai ƙonewa . O 2 ya nuna manyan bambance -bambancen har sai ya kai matsayi na sama da 15% a ƙarshen Precambrian. [13] Lokaci mai zuwa daga shekaru miliyan 541 da suka gabata har zuwa yau shine Phanerozoic Eon, a farkon lokacinsa, Cambrian, isasshen iskar oxygen da ke buƙatar tsarin rayuwa na metazoan ya fara bayyana.

Adadin iskar oxygen a sararin samaniya ya canza a cikin shekaru miliyan 600 da suka gabata, ya kai kololuwar kusan kashi 30% kusan shekaru miliyan 280 da suka gabata, wanda ya fi na yau kashi 21%. Manyan matakai guda biyu suna sarrafa canje -canje a cikin yanayi: Shuke -shuke da ke amfani da iskar carbon dioxide daga sararin samaniya da sakin iskar oxygen, sannan tsire -tsire ta amfani da wasu iskar oxygen da daddare ta hanyar aikin photorespiration tare da sauran iskar oxygen da ake amfani da su don lalata abubuwan da ke kusa da su. Rushewar pyrite da dusar ƙanƙara ta fito da sulfur a cikin sararin samaniya, wanda ke shaye -shaye don haka yana rage adadin iskar oxygen a cikin sararin. Koyaya, fashewar dutsen yana kuma sakin carbon dioxide, wanda tsire -tsire na iya juyawa zuwa oxygen. Ba a san ainihin musabbabin bambancin adadin iskar oxygen a cikin sararin ba. Lokaci tare da iskar oxygen da yawa a cikin yanayin yana da alaƙa da saurin haɓaka dabbobi. Yanayin yau yana dauke da iskar oxygen kashi 21%, wanda ya isa sosai ga wannan saurin ci gaban dabbobi. [14]

Gurbatar iska[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Cox, Arthur N., ed. (2000), Allen's Astrophysical Quantities (Fourth ed.), AIP Press, pp. 258–259, ISBN 0-387-98746-0, which rounds NTemplate:Sub and OTemplate:Sub to four significant digits without affecting the total because 0.004% was removed from NTemplate:Sub and added to OTemplate:Sub. It includes 20 constituents.
  2. Haynes, H. M., ed. (2016–2017), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (97th ed.), CRC Press, p. 14Template:Hyphen3, ISBN 978-1-4987-5428-6, which cites Allen's Astrophysical Quantities but includes only ten of its largest constituents.
  3. "Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide", Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, NOAA, 2019, retrieved 2019-05-31
  4. "Trends in Atmospheric Methane", Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network, NOAA, 2019, retrieved 2019-05-31
  5. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1976), U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976 (PDF), p. 3
  6. Allen, C. W. (1976), Astrophysical Quantities (Third ed.), Athlone Press, p. 119, ISBN 0-485-11150-0
  7. Two recent reliable sources cited here have total atmospheric compositions, including trace molecules, that exceed 100%. They are Allen's Astrophysical Quantities[1] (2000, 100.001241343%) and CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics[2] (2016–2017, 100.004667%), which cites Allen's Astrophysical Quantities. Both are used as references in this article. Both exceed 100% because their COTemplate:Sub values were increased to 345 ppmv, without changing their other constituents to compensate. This is made worse by the April 2019 Template:CO2 value, which is 413.32 ppmv.[3] Although minor, the January 2019 value for Template:CH4 is 1866.1 ppbv (parts per billion).[4] Two older reliable sources have dry atmospheric compositions, including trace molecules, that total less than 100%: U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976[5] (99.9997147%); and Astrophysical Quantities[6] (1976, 99.9999357%).
  8. Lide, David R. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 1996: 14–17
  9. Ahrens, C. Donald. Essentials of Meteorology. Published by Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2005.
  10. B. Windley: The Evolving Continents. Wiley Press, New York 1984
  11. J. Schopf: Earth's Earliest Biosphere: Its Origin and Evolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1983
  12. http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309100615/gifmid/30.gif
  13. Christopher R. Scotese, Back to Earth History : Summary Chart for the Precambrian, Paleomar Project
  14. Peter Ward: Out of Thin Air: Dinosaurs, Birds, and Earth's Ancient Atmosphere