Gandun Daji

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Aikin gandun daji a Austria

Gandun daji shine kimiyya da fasaha na ƙirƙira, sarrafawa, dasa shuka, amfani, adanawa da gyara dazuzzuka, ciyayi, da albarkatu masu alaƙa don fa'idodin ɗan adam da muhalli. Ana yin aikin gandun daji a cikin gonaki da kuma wuraren da ake da su. Kimiyyar gandun daji yana da abubuwan da ke cikin ilimin halitta, jiki, zamantakewa, siyasa da kimiyyar gudanarwa. Gudanar da gandun daji yana taka muhimmiyar rawa na ƙirƙira da gyare-gyaren wuraren zama kuma yana shafar samar da ayyukan muhalli.[1][2][3][4]

Gandun daji na zamani gaba ɗaya ya ƙunshi manyan abubuwan damuwa, a cikin abin da aka sani da sarrafa amfani da yawa, gami da abubuwa kamar haka:

  • Samar da katako
  • Itacen mai
  • Wurin zama na namun daji
  • Gudanar da ingancin ruwa na halitta
  • Nishaɗi
  • Tsarin ƙasa da kariyar al'umma
  • Aiki
  • shimfidar wurare masu kyan gani
  • Gudanar da bambancin halittu
  • Gudanar da magudanar ruwa
  • Kula da zaizayar kasa
  • Kiyaye dazuzzuka kamar " nutsewa " don iskar carbon dioxide

Ana san mai aikin gandun daji da gandun daji . Wani kalmar gama gari shine silviculturist. Silviculture ya fi gandun daji kunkuntar, yana damuwa da tsire-tsire na gandun daji kawai, amma ana amfani da shi tare da gandun daji.

An yi la'akari da yanayin dazuzzuka a matsayin mafi mahimmancin bangaren biosphere, kuma gandun daji ya fito a matsayin mahimmancin kimiyya, sana'a, da fasaha .

Duk mutane sun dogara da gandun daji da bambancin halittunsu, wasu fiye da wasu. Gandun daji wani muhimmin yanki ne na tattalin arziki a cikin ƙasashe masu masana'antu daban-daban, kamar yadda gandun daji ke ba da ayyukan koraye sama da miliyan 86 da tallafawa rayuwar ƙarin mutane da yawa. [5] Misali, a Jamus, gandun daji suna rufe kusan kashi ɗaya bisa uku na yankin ƙasar, itace shine mafi mahimmancin albarkatun da za'a iya sabuntawa, kuma gandun daji yana tallafawa ayyukan yi fiye da miliyan ɗaya da kusan € 181 biliyan na ƙimar tattalin arzikin Jamus kowace shekara.

A duk duniya, kimanin mutane miliyan 880 ne ke kashe wani bangare na lokacinsu wajen diban man fetur ko kuma yin gawayi, yawancinsu mata. Yawan jama'a yakan yi kasa a yankuna na kasashe masu karamin karfi da ke da gandun daji da kuma yawan gandun daji, amma yawan talauci a wadannan yankuna yakan yi yawa. [5] Wasu mutane miliyan 252 da ke zaune a cikin dazuzzuka da savannas suna samun kuɗin shiga ƙasa da dalar Amurka 1.25 kowace rana. [5]

Dajin beech mai tsiro a cikin Slovenia

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fage[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Werner Sombart da sauransu sun sanya wa shekarun gaban masana'antu lakabi da 'zamanin itace', saboda katako da itacen wuta sune tushen albarkatun makamashi, gini da gidaje. Ci gaban gandun daji na zamani yana da alaƙa da haɓakar jari-hujja, tattalin arziki a matsayin kimiyya da ra'ayoyi daban-daban na amfani da ƙasa da dukiya. [6] Roman Latifundiae, manyan wuraren noma, sun yi nasara sosai wajen kiyaye yawan itacen da ya zama dole ga Daular Roma. Manyan saren gandun daji ya zo tare da raguwar Rumawa. [7] Duk da haka tuni a cikin ƙarni na 5, sufaye a cikin lokacin Byzantine Romagna a kan gabar tekun Adriatic, sun sami damar kafa gonakin pine na dutse don samar da itacen mai da abinci . Wannan shi ne farkon babban dajin da Dante Alighieri ya ambata a cikin waƙarsa ta shekara ta 1308 Divine Comedy . [8]

Irin waɗannan ayyukan dazuzzuka masu ɗorewa sun haɓaka ta Visigoths a cikin ƙarni na 7, yayin da suke fuskantar ƙarancin itace, suka kafa ƙa'idar da ta shafi kiyaye dazuzzukan itacen oak da Pine . Amfani da kuma sarrafa albarkatun gandun daji da yawa yana da dogon tarihi a ƙasar Sin, tun daga daular Han da ke karkashin ikon mallakar filaye . An yi amfani da irin wannan hanya a Japan. Daga baya kuma masanin ƙasar Sin Xu Guangqi (1562-1633) ya rubuta game da daular Ming .

A Turai, haƙƙin amfani da ƙasa a zamanin da da farkon zamani ya ba da damar masu amfani daban-daban damar shiga gandun daji da wuraren kiwo. Shurar tsiro da fitar da guduro suna da mahimmanci, saboda farar (gudu) yana da mahimmanci ga caulking na jiragen ruwa, haƙƙoƙin faɗuwa da farauta, itacen wuta da gini, tara katako a cikin wuraren kiwo na itace, da kiwo na dabbobi a cikin dazuzzuka. Ra'ayin "na gama-gari" (Jamus " Allmende ") yana nufin ainihin kalmar shari'a ta gargajiya ta ƙasar gama gari. Tunanin rufaffiyar kadarorin masu zaman kansu ya samo asali ne a zamanin yau. Koyaya, yawancin haƙƙoƙin farauta sun kasance membobin manyan mutane waɗanda ke kiyaye haƙƙin manyan mutane don samun dama da amfani da ƙasar gama gari don nishaɗi, kamar farautar fox .

Farkon ci gaban gandun daji na zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Girbin katako a Finland
Yin amfani da itacen goge baki a Golden Steinrueck, Vogelsberg
Hans Carl von Carlowitz, mai hakar ma'adinai na Jamus

Tsarin kula da gandun daji don samun amfanin katako mai ɗorewa ya fara ne a Portugal a cikin ƙarni na 13 lokacin da Sarki Afonso III ya dasa dajin Pinhal do Rei (Dajin Pine na King) kusa da Leiria don hana zaizayar gabar teku da lalata ƙasa, kuma a matsayin tushen ci gaba na katako da aka yi amfani da su a ciki. gina sojojin ruwa. Magajinsa Sarki Denis na Portugal ya ci gaba da aikin kuma daji yana wanzu har yau.

Har ila yau, kula da gandun daji ya bunƙasa a cikin jihohin Jamus a ƙarni na 14, misali a Nuremberg, da kuma a Japan a ƙarni na 16. Yawanci, an raba gandun daji zuwa sassa na musamman kuma an tsara shi; an shirya girbin katako da ido don sake farfadowa. Kamar yadda rafting na katako ya ba da izinin haɗa manyan dazuzzukan nahiyoyi, kamar a kudu maso yammacin Jamus, ta hanyar Main, Neckar, Danube da Rhine tare da biranen bakin teku da jahohi, farkon gandun daji na zamani da ciniki mai nisa suna da alaƙa sosai. An kira manyan firs a cikin gandun daji na baƙar fata "Holländer", yayin da aka sayar da su zuwa yadiyoyin jirgin ruwan Holland. Manyan igiyoyin katako a kan Rhine sun kasance tsawon 200 zuwa 400m, faɗin 40m kuma sun ƙunshi katako dubu da yawa. Ma’aikatan jirgin sun kunshi mutane 400 zuwa 500, wadanda suka hada da matsuguni, gidajen burodi, tanda da wuraren kiwon dabbobi. Abubuwan aikin rafting na katako sun ba da izinin manyan hanyoyin sadarwa masu haɗin gwiwa a duk faɗin nahiyar Turai kuma har yanzu suna da mahimmanci a Finland.

An fara da ƙarni na 16, haɓaka kasuwancin teku na duniya, haɓakar gine-ginen gidaje a Turai, da nasara da ƙara Berggeschrey (rushes) na masana'antar hakar ma'adinai ya karu da amfani da katako sosai. Tunanin 'Nachhaltigkeit', dorewa a cikin gandun daji, yana da alaƙa da aikin Hans Carl von Carlowitz (1645-1714), mai kula da ma'adinai a Saxony . Littafinsa Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht (1713) shine nassi na farko mai cikakken bayani game da dazuzzuka masu ɗorewa. A cikin Burtaniya, kuma, zuwa wani matsayi, a cikin Nahiyar Turai, ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan kadara da keɓaɓɓu . [9] Masu gyara Agrarian, marubutan tattalin arziki na farko da masana kimiyya sun yi ƙoƙari su kawar da al'adun gargajiya. [10] A lokacin, wani bala'i da ake zargin na gama gari tare da fargabar wani Holznot, ƙarancin itace da ke gabatowa ya taka rawa a cikin rikice-rikice game da tsarin amfani da ƙasa na haɗin gwiwa.

John Evelyn ya haɓaka al'adar kafa dashen bishiya a Tsibirin Biritaniya, kodayake ya riga ya sami farin jini. Ministan Louis XIV Jean-Baptiste Colbert 's itacen oak Forest na Tronçais, wanda aka dasa don amfani da sojojin ruwa na Faransa a nan gaba, ya girma kamar yadda aka zata a tsakiyar karni na 19: "Colbert ya yi tunanin komai sai dai jirgin ruwa," in ji Fernand Braudel . . A cikin layi daya, an kafa makarantun gandun daji tun daga ƙarshen ƙarni na 18 a Hesse, Rasha, Austria-Hungary, Sweden, Faransa da sauran wurare a Turai.

Kare gandun daji da farkon duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Tun daga shekara ta 1750s an haɓaka gandun daji na kimiyya na zamani a Faransa da ƙasashen da ke magana da Jamus a cikin mahallin ilimin tarihin halitta da gudanar da gwamnati ta hanyar ilimin kimiyyar lissafi da kyamara . Babban halayensa sune tsarin kulawa ta ƙwararrun gandun daji, riko da ra'ayoyin amfanin gona mai ɗorewa tare da nuna son kai ga itacen mai da katako, dazuzzuka na wucin gadi, da kuma ra'ayi mai mahimmanci game da amfanin makiyaya da noma na gandun daji.

A ƙarshen ƙarni na 19 da farkon ƙarni na 20th, an kafa shirye-shiryen kiyaye gandun daji a ƙasar Indiya ta Burtaniya, Amurka, da Turai. Yawancin gandun daji sun kasance ko dai daga nahiyar Turai (kamar Sir Dietrich Brandis ), ko kuma sun yi ilimi a can (kamar Gifford Pinchot ). Sir Dietrich Brandis ana daukarsa a matsayin uban gandun daji na wurare masu zafi, ra'ayoyi da ayyuka na Turai dole ne a daidaita su a wurare masu zafi da ramin yanayi. Haɓaka gandun daji na ɗaya daga cikin amsoshi (masu jayayya) ga takamaiman ƙalubalen da ke cikin yankuna masu zafi. Ƙaddamarwa da juyin halitta na dokokin gandun daji da ka'idojin ɗaurewa sun faru a mafi yawan ƙasashen yammacin duniya a cikin karni na 20 don mayar da martani ga karuwar abubuwan da suka shafi kiyayewa da haɓaka ƙarfin fasaha na kamfanonin katako. Gandun dazuzzuka na wurare masu zafi wani reshe ne na gandun daji wanda ke da alaƙa da dazuzzukan equatorial waɗanda ke samar da dazuzzuka kamar su teak da mahogany .

Gyaran daji da shimfidar wuri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dubi Maido da Daji

An ayyana gandun daji da yanayin shimfidar wuri (FLR) azaman tsari wanda ke nufin dawo da ayyukan muhalli da haɓaka jin daɗin ɗan adam a cikin dazuzzuka ko ɓarna. An haɓaka FLR a matsayin martani ga haɓakar lalacewa da asarar gandun daji da filaye, wanda ya haifar da raguwar ayyukan halittu da yanayin muhalli. [11] Ingantacciyar FLR za ta goyi bayan cimma burin ci gaba mai dorewa. [11] Shekaru Goma na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan Maido da Tsarin Muhalli (2021-2030) yana ba da damar maido da daruruwan miliyoyin kadada na rusassun gandun daji da sauran halittu. [11]

Makanikai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kayan aikin gandun daji ya kasance koyaushe yana da alaƙa da aikin ƙarfe da haɓaka kayan aikin injin don yanke da jigilar katako zuwa inda yake. Rafting nasa ne na farkon hanyoyin sufuri. Karfe saws ya fito a cikin karni na 15. Karni na 19 ya haɓaka samar da ƙarfe don bulala da gabatar da layin dogo na gandun daji da layin dogo gabaɗaya don sufuri da kuma abokin ciniki na gandun daji. Ƙarin canje-canjen da ɗan adam ya haifar, duk da haka, ya zo tun yakin duniya na biyu, daidai da "ciwon shekaru 1950". [12] An ƙirƙira chainsaw na farko mai ɗaukar hoto a cikin shekara ta 1918 a Kanada, amma babban tasirin injiniyoyi a cikin gandun daji ya fara ne bayan Yaƙin Duniya na II. Masu girbin gandun daji na daga cikin abubuwan da suka faru a baya-bayan nan. Ko da yake jirage marasa matuki, jirage, na'urar daukar hoto ta Laser, tauraron dan adam da mutummutumi suma suna taka rawa a cikin gandun daji.

Mujallu na farko waɗanda har yanzu suna nan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • An fara buga Sylwan a cikin 1820 [13]
  • An fara buga Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen a shekara ta 1850. [13]
  • An fara buga Erdészeti Lapok a cikin 1862. (Hungary, 1862-yanzu)
  • The Indian Forester ya fara buga a 1875. [13]
  • An buga lissafin Šumarski (Binciken gandun daji, Croatia) a cikin 1877 ta Ƙungiyar gandun daji na Croatian . [13]
  • Montes (Forestry, Spain) an fara buga shi a cikin 1877. [13]
  • Revista pădurilor (Journal of Forests, Romania, 1881-1882; 1886-present), mafi tsufa mujalla a Romania
  • Forestry Quarterly, wanda aka fara buga shi a 1902 ta Kwalejin gandun daji ta Jihar New York .
  • Šumarstvo (Forestry, Serbia) wanda aka fara buga shi a cikin 1948 ta Ma'aikatar Gandun Daji ta Yugoslavia ta Tarayyar Turai, kuma tun daga 1951 ta Organ of Society of Forestry Engineers da Technicians na Jamhuriyar Serbia (wanda ya ci nasarar tsohon Šumarski glasnik wanda aka buga daga 1907 zuwa 1921)

Gandun daji a ƙarni na 21[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Injin katako na zamani

A yau an sami ƙwaƙƙwaran bincike game da kula da yanayin gandun daji da inganta ƙwayoyin halittar bishiya da iri . Nazarin gandun daji kuma ya haɗa da haɓaka hanyoyin da suka fi dacewa don dasa shuki, karewa, ɓacin rai, ƙonawa mai sarrafawa, sarewa, hakowa, da sarrafa katako . Ɗaya daga cikin aikace-aikacen dazuzzuka na zamani shine sake yin gandun daji, inda ake dasa bishiyoyi da kuma kula da su a wani yanki da aka ba su.

Bishiyoyi suna ba da fa'idodi masu yawa na muhalli, zamantakewa da tattalin arziki ga mutane. A yankuna da yawa, masana'antar gandun daji na da mahimmancin muhalli, tattalin arziki, da zamantakewa, tare da Amurka ta samar da katako fiye da kowace ƙasa a duniya. Tsarin takaddun shaida na ɓangare na uku waɗanda ke ba da tabbaci mai zaman kansa na kula da gandun daji mai ɗorewa da dazuzzuka masu ɗorewa sun zama ruwan dare a wurare da yawa tun shekara ta 1990s. Waɗannan tsare-tsaren takaddun shaida sun samo asali ne a matsayin martani ga sukar wasu ayyukan gandun daji, musamman saran gandun daji a yankunan da ba a ci gaba ba tare da damuwa game da sarrafa albarkatu a cikin ƙasashen da suka ci gaba .

A cikin yanayi mai tsananin dazuzzuka, dazuzzuka masu kyau na da mahimmanci don rigakafi ko rage girman zaizayar ƙasa ko ma zabtarewar ƙasa . A yankunan da ke da yuwuwar zaftarewar ƙasa, dazuzzuka na iya daidaita ƙasa da hana lalacewa ko asarar dukiya, rauni ko asarar rayuka.

Masu gandun daji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Masu gandun daji na Jami'ar Austral ta Chile a cikin gandun daji na Valdivian na San Pablo de Tregua, Chile

Masu aikin gandun daji suna aiki da masana'antar katako, hukumomin gwamnati, ƙungiyoyin kiyayewa, ƙananan hukumomi, allon wuraren shakatawa na birane, ƙungiyoyin 'yan ƙasa, da masu zaman kansu masu zaman kansu. Sana'ar gandun daji ta haɗa da ayyuka iri-iri, tare da buƙatun ilimi tun daga digirin farko na kwaleji zuwa PhD don aiki na musamman. Masu gandun daji na masana'antu suna shirin sake farfado da daji tare da girbi a hankali. Masu gandun daji na birni suna kula da bishiyoyi a wuraren kore na birane . Masu aikin gandun daji suna aiki a cikin gandun daji na bishiya suna girma tsire-tsire don ƙirƙirar gandun daji ko ayyukan sake farfadowa. Masu gandun daji suna inganta kwayoyin halittar itace . Injiniyoyin gandun daji suna haɓaka sabbin tsarin gini. Ƙwararrun gandun daji suna auna da ƙirar haɓakar gandun daji tare da kayan aiki kamar tsarin bayanan yanki . Masu gandun daji na iya magance cutar kwari, cututtuka, dazuzzuka da ciyayi da wutar daji, amma suna ƙara ƙyale waɗannan al'amuran dabi'a na yanayin gandun daji suyi tafiyarsu lokacin da yiwuwar annoba ko haɗarin rayuwa ko dukiya ta yi ƙasa. Ana ƙarawa, gandun daji suna shiga cikin shirye-shiryen kiyaye namun daji da kare magudanar ruwa . Masu gandun daji sun fi damuwa da sarrafa katako, musamman gyaran dazuzzuka, kula da gandun daji a yanayin da ya fi dacewa, da kula da wuta.[14]

Shirye-shiryen gandun daji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masu gandun daji suna haɓaka da aiwatar da tsare-tsaren kula da gandun daji bisa dogaro da taswirar kayan albarkatun da aka zayyana waɗanda ke nuna yanayin yanayin yanki da kuma rarraba bishiyoyi (ta nau'in) da sauran murfin shuka. Tsare-tsare kuma sun haɗa da manufofin mai mallakar ƙasa, hanyoyi, magudanan ruwa, kusanci da mazaunin ɗan adam, fasalin ruwa da yanayin ruwa, da bayanan ƙasa. Tsare-tsaren kula da gandun daji yawanci sun haɗa da shawarwarin jiyya na siliki da jadawalin aiwatar da su. Aikace-aikacen taswirori na dijital a cikin Tsarin Bayanai na Geographic (GIS) waɗanda ke hakowa da haɗa bayanai daban-daban game da wuraren dazuzzuka, nau'in ƙasa da murfin bishiya, da sauransu ta amfani da, misali Laser scan, haɓaka tsare-tsaren kula da gandun daji a cikin tsarin zamani.

Tsare-tsaren kula da gandun daji sun haɗa da shawarwari don cimma manufofin mai mallakar ƙasa da yanayin da ake so a nan gaba don kadarorin da ke ƙarƙashin muhalli, kuɗi, dabaru (misali samun albarkatu), da sauran ƙuntatawa. A kan wasu kaddarorin, tsare-tsaren suna mayar da hankali kan samar da ingantattun samfuran itace don sarrafawa ko siyarwa. Don haka, nau'in bishiya, yawa, da siffa, duk tsakiyar darajar samfuran da aka girbe inganci da yawa, sun kasance suna zama mahimman abubuwan tsare-tsare na al'adun siliki.

Shirye-shiryen gudanarwa masu kyau sun haɗa da la'akari da yanayin tsayuwar gaba bayan duk wani shawarar girbi da aka ba da shawarar, gami da jiyya na gaba (musamman a cikin jiyya na tsaka-tsaki), da tsare-tsaren sabuntar halitta ko na wucin gadi bayan girbi na ƙarshe.

Manufofin masu mallakar filaye da masu haya suna tasiri tsare-tsare don girbi da jiyya na gaba. A Biritaniya, tsare-tsaren da ke nuna "kyakkyawan aikin gandun daji" dole ne su yi la'akari da bukatun sauran masu ruwa da tsaki kamar al'ummomin da ke kusa ko mazauna karkara da ke zaune a ciki ko kusa da yankunan daji. Masu gandun daji suna la'akari da sare bishiyoyi da dokokin muhalli lokacin haɓaka tsare-tsare. Tsare-tsaren suna ba da umarnin girbi mai ɗorewa da maye gurbin bishiyoyi. Suna nuna ko ana buƙatar ginin titi ko wasu ayyukan injiniyan gandun daji.

Shugabannin noma da gandun daji suna kuma kokarin fahimtar yadda dokar sauyin yanayi za ta shafi abin da suke yi. Bayanan da aka tattara za su samar da bayanan da za su tantance matsayin aikin noma da gandun daji a cikin sabon tsarin kula da sauyin yanayi.

Gandun daji a matsayin kimiyya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin ƙarnuka da suka wuce, ana ɗaukar gandun daji a matsayin wani kimiyya daban. Tare da haɓakar ilimin halittu da kimiyyar muhalli, an sami yin tsari a cikin ilimin kimiyyar da aka yi amfani da su. Dangane da wannan ra'ayi, gandun daji shine ilimin kimiyya na farko na amfanin ƙasa wanda aka kwatanta da aikin gona . [15] Ƙarƙashin waɗannan jigogi, ginshiƙan da ke bayan kula da gandun dazuzzuka sun zo ta hanyar ilimin halitta. Dazuzzuka ko shuke-shuken bishiya. [16] .

Bambancin kwayoyin halitta a cikin gandun daji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tabbatar da kayan haifuwa na gandun daji da ake amfani da su don shuka dazuzzuka yana da tasiri mai yawa akan yadda bishiyoyi suke girma, don haka dalilin da ya sa yana da mahimmanci a yi amfani da kayan haifuwa na gandun daji mai kyau da kuma bambancin kwayoyin halitta . Gaba ɗaya, duk ayyukan kula da gandun daji, gami da a cikin tsarin sabuntar halitta, na iya yin tasiri ga bambancin ƙwayoyin itatuwa.

Kalmar genetic diversity tana bayyana bambance-bambance a cikin jerin DNA tsakanin dɗiɗaikun mutane daban-daban da bambancin da ke haifar da tasirin muhalli. Abubuwan da ke tattare da kwayoyin halitta na musamman na mutum ( genotype ) zai ƙayyade aikinsa ( phenotype ) a wani rukunin yanar gizo.

Ana buƙatar bambance-bambancen kwayoyin halitta don kula da dazuzzuka da kuma samar da juriya ga kwari da cututtuka . Bambancin kwayoyin halitta kuma yana tabbatar da cewa bishiyoyin gandun daji zasu iya rayuwa, daidaitawa da haɓakawa a ƙarƙashin canza yanayin muhalli. Bugu da ƙari, bambance-bambancen kwayoyin halitta shine tushen bambance-bambancen ilimin halitta a nau'in nau'in halitta da matakan yanayin halittu . Don haka albarkatun halittu na gandun daji suna da mahimmanci a yi la'akari da su wajen kula da gandun daji.[17][18]

Bambancin kwayoyin halitta a cikin gandun daji yana fuskantar barazanar gobarar daji, kwari da cututtuka, rarrabuwar kawuna, ayyukan al'adun gargajiya da rashin amfani da kayan haifuwa na gandun daji.

Kimanin hekta miliyan 98 na gandun daji ne gobara ta shafa a shekara ta 2015; wannan ya kasance a yankin masu zafi, inda wuta ta kone kusan kashi 4 cikin dari na yawan gandun daji a wannan shekarar. Fiye da kashi biyu bisa uku na jimillar gandun dajin da abin ya shafa na Afirka ne da Kudancin Amurka.

Bugu da ƙari kuma, ƙananan nau'o'in bishiyoyi da yawa suna fuskantar sababbin barazana saboda sauyin yanayi.

Yawancin ƙasashe a Turai suna da shawarwari ko ƙa'idoji don zaɓar nau'i na zaɓar nau’ikan abubuwan da ake iya amfani da su na iya amfani da su a cikin wani yanki ko yanki da aka bayar.

Tarihin ilimin gandun daji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Georg Ludwig Hartig ya kafa makarantar gandun daji ta farko a Hungen a cikin Wetterau, Hesse, a cikin shekara ta 1787, kodayake an koyar da gandun daji a tsakiyar Turai, gami da Jami'ar Giessen, a Hesse-Darmstadt .

A Spain, makarantar gandun daji ta farko ita ce Makarantar Injiniyan daji ta Madrid ( Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes ), wacce aka kafa a shekara ta 1844.

Na farko a Arewacin Amirka, an kafa Makarantar Dajin Biltmore kusa da Asheville, North Carolina, ta Carl A. Schenck a ranar 1 ga watan Satumba na shekara ta, na shekara ta 1898, a filin George W. Vanderbilt na Biltmore Estate . Wata makarantar farko ita ce Kwalejin daji ta Jihar New York, wacce aka kafa a Jami'ar Cornell bayan 'yan makonni kadan, a cikin Satumba na shekara ta 1898. Farkon ƙarni na 19 Arewacin Amurka gandun daji sun je Jamus don nazarin gandun daji. Wasu gandun daji na Jamus na farko su ma sun yi ƙaura zuwa Arewacin Amirka.

A Kudancin Amirka an kafa makarantar gandun daji ta farko a Brazil, a Viçosa, Minas Gerais, a cikin shekara ta 1962, kuma ta koma shekara ta gaba don zama malami a Jami'ar Tarayya ta Paraná, a Curitiba.

Ilimin daji a yau[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masu gandun daji suna amfani da ƙonawa da aka ba da izini don rage nauyin mai

A yau, ilimin gandun daji yawanci ya haɗa da horar da ilimin halittu gabaɗaya, ilimin halittu, ilimin halittu, ilimin halittu, kimiyyar ƙasa, climatology, ilimin ruwa, tattalin arziki da sarrafa gandun daji . Ilimi a cikin tushen ilimin zamantakewa da kimiyyar siyasa galibi ana ɗaukar fa'ida. Ƙwararrun ma tana da mahimmanci a cikin shirye-shiryen horo.

A Indiya, ana ba da ilimin gandun daji a cikin jami'o'in aikin gona da kuma a cikin Cibiyoyin Binciken daji (jami'o'in da ake zaton). Ana gudanar da shirye-shiryen digiri na shekaru hudu a wadannan jami'o'in a matakin digiri. Hakanan ana samun digiri na biyu na Masters da Digiri a cikin waɗannan jami'o'in.

A cikin Amurka, ilimin gandun daji na gaba da sakandare wanda zai kai ga digiri na farko ko digiri na biyu yana samun karbuwa daga Society of American Foresters .

A Kanada Cibiyar Gandun daji ta Kanada tana ba da zoben azurfa ga waɗanda suka kammala karatun digiri daga shirye-shiryen BSc na jami'a da aka amince da su, da kuma shirye-shiryen kwaleji da fasaha.

A yawancin ƙasashen Turai, ana yin horo a cikin gandun daji daidai da buƙatun Tsarin Bologna da Yankin Ilimi na Turai .

Ƙungiyar Bincike ta Duniya ita ce ƙungiyar ƙasa da ƙasa ɗaya tilo da ke daidaita ƙoƙarin kimiyyar daji a duk duniya.

Ci gaba da ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Don ci gaba da sauye-sauyen buƙatu da abubuwan muhalli, ilimin gandun daji ba ya tsayawa a lokacin kammala karatun. Daɗaɗawa, ƙwararrun gandun daji suna shiga horo na yau da kullun don kulawa da haɓaka ayyukan gudanarwa. Ana iya amfani da waɗannan rukunin yanar gizon don yin ƙwanƙwasa kama-da- wane da gwada ƙimar itacen mutum da ƙimar ƙima da kuma microhabitats na itace. Wannan tsarin ya fi dacewa da yankuna masu ƙananan tsarin sarrafa gandun daji masu yawa.

Daban-daban game da bincike da ilimin daji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jerin cibiyoyin binciken daji
  • Jerin makarantun fasaha na gandun daji
  • Jerin jami'o'in gandun daji da kwalejoji
  • Jerin mujallun tarihi na gandun daji
  • Cibiyar gandun daji ta Imperial (rashin fahimta)

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sources[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 License statement/permission. Text taken from Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020 Key findings, FAO, FAO.

 This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO License statement/permission. Text taken from The State of the World’s Forests 2020. Forests, biodiversity and people – In brief, FAO & UNEP, FAO & UNEP.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  6. compare Joachim Radkau Wood: A History, 2011
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  17. de Vries, S.M.G., Alan, M., Bozzano, M., Burianek, V., Collin, E., Cottrell, J., Ivankovic, M., Kelleher, C.T., Koskela, J., Rotach, P., Vietto, L. and Yrjänä, L. (2015). "Pan-European strategy for genetic conservation of forest trees and establishment of a core network of dynamic conservation units" (PDF). European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.: xii + 40 p. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-31. Retrieved 2017-01-20.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. Konnert, M., Fady, B., Gömöry, D., A’Hara, S., Wolter, F., Ducci, F., Koskela, J., Bozzano, M., Maaten, T. and Kowalczyk, J. (2015). "Use and transfer of forest reproductive material in Europe in the context of climate change" (PDF). European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.: xvi and 75 p. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-04. Retrieved 2017-01-20.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]