Zaizayar Kasa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Rage tashin hankali a kan filin da aka noma sosai a gabashin Jamus

A cikin ilimin kimiyyar ƙasa, yashewar shine aikin hanyoyin ƙasa (kamar kwararar ruwa ko iska ) wanda ke cire ƙasa, dutsen, ko narkar da abu daga wuri guda akan ɓawon Duniyar, sannan ya ɗauke shi zuwa wani wuri. Rushewa ya bambanta da yanayin yanayi wanda bai ƙunshi motsi ba. Kau da dutse ko ƙasa kamar yadda clastic laka ake cewa jiki ko inji yashewa. wannan ya bambanta da lalacewar sinadarai, inda ake cire ƙasa ko kayan dutse daga wani yanki ta hanyar narkewa . Za a iya safarar gurɓataccen gurɓataccen ruwa ko ɗan ƙaramin milimita, ko kuma na dubban kilomita.

Wakilan zaizayar ƙasa sun haɗa da ruwan sama ; suturar gado a cikin koguna ; yashewar bakin teku ta teku da raƙuman ruwa ; cirewar glacial, abrasion, da scour; ambaliyar ruwa; abrasion iska; hanyoyin ruwan karkashin kasa; da tsarin motsi na jama'a a cikin shimfidar wurare masu faɗi kamar zaftarewar ƙasa da tarkace . Ƙididdigar da irin waɗannan ayyukan ke gudanarwa suna sarrafa yadda sauri ke ɓarna. Yawanci, jiki yashewa Saide fi sauri a kan steeply gangaren saman, da kuma rates iya zama m zuwa wasu climatically-sarrafawa Properties ciki har da yawa na ruwa kawota (misali, ta hanyar ruwan sama), storminess, iska gudun, kalaman dibo, ko na yanayi zafin jiki (musamman ga wasu hanyoyin da suka shafi kankara). Za a iya sake mayar da martani tsakanin raunin zaizayar ƙasa da adadin abubuwan da aka lalata waɗanda tuni an ɗauka, misali, kogi ko ƙanƙara. A kai na eroded kayan daga asali wuri da ake bi ta hanyar shaida, wanda yake zuwa da emplacement na kayan a wani sabonwuri.

Duk da yake zaizayar ƙasa tsari ne na halitta, ayyukan ɗan adam sun ƙaru da sau 10-40 ƙimar da zaizayar ƙasa ke faruwa a duniya. A wuraren aikin gona da ke tsaunukan Appalachian, ayyukan noma mai zurfi sun haifar da zaizayar ƙasa har sau ɗari bisa ɗari na yawan zaizayar ƙasa a yankin. Yawan zaizayar ƙasa (ko hanzarta) zai haifar da matsalolin “a-site” da “off-site”. Tasirin yanar-gizon ya haɗa da raguwar yawan amfanin gona da (a kan shimfidar wurare na halitta ) rushewar muhalli , duka saboda asarar raƙuman ƙasa mai wadataccen abinci mai gina jiki. A wasu lokuta, wannan yana haifar da kwararowar hamada . Kashe-site effects hada sedimentation na waterways da eutrophication na ruwa jikinsu, kazalika da laka-related lalacewar hanyoyi da kuma gidaje. Raguwar ruwa da iska sune manyan abubuwan da ke haifar da lalacewar ƙasa ; a hade, su ke da alhakin kusan kashi 84% na yawan ƙasashen duniya na ƙasƙantar da ƙasa, suna mai da yaƙar wuce gona da iri ɗaya daga cikin mahimman matsalolin muhalli a duka duniya. :2 :1

Noma mai zurfi, sare bishiyoyi, hanyoyi, canjin yanayi na ɗan adam da yaɗuwar birane suna daga cikin mahimman ayyukan ɗan adam dangane da tasirin su akan motsawar yashi. Koyaya, akwai hanyoyin rigakafi da gyara da yawa waɗand n zasu iya ragewa ko iyakance yaƙar ƙasa mai rauni.

Ruwa na halitta wanda iskar gurɓatacciyar iska ta haifar da dutsen mai banbanci a Jebel Kharaz, Jordan
Dutsen teku mai kama da igiyar ruwa ya haifar da zaizayar ƙasa, a Jinshitan Coastal National Geopark, Dalian, Liaoning, China

Tsarin jiki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gona da ruwa ana splashed ta da tasiri na guda ƙwayar ruwan sama

Ruwan sama, da kuma surface dake kwarara wanda zai iya haifar da daga ruwan sama, samar hudu main iri ƙasa yashewa : fantsama yashewa, takardar yashewa, rill yashewa, kuma gully yashewa. Ana ganin ɓarkewar ɓarna a matsayin mataki na farko kuma mafi ƙanƙanta a cikin ɓarnawar ƙasa, wanda ke biye da ɓarna ta takarda, sannan yayyafin yaƙi kuma a ƙarshe gully erosion(mafi tsananin huɗu). :60–61

A cikin zaizayar ƙasa, tasirin saukar ruwan sama yana haifar da ƙaramin rami a cikin ƙasa, yana fitar da ƙwayoyin ƙasa. Nisan da waɗannan ƙwayoyin ƙasa ke tafiya na iya zama har zuwa 0.6 m (ƙafa biyu) a tsaye da 1.5 m (ƙafa biyar) a kwance a ƙasa.

Idan ƙasa ta ƙoshi, ko kuma idan ruwan sama ya fi yadda ruwan zai iya shiga cikin ƙasa, kwararar ruwa na faruwa. Idan gudun ruwan yana da isasshen karfi, shi zai safarar gãshin ƙasa barbashi ( laka ) saukar da gangara. Rushewar takarda ita ce safarar barbashin ƙasa da aka sassaƙa ta kwararar ƙasa. [1]

A ganima tip rufe a rills da gullies saboda yashewa matakai lalacewa ta hanyar ruwan sama: Rummu, Estonia

Zaaizayar kasa na - Rill yana nufin ci gaban da kananan, ephemeral da mayar da hankali da kwarara hanyoyi da aiki kamar yadda biyu laka tushen da laka isarwa tsarin for yashewa a kan hillslopes. Gabaɗaya, inda ƙimar yashewar ruwa a yankunan da ke cikin tashin hankali ya fi girma, rills yana aiki. Zurfin zurfafa a cikin rills yawanci tsari ne na 'yan santimita (kusan inci) ko ƙasa da haka kuma gangarawar tasha na iya zama mai tsayi. Wannan yana nufin cewa rills suna nuna kimiyyar hydraulic sun sha bamban da ruwan da ke gudana ta cikin zurfi, manyan hanyoyin rafi da koguna.

Rushewar haushi yana faruwa lokacin da ruwa ya kwarara kuma yana gudana cikin sauri a cikin kunkuntar tashoshi yayin ko nan da nan bayan ruwan sama mai ƙarfi ko narkewar dusar ƙanƙara, yana cire ƙasa zuwa zurfin zurfi.

Matsanancin zaizayar ƙasa zai iya ci gaba zuwa samuwar gandun daji . Waɗannan suna samuwa a ƙarƙashin yanayin babban taimako a kan sauƙaƙƙen gindin ƙasa a cikin yanayin da ya dace da zaizayar ƙasa. Yanayi ko hargitsi da ke iyakance haɓakar tsirowar kariya (rhexistasy) sune babban jigon samuwar badland.

Kogi da rafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dobbingstone Burn, Scotland, yana nuna iri -iri na zaizayar ƙasa guda biyu da ke shafar wuri guda. Rushewar kwarin yana faruwa ne saboda kwararar rafi, kuma duwatsun da duwatsu (da yawancin ƙasa) waɗanda ke kwance a bankunan rafin ba su da ƙanƙara har sai an bar shi a baya yayin da ƙanƙara masu ƙanƙara ke yawo a ƙasa.
Layukan alli sun fallasa ta kogin da ke malala a cikinsu

Zaizayar kasa na rafi ko kogi na faruwa tare da ci gaba da kwararar ruwa tare da sifa mai layi. Rushewar yana ƙasa duka, yana zurfafa kwarin, kuma yana kan gaba, yana faɗaɗa kwarin zuwa cikin tsauni, yana haifar da yanke kai da bankunan tudu. A matakin farko na yashewar rafi, aikin lalata yana da yawa a tsaye, kwaruruka suna da sashi mai fasali na V kuma raƙuman rafi yana da tsayi. Lokacin da aka kai wani matakin tushe, aikin lalata zai canza zuwa yashewar gefe, wanda ke faɗaɗa kwarin kuma yana haifar da kunkuntar ambaliyar ruwa. Jigon rafi ya zama kusa da leɓe, kuma ɗorawar ɓoyayyen ɓoyayyiyar ƙasa ta zama mai mahimmanci yayin da rafin ke ratsa ƙasan kwarin. A duk matakai na yashewar rafi, zuwa yanzu mafi yawan zaizayar ƙasa tana faruwa a lokutan ambaliyar ruwa lokacin da ake samun ƙarin ruwa mai sauri da sauri don ɗaukar nauyin rami mafi girma. A cikin irin waɗannan hanyoyin, ba ruwa kaɗai ne ke ɓarna ba: dakatar da barbashi, tsakuwa, da duwatsu suma suna iya yin lalata yayin da suke wucewa ta farfajiya, a cikin tsarin da ake kira traction .

Zaizayar bakin rafi shine lalacewar bankunan rafi ko kogi. An bambanta wannan daga canje -canje a kan gado na magudanar ruwa, wanda ake kira scour . Ana iya auna gurɓacewa da canje -canje a cikin yanayin bankunan kogi ta hanyar saka sandunan ƙarfe a cikin bankin tare da yin alamar matsayin saman bankin tare da sandunan a lokuta daban -daban.

Zaizayar Thermal kuwa shine sakamakon narkewa da raunana permafrost saboda ruwa mai motsi. Zai iya faruwa a gefen koguna da a bakin teku. Gudun hijirar tashar kogi mai saurin gani da aka gani a cikin Kogin Lena na Siberia ya faru ne saboda lalacewar ɗumbin zafi, saboda waɗannan ɓangarorin bankunan sun haɗa da kayan da ba a haɗe da permafrost-ciminti ba. Yawancin wannan rushewar yana faruwa yayin da bankunan da aka raunana suka gaza a cikin manyan raguwa. Har ila yau, zaizayar ƙasa tana shafar tekun Arctic, inda aikin raƙuman ruwa da yanayin zafi kusa da tudu ke haɗuwa don lalata gandun dajin permafrost a gefen tekun kuma ya sa su kasa. Yawan lalacewar shekara-shekara tare da yanki 100 kilometres (62 mi) na Tekun Beaufort ya kai 5.6 metres (18 ft) a kowace shekara daga 1955 zuwa 2002.

Yawancin yashewar kogi yana faruwa kusa da bakin kogi. A kan lanƙwasa kogi, mafi ƙarancin mafi kaifi yana da ruwa mai motsi a hankali. A nan ana yin ajiya. A kan mafi ƙanƙantar da gefen lanƙwasa, akwai ruwa mai motsi da sauri don haka wannan gefen yana ɓarna galibi.

Rushewa da sauri ta hanyar babban kogi na iya cire isasshen gurɓataccen ruwa don samar da layin kogin, kamar yadda koma baya na ɗaga gadajen dutse waɗanda ba su da nauyi ta lalacewar gadaje masu wuce gona da iri.

Zaizayar bakin teku[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

   

Dandalin yanke igiyar ruwa ya haifar da rushewar tsaunuka ta teku, a Southerndown a South Wales
Rushewar yumɓu mai yumɓu (na zamanin Pleistocene ) tare da duwatsu na Filey Bay, Yorkshire, Ingila

Zaizayewar bakin teku, wanda ke faruwa a kan wuraren da aka fallasa da kuma mafaka, da farko yana faruwa ta hanyar aiki na raƙuman ruwa da raƙuman ruwa amma canjin matakin teku (tidal) shima zai iya taka rawa.

Sea-dune erosion at Talacre beach, Wales

Lamari da ake kira hydraulic na farywa ne lokacin da iska a cikin haɗin gwiwa ba zato ba tsammani ta matsa ta hanyar igiyar ruwa ta rufe ƙofar haɗin gwiwa. Wannan sai ya fashe. Tashin igiyar ruwa shine lokacin da kuzarin kuzarin da ke bugun dutse ko dutse ya fashe. Abrasion ko corrasion yana faruwa ne sakamakon raƙuman ruwa da ke ɗora ruwan teku a dutsen. Ita ce mafi inganci da saurin gurɓataccen yashi (kada a ruɗe da lalata). Gurbatawa shine narkar da dutsen ta hanyar carbonic acid a cikin ruwan teku. [2] Ƙwanƙolin duwatsu suna da haɗari musamman ga irin wannan zaizayar ƙasa. Haɗuwa shine inda barbashi/nauyin ruwan da raƙuman ruwa ke ɗauke da su yayin da suke bugun junansu da duwatsu. Wannan to yana sauƙaƙe kayan don wankewa. Kayan ya ƙare kamar shingle da yashi. Wani muhimmin tushen zaizayar ƙasa, musamman a gabar tekun carbonate, yana da ban sha'awa, ɓarna da niƙa ƙwayoyin cuta, tsarin da ake kira bioerosion . [3]

Laka da aka dauko tare da bakin tekun a cikin shugabanci na da rinjaye halin yanzu ( longshore gantali ). Lokacin da samar da gurɓataccen ruwa ya yi ƙasa da adadin da ake ɗauka, zaizayar ƙasa na faruwa. Lokacin da yawan ɓoyayyen ɗimbin ya yi yawa, yashi ko bankunan tsakuwa za su kasance suna haifar da sakamakon sakawa . Waɗannan bankunan na iya yin sannu a hankali yin ƙaura tare da bakin tekun a cikin hanyar tsallaken tekun, a lokaci guda suna karewa da fallasa sassan gabar teku. Inda akwai lanƙwasawa a cikin gabar teku, galibi ana samun ɓataccen abu mai ɓarna wanda ke haifar da dogon bankin mai kunkuntar ( tofa ). Armoured rairayin bakin teku da kuma kura idon teku sandbanks yiwu ma kare sassa na wani ƙirin daga yashewa. A cikin shekarun da suka gabata, yayin da sandunan ke canzawa sannu a hankali, ana iya juyar da zaizayar zuwa farmaki sassa daban -daban na gabar. [4]

Rushewar saman gabar teku, sannan faduwa a matakin teku, na iya samar da yanayin ƙasa na musamman da ake kira rairayin bakin teku .

Rushewar sunadarai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Rushewar sunadarai shine asarar kwayoyin halitta a cikin shimfidar wuri a cikin hanyar solutes . Ana yawan lissafin zaizayar sunadarai daga abubuwan da aka samo a rafi. Anders Rapp ya fara nazarin yaƙar sunadarai a cikin aikinsa game da Kärkevagge da aka buga a 1960.

Samuwar ramuka da sauran fasalulluka na karst - topography misali ne na yaɗuwar sunadarai da yawa.

Glaciers[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gidan Iblis ( Pirunpesä ), zaizayar ƙasa mafi zurfi a Turai, [5] ke Jalasjärvi, Kurikka, Finland
Glacial moraines sama da Lake Louise, a Alberta, Kanada

Glaciers sun zaizaye galibi ta hanyoyi daban -daban guda uku: abrasion/scouring, plucking, and ice thrusting. A cikin tsarin abrasion, tarkace a cikin ƙanƙara mai ƙanƙara a kan gado, gogewa da goge duwatsun da ke ƙarƙashinsu, kama da sandpaper akan itace. Masana kimiyya sun nuna cewa, baya ga rawar zafin da ake takawa a cikin zurfafa kwarin, sauran hanyoyin glaciological, kamar zaizayar ƙasa kuma tana sarrafa bambancin giciye. A cikin tsarin gurɓataccen ɗigon ƙasa, an ƙirƙiri sashe mai lanƙwasa a ƙarƙashin kankara. Kodayake dusar ƙanƙara tana ci gaba da ɓacewa a tsaye, siffar tashar da ke ƙarƙashin kankara a ƙarshe za ta kasance mai ɗorewa, ta kai sifar U-dimbin kwatankwacin hali kamar yadda muke gani yanzu a cikin kwaruruka masu ƙanƙara . Masana kimiyya kuma suna ba da adadi na adadi na lokacin da ake buƙata don samun kyakkyawan kwarin siffa mai kama da U — kusan shekaru 100,000. A cikin ƙasa mai rauni (yana ɗauke da kayan da za a iya ƙerawa fiye da duwatsun da ke kewaye) ƙirar ɓarna, a akasin haka, an ƙuntata yawan zurfin zurfin saboda ƙanƙara da ƙanƙara na raguwa.

Glaciers kuma na iya haifar da gutsuttsarin gutsuttsarin guguwa yayin aiwatar da girbi. A cikin dusar ƙanƙara, ƙanƙara ta daskare zuwa gadonta, sannan yayin da ta hau gaba, tana motsa manyan zanen daskararre a ƙasan tare da ƙanƙara. Wannan hanyar ta samar da wasu dubban tafkunan tafkin da ke gefen Garkuwar Kanada . Bambance -bambancen da ke tsakanin tsayin dutsen ba wai kawai sakamakon tasirin tectonic bane, kamar ɗaga dutse, har ma da canjin yanayi na gida. Masana kimiyya suna amfani da nazarin yanayin duniya don nuna cewa zaizayar ƙanƙara tana sarrafa matsakaicin tsayin tsaunuka, saboda sauƙaƙe tsakanin tsaunukan tsaunin da layin dusar ƙanƙara gaba ɗaya ya takaita zuwa tsaunuka ƙasa da 1500. m. Rushewar da dusar ƙanƙara ke haifarwa a duk duniya tana lalata tsaunuka yadda yakamata ta zama ana amfani da kalmar buzzsaw glacial, wanda ke bayyana iyakance tasirin kankara akan tsayin tsaunin. Yayin da tsaunuka ke ƙaruwa, galibi suna ba da damar ƙarin ayyukan ƙanƙara (musamman a yankin tarawa sama da madaidaicin layin glacial), wanda ke haifar da karuwar yuwuwar dutsen, yana rage yawan taro da sauri fiye da sake dawo da isostatic zai iya ƙarawa kan dutsen . [6] Wannan yana ba da kyakkyawan misali na madaidaicin madaidaicin amsa . Binciken da ke gudana yana nuna cewa yayin da ƙanƙara ke ƙoƙarin rage girman dutsen, a wasu yankuna, ƙanƙara na iya rage haɓakar zaizayar ƙasa, yana aiki a matsayin kayan yaƙi na kankara . [7] Kankara ba zai iya lalata duwatsu kawai ba amma kuma yana iya kare su daga ɓarna. Dangane da tsarin ƙanƙara, har ma da ƙasa mai tsayi mai tsayi ana iya kiyaye ta ta lokaci tare da taimakon kankara. Masana kimiyya sun tabbatar da wannan ka’idar ta hanyar yin samfarin taro takwas na arewa maso yammacin Svalbard ta amfani da Be10 da Al26, suna nuna cewa arewa maso yammacin Svalbard ya canza daga yanayin ƙanƙara-ƙanƙara a ƙarƙashin matsakaicin matsakaicin ƙanƙara mai tsananin ƙanƙara, zuwa yanayin ƙanƙara-makamai da ke cike da sanyi, kankara mai kariya lokacin da yawan sanyin sanyi mafi yawa na glaima yayin da shekarun ƙanƙara na Quaternary ya cigaba.

Waɗannan matakai, haɗe da yashewa da sufuri ta hanyar ta hanyar ruwa a ƙarƙashin ƙanƙara, suna barin yanayin ƙasa mai ƙyalli kamar moraines, drumlins, moraine na ƙasa (har), kames, kame deltas, moulins, da kura -kurai a cikin farkawarsu, yawanci a tashar ko a lokacin komawar kankara . [8]

Mafi kyawun ci-gaban yanayin kwarin gwal yana bayyana cewa an iyakance shi ga shimfidar wurare tare da ƙarancin ƙimar dutsen (ƙasa da ko daidai da 2mm a kowace shekara) da babban taimako, wanda ke haifar da lokutan juyawa. Inda yawan hauhawar dutsen ya zarce 2mm a kowace shekara, ilimin halittar kwarin gwal na gaba ɗaya an canza shi sosai a cikin lokacin postlalacial. Haɗuwa da yaɗuwar kankara da tilasta tectonic shine ke jagorantar tasirin ilimin glaciations akan orogens masu aiki, ta hanyar tasiri tsayin su, da kuma canza fasalin ɓarna a cikin lokutan glacial mai zuwa ta hanyar haɗin gwiwa tsakanin dutsen dutsen da siffar giciye.

Ambaliya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

The mouth of the River Seaton in Cornwall after heavy rainfall caused flooding in the area and cause a significant amount of the beach to erode
Bakin Kogin Seaton da ke Cornwall bayan ruwan sama mai yawa ya haifar da ambaliya a yankin kuma ya haifar da adadi mai yawa na rairayin bakin teku; yana barin bankin yashi mai tsayi a wurinsa

A manyan kwarara, kolks, ko vortices ana samun su ta manyan kundin ruwa mai saurin gudu. Kolks yana haifar da matsanancin zaizayar ƙasa, yana ɗebo gindin ƙasa da ƙirƙirar fasali irin na tudun ƙasa da ake kira kwandon dutse. Ana iya ganin misalai a cikin yankunan ambaliyar ruwa sakamakon tafkin Lake Missoula, wanda ya haifar da ɓarna a yankin Columbia Basin na gabashin Washington .

Ruwan iska[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Árbol de Piedra, samuwar dutsen a cikin Altiplano, Bolivia wanda iska ta lalata shi

Zaizayar iska ya kasance muhimmin abu a labarin kasa e, musamman a yankuna masu bushewa da bushewa. Hakanan babban tushen lalata ƙasa, ƙaura, hamada, ɓarna mai iska mai cutarwa, da lalacewar amfanin gona - musamman bayan an ƙaru sama da ƙimar dabi'a ta ayyukan ɗan adam kamar gandun daji, birane, da aikin gona .

Rushewar iska na iri biyu ne na farko: ɓarna, inda iska ke ɗauka kuma ta kwashe barbashi mara nauyi; da abrasion, inda saman yake lalacewa yayin da guguwar iska ke ɗauke da su. An raba rabe -raben gida gida uku: (1) rarrafe a saman, inda mafi girma, barbashi masu nauyi ke zamewa ko mirgina a ƙasa; (2) gishiri, inda ake ɗaga barbashi a ɗan gajeren tsawo zuwa cikin iska, kuma ya yi tawaye da gishiri a ƙasan ƙasa; da (3) dakatarwa, inda ƙanana da ƙanƙara masu sauƙi iska ke ɗaga su cikin iska, kuma galibi ana ɗaukar su zuwa nesa mai nisa. Gishirin yana da alhakin yawancin (50-70%) na yashewar iska, sannan dakatarwa (30-40%), sannan rarrafewar ƙasa (5-25%). :57

Zaizayar iska ya fi tsanani a yankunan da ba su da ruwa da kuma lokacin fari. Misali, a cikin Manyan Filaye, an kiyasta cewa asarar ƙasa saboda ɓarnawar iska na iya ninka har sau 6100 a cikin shekarun fari fiye da na damina.

Tafiya taro[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wadi a Makhtesh Ramon, Isra'ila, wanda ke nuna rushewar nauyi a bankunan ta

Motsawar babban jiki 9wao (Mass Movement) shine motsi na ƙasa da na waje na dutsen da gutsuttsura a kan tudu, galibi saboda ƙarfin nauyi .

Motsawar jama'a wani muhimmin sashi ne na tsarin gurɓataccen yanayi kuma galibi shine matakin farko a cikin ɓarna da jigilar kayan masarufi a cikin tsaunuka. :93 Yana motsa abu daga tsaunuka masu tsayi zuwa mafi ƙasƙanci inda sauran wakilan da ke lalata abubuwa kamar rafuffuka da ƙanƙara za su iya ɗaukar kayan kuma su motsa shi har ma da ƙananan tsaunuka. Tsarin motsi-motsi koyaushe yana faruwa akai-akai akan duk gangaren; wasu matakan motsi-taro suna aiki a hankali; wasu na faruwa ba zato ba tsammani, galibi tare da munanan sakamako. Duk wani motsi mai gangarawa-ƙasa na dutsen ko ɓarna galibi ana kiran su gaba ɗaya azaman zaftarewar ƙasa. Koyaya, zaftarewar ƙasa za a iya rarrabasu ta hanyar cikakken bayani wanda ke nuna hanyoyin da ke da alhakin motsi da saurin motsi. Daya daga cikin wanda ake iya gani topographical manifestations na wani sosai m nau'i na irin wannan aiki shi ne wani scree gangara.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Slumping yana faruwa a kan kasa masu tudu, yana faruwa tare da yankuna daban -daban masu fashewa, galibi a cikin kayan kamar yumɓu wanda, da zarar an sake shi, na iya motsawa cikin sauri. Sau da yawa za su nuna ɓacin rai isostatic mai siffa mai siffa, wanda kayan ya fara zamewa ƙasa. A wasu lokuta, raunin yana faruwa ne ta hanyar ruwa ƙarƙashin gangaren yana raunana shi. A lokuta da yawa kawai sakamakon ƙarancin injiniyanci ne akan manyan hanyoyin inda abin yake a kai a kai.

Surface creep shine jinkirin motsin ƙasa da tarkace dutsen ta hanyar nauyi wanda galibi ba a iya fahimtarsa sai ta tsawaita kallo. Koyaya, kalmar kuma tana iya bayyana mirgina barbashi ƙasa da aka watsa 0.5 to 1.0 millimetre (0.02 to 0.04 in) a cikin diamita ta iska tare da saman ƙasa.

Abubuwan da ke jibantan zaizayar kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yanayi (Climate)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Adadi da tsananin tsananin zubar ruwa, kankara ko raba daga sama shine babban abin da ke haifar da lalacewar ƙasa ta ruwa. Dangantaka ne musamman karfi idan nauyi ruwan sama ya auku a sau a lokacin, ko a wurare inda, kasar gona ta surface ba da kariya da ciyayi . Wannan na iya kasancewa a lokacin lokutan da ayyukan noma ke barin ƙasa babu ruwa, ko kuma a cikin yankuna masu ƙarancin bushe inda ciyayi ba su da yawa. Rushewar iska na buƙatar iska mai ƙarfi, musamman a lokutan fari lokacin da ciyayi ba su da yawa kuma ƙasa ta bushe (haka ma ya fi ƙaruwa). Wasu dalilai na yanayi kamar matsakaicin zafin jiki da kewayon zafin jiki na iya shafar zaizayar ƙasa, ta hanyar tasirin su akan ciyayi da kaddarorin ƙasa. Gabaɗaya, idan aka ba da irin wannan ciyayi da tsirrai, yankunan da ke da ƙarin hazo (musamman ruwan sama mai ƙarfi), ƙarin iska, ko guguwa ana tsammanin za su sami ƙarin lalata.

A wasu yankunan na duniya (misali tsakiyar Amurka ta yamma ), tsananin ruwan sama shine babban abin da zai ƙaddara ƙaƙƙarfan gurɓataccen iska (don ma’anar bincike na ɓarna, ) tare da ƙara yawan ruwan sama gabaɗaya wanda ke haifar da ƙarin lalata ƙasa. Girman da gudun ruwan sama yana da mahimmanci. Ruwan ruwan sama mai girma da girma yana da kuzari mai ƙarfi, don haka tasirin su zai kawar da barbashin ƙasa ta nesa mafi girma fiye da ƙarami, mai h sauƙaƙan motsi.

A wasu yankuna na duniya (misali Yammacin Turai ), kwararar ruwa da zaizayar ƙasa suna haifar da ƙarancin ƙarancin ruwan sama wanda ke fadowa akan ƙasa mai cike da ƙima. A irin wannan yanayi, yawan ruwan sama maimakon tsananin ƙarfi shine babban abin da ke tantance tsananin lalacewar ƙasa taruwa.

A kasarTaiwan, inda yawan guguwa ta ƙaru sosai a cikin ƙarni na 21, an sami haɗin haɗin gwiwa tsakanin ƙaruwar yawan guguwa tare da ƙaruwar ɗimbin laka a cikin koguna da madatsun ruwa, wanda ke nuna tasirin canjin yanayi na iya haifar da rushewar ƙasa.

Ciyayi/Tsirran wuri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Tsirrai suna aiki azaman abin dubawa tsakanin yanayi da ƙasa. Yana qara permeability na ƙasa zuwa tara ruwan sama, haka ragewa dake kwarara. Yana ba da kariya ga ƙasa daga iska, wanda ke haifar da raguwar gurɓataccen iska, gami da canje -canje masu fa'ida a cikin microclimate. Tushen shuke -shuke suna ɗaure ƙasa tare, kuma suna yin hulɗa da wasu tushen, suna samar da ƙarin ƙarfi wanda ba shi da saukin kamuwa da ruwa da zaizayar iska. Cire ciyayi yana ƙaruwa da yawan yashewar ƙasa.

Bisan Kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin yanayin bisan ƙasa yana ƙayyade saurin da ruwan saman zai gudana, wanda hakan ke ƙayyade lalatawar kwararar ruwan. Doguwa, gangaren tudu (musamman waɗanda ba su da isasshen murfin ciyayi) sun fi saukin kamuwa da zaizayar ƙasa a lokacin ruwan sama fiye da gajarta, ƙasa da tudu. Har ila yau, tudu mai tsauri ya fi saurin kamuwa da zaftarewar ƙasa, zaftarewar ƙasa, da sauran hanyoyin tafiyar da yaƙi. :28–30

Tectonics[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Hanyoyin Tectonics suna sarrafa ƙima da rarrabuwa na zaizayar ƙasa. Idan aikin tectonic ya haifar da wani ɓangaren farfajiyar Duniya (misali, tsaunin tsaunuka) a ɗaga ko saukar da shi dangane da yankunan da ke kewaye, wannan dole ne ya canza canjin yanayin ƙasa. Saboda yawan zaizayar ƙasa kusan koyaushe yana kula da gangaren gida (duba sama), wannan zai canza adadin lalacewar a yankin da aka ɗaga. Tectonics masu aiki kuma suna kawo sabo, dutsen da ba a gama juyawa zuwa farfajiya ba, inda aka fallasa shi ga aikin lalata.

Koyaya, zaizayar ƙasa na iya shafar al'amurran tectonic. Cirewa ta hanyar zaizayar dutsen mai yawa daga wani yanki, da kuma ajiye shi a wani wuri, na iya haifar da sauƙaƙe nauyi akan ƙananan ɓawon burodi da mayafi . Saboda matakan tectonic suna motsawa ta hanyar gradients a cikin filin damuwa da aka haɓaka a cikin ɓawon burodi, wannan saukarwa na iya haifar da haɓaka tectonic ko isostatic a yankin. :99 A wasu lokuta, an yi hasashen cewa waɗannan bayanan tagwayen na iya yin aiki don keɓancewa da haɓaka yankuna na saurin hakowa na manyan duwatsu masu zurfi a ƙarƙashin wurare a saman duniyar tare da hauhawar hauhawar yanayi, alal misali, ƙarƙashin ƙasa mai zurfi na Nanga Parbat. a yammacin Himalayas . An kira irin wannan wurin " tectonic aneurysm ". [9]

Ci gaba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ci gaban ɗan adam, a cikin sifofi ciki har da bunƙasa aikin gona da birane, ana ɗaukarsa muhimmiyar rawa a cikin yaƙar ƙasa da safarar ɗimbin abinci, wanda hakan ke ƙara haifar da karancin abinci. A cikin Taiwan, ana iya samun ɗimbin ɗimbin ramuka a arewacin, tsakiya, da kudancin tsibirin tare da tsarin ci gaban kowane yanki a cikin karni na 20. Da gangan mutane suka cire ƙasa da dutsen wani nau'in ɓarna ne wanda aka sanya wa suna lisasion .

Zaizaya a ma'auni daban -daban[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A matakin tsaunuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  An san cewa tsaunukan suna ɗaukar miliyoyin shekaru kafin su lalace har zuwa matakin da suka daina wanzuwa. Masana Pitman da Golovchenko sun ƙiyasta cewa wataƙila yana ɗaukar fiye da shekaru miliyan 450 don lalata dutsen da ya yi kama da Himalaya a cikin ɗan ƙaramin falo idan babu manyan canje-canjen matakin teku . Rushewar tarin duwatsun zai iya haifar da ƙirar babban taro daidai gwargwado da ake kira daidaiton taro. An yi jayayya cewa tsawaita lokacin rushewar orogenic shine mafi inganci hanyar rage tsayin tsaunukan orogenic fiye da zaizayar ƙasa.

Misalan zaizayar tsaunuka da aka lalata sun haɗa da Timanides na Arewacin Rasha. Rushewar wannan ogen ya samar da gurɓataccen ruwa wanda yanzu ake samu a Dandalin Gabashin Turai, gami da Tsarin Sablya na Cambrian kusa da Tafkin Ladoga . Nazarin waɗannan lamuran sun nuna cewa mai yiwuwa yuwuwar ɓarkewar ogen ya fara a cikin Cambrian sannan ya ƙaru a cikin Ordovician .

Ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Idan yawan zaizayar ƙasa ya yi yawa fiye da ƙimar ƙasa, ana lalata ƙasa. Inda ba a lalata ƙasa ta hanyar zaizayar ƙasa, zaizayar ƙasa a wasu lokuta na iya hana samuwar fasalulluka ƙasa waɗanda ke yin sannu a hankali. Inceptisols ƙasa ce ta yau da kullun da ke samuwa a cikin wuraren da ake lalata da sauri.

Yayin da yashewar ƙasa tsari ne na halitta, ayyukan ɗan adam sun ƙaru da sau 10-40 ƙimar da zaizayar ƙasa ke faruwa a duniya. Yawan zaizayar ƙasa (ko hanzarta) zai haifar da matsalolin “a-site” da “off-site”. Tasirin yanar-gizon ya haɗa da raguwar yawan amfanin gona da (a kan shimfidar wurare na halitta ) rushewar muhalli , duka saboda asarar raƙuman ƙasa mai wadataccen abinci mai gina jiki. A wasu lokuta, sakamakon ƙarshe shine kwararowar hamada . Kashe-site effects hada sedimentation na waterways da eutrophication na ruwa jikinsu, kazalika da laka-related lalacewar hanyoyi da kuma gidaje. Raguwar ruwa da iska sune manyan abubuwan da ke haifar da lalacewar ƙasa ; a hade, su ke da alhakin kusan kashi 84% na yawan ƙasashen duniya na ƙasƙantar da ƙasa, suna mai da yaƙar wuce gona da iri ɗaya daga cikin mahimman matsalolin muhalli .

A kasar Amurka, manoma da ke noma ƙasa mai iya ɓarna dole ne su bi tsarin kiyayewa don samun cancantar wasu nau'ikan taimakon aikin gona.

Sakamakon zaizayar ƙasa da ɗan adam ya yi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named FAO-1965-pp23-25
  2. Geddes, Ian. "Lithosphere." Higher geography for cfe: physical and human environments, Hodder Education, 2015.
  3. Glynn, Peter W. "Bioerosion and coral-reef growth: a dynamic balance." Life and death of coral reefs (1997): 68-95.
  4. Bell, Frederic Gladstone. "Marine action and control." Geological hazards: their assessment, avoidance, and mitigation, Taylor & Francis, 1999, pp. 302–306.
  5. The Devil's Nest, the deepest ground erosion in Europe
  6. Mitchell, S.G. & Montgomery, D.R. "Influence of a glacial buzzsaw on the height and morphology of the Cascade Range in central Washington State". Quat. Res. 65, 96–107 (2006)
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named reference
  8. Harvey, A.M. "Local-Scale geomorphology – process systems and landforms." Introducing Geomorphology: A Guide to Landforms and Processes. Dunedin Academic Press, 2012, pp. 87–88. EBSCOhost.
  9. Zeitler, P.K. et al. (2001), Erosion, Himalayan Geodynamics, and the Geomorphology of Metamorphism, GSA Today, 11, 4–9.