Cutar Parkinson

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Cutar Parkinson (PD), ko kuma kawai ta Parkinson, cuta ce mai lalacewa ta dogon lokaci na tsarin juyayi na tsakiya wanda galibi yana shafar tsarin mota.[1] Yayin da cutar ta tsananta, alamun da ba na mota ba sun zama ruwan dare.[1][2] Alamun yawanci suna fitowa a hankali.[1] A farkon cutar, bayyanar cututtuka mafi bayyananni sune girgiza, dagewa, jinkirin motsi, da wahalar tafiya.[1] Matsalolin tunani da ɗabi'a na iya faruwa.[3] Dementia ya zama ruwan dare a cikin ci gaban matakan cutar.[3] Damuwa da damuwa suma na kowa ne, suna faruwa a fiye da kashi uku na mutanen da ke da PD.[3] Sauran alamun sun haɗa da hankali, barci, da matsalolin tunani.[1][3] Babban alamun motar ana kiran su tare da "parkinsonism", ko "ciwon daji na parkinsonian".[2][4]

Ba a san abin da ke haifar da cutar Parkinson ba, amma an yi imanin cewa ya ƙunshi abubuwa biyu na kwayoyin halitta da na muhalli.[2] Wadanda ke da dangin da abin ya shafa sun fi kamuwa da cutar da kansu.[2] Har ila yau, akwai ƙarin haɗari a cikin mutanen da ke fuskantar wasu magungunan kashe qwari da kuma daga cikin wadanda suka samu raunuka a kai, yayin da ake samun raguwar haɗari ga masu shan taba da masu shan kofi ko shayi.[2][5] Alamun motsin cutar na haifar da mutuwar sel a cikin substantia nigra, yanki na tsakiyar kwakwalwa.[1] Wannan yana haifar da rashin isasshen dopamine a cikin wannan yanki na kwakwalwa.[1] Dalilin mutuwar wannan tantanin halitta ba a fahimta sosai ba, amma ya haɗa da haɓakar sunadaran cikin jikin Lewy a cikin jijiyoyi.[2] Ganewar al'amura na yau da kullun yana dogara ne akan alamomi, tare da gwaje-gwaje kamar neuroimaging da ake amfani da su don kawar da wasu cututtuka.[1]

Babu magani ga cutar Parkinson.[1] Jiyya na nufin inganta alamun.[1][6] Magani na farko yana yawanci tare da maganin antiparkinson levodopa (L-DOPA), sannan kuma agonists na dopamine lokacin da levodopa ya zama ƙasa da tasiri.[3] Yayin da cutar ke ci gaba da kuma ci gaba da ɓacewar ƙwayoyin jijiyoyin jiki, waɗannan magunguna sun zama marasa tasiri, yayin da suke haifar da matsala mai alamar motsin rubutu na son rai.[3] Abincin abinci da wasu nau'ikan gyare-gyare sun nuna wasu tasiri wajen inganta alamun.[7][8] An yi amfani da tiyata don sanya microelectrodes don zurfafa kwakwalwar kwakwalwa don rage alamun motsi a cikin lokuta masu tsanani inda kwayoyi ba su da tasiri.[1] Shaida don jiyya don alamun PD marasa motsi, kamar damuwa na barci da matsalolin motsin rai, ba su da ƙarfi.[2]

A cikin 2015, PD ya shafi mutane miliyan 6.2 kuma ya haifar da mutuwar kusan 117,400 a duniya.[9][10] Cutar Parkinson takan faru ne a cikin mutanen da suka haura shekaru 60, wadanda kusan kashi daya cikin dari ke kamuwa da su.[1][11] Maza sun fi shafan mata fiye da yadda ya kai kusan 3:2.[2] Lokacin da aka gani a cikin mutane kafin shekaru 50, ana kiran shi da wuri-farawa PD.[12] Matsakaicin tsawon rayuwa bayan ganewar asali shine tsakanin shekaru 7 zuwa 15.[3][13] An ba wa cutar sunan likitan ɗan Ingilishi James Parkinson, wanda ya buga cikakken bayanin farko a cikin An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, a cikin 1817.[14][15] Kamfen wayar da kan jama'a sun haɗa da Ranar Parkinson ta Duniya (a ranar haihuwar James Parkinson, 11 ga Afrilu) da kuma amfani da cututtukan cututtukan fata.[16] jan tulip a matsayin alamar cutar. Mutanen da ke fama da cutar Parkinson wadanda suka kara wayar da kan jama'a game da wannan yanayin sun hada da fitaccen dan dambe Muhammad Ali, da jarumi Michael J. Fox, da dan tseren keke na Olympic Davis Phinney, da kuma jarumi Alan Alda.[17][18][19][20]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 "Parkinson's Disease Information Page". NINDS. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Kalia LV, Lang AE (August 2015). "Parkinson's disease". Lancet. 386 (9996): 896–912. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(14)61393-3. PMID 25904081.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Sveinbjornsdottir S (October 2016). "The clinical symptoms of Parkinson's disease". Journal of Neurochemistry. 139 Suppl 1: 318–324. doi:10.1111/jnc.13691. PMID 27401947.
  4. Jones, H. Royden (2013). The Netter collection of medical illustrations. a compilation of paintings (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier. p. 161. ISBN 9781455733873. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
  5. Barranco Quintana JL, Allam MF, Del Castillo AS, Navajas RF (February 2009). "Parkinson's disease and tea: a quantitative review". Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 28 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1080/07315724.2009.10719754. PMID 19571153.
  6. Samii A, Nutt JG, Ransom BR (May 2004). "Parkinson's disease". Lancet. 363 (9423): 1783–93. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16305-8. PMID 15172778.
  7. Barichella M, Cereda E, Pezzoli G (October 2009). "Major nutritional issues in the management of Parkinson's disease". Movement Disorders. 24 (13): 1881–92. doi:10.1002/mds.22705. hdl:2434/67795. PMID 19691125.
  8. Ahlskog JE (July 2011). "Does vigorous exercise have a neuroprotective effect in Parkinson disease?". Neurology. 77 (3): 288–94. doi:10.1212/wnl.0b013e318225ab66. PMC 3136051. PMID 21768599.
  9. GBD 2015 Disease Injury Incidence Prevalence Collaborators (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.
  10. GBD 2015 Mortality Causes of Death Collaborators (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.
  11. Carroll WM (2016). International Neurology. John Wiley & Sons. p. 188. ISBN 9781118777367. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
  12. Mosley, Anthony D. (2010). The encyclopedia of Parkinson's disease (2nd ed.). New York: Facts on File. p. 89. ISBN 9781438127491. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
  13. Template:MedcnGolbe LI, Leyton CE (November 2018). "Life expectancy in Parkinson disease". Neurology (Editorial). 91 (22): 991–992. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000006560. PMID 30381371.
  14. Parkinson, James (1817). An Essay on the Shaking Palsy. London: Whittingham and Roland for Sherwood, Neely, and Jones. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
  15. Shulman JM, De Jager PL, Feany MB (February 2011) [25 October 2010]. "Parkinson's disease: genetics and pathogenesis". Annual Review of Pathology. 6: 193–222. doi:10.1146/annurev-pathol-011110-130242. PMID 21034221.
  16. Lees AJ (September 2007). "Unresolved issues relating to the shaking palsy on the celebration of James Parkinson's 250th birthday". Movement Disorders. 22 Suppl 17 (Suppl 17): S327–34. doi:10.1002/mds.21684. PMID 18175393.
  17. Davis P (3 May 2007). "Michael J. Fox". The TIME 100. Time. Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
  18. Macur, Juliet (26 March 2008). "For the Phinney Family, a Dream and a Challenge". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2013. About 1.5 million Americans have received a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, but only 5 to 10 percent learn of it before age 40, according to the National Parkinson Foundation. Davis Phinney was among the few.
  19. Brey RL (April 2006). "Muhammad Ali's Message: Keep Moving Forward". Neurology Now. 2 (2): 8. doi:10.1097/01222928-200602020-00003. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
  20. Alltucker, Ken (31 July 2018). "Alan Alda has Parkinson's disease: Here are 5 things you should know". USA Today. Retrieved 6 May 2019.