Cutar bipolar

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

Cutar bipolar, wanda a baya aka sani da manic depression, cuta ce ta tabin hankali da ke da alaƙa da lokuttan baƙin ciki da haɓakar yanayi mara kyau.[1][2][3] Idan yanayin haɓaka yana da tsanani ko kuma yana hade da psychosis, ana kiran shi mania; idan ya yi rauni, ana kiran shi hypomania.[1] A lokacin mania, mutum yana nuna hali ko yana jin kuzari, farin ciki, ko fushi.[1] Mutane da yawa sukan yanke shawara ba tare da la'akari da sakamakon ba.[2] Yawancin lokaci ana samun raguwar buƙatun barci yayin matakan manic.[2] A cikin lokutan baƙin ciki, mutane na iya fuskantar kuka, mummunan ra'ayi game da rayuwa, da rashin kula da ido da wasu.[1] Hadarin kashe kansa yana da yawa; A cikin shekaru 20 6% na mutane sun mutu ta hanyar kashe kansu, yayin da 30-40% suka tsunduma cikin cutar da kansu.[1] Wasu al'amurran kiwon lafiya na tabin hankali, irin su rikice-rikicen tashin hankali da rikice-rikicen amfani da kayan abu, galibi suna da alaƙa da cutar bipolar.[1]

Duk da yake ba a fahimce abubuwan da ke haifar da ciwon bipolar ba a fili, ana tunanin abubuwan muhalli da na halitta suna taka rawa.[1] Yawancin kwayoyin halitta, kowanne tare da ƙananan tasiri, na iya taimakawa wajen bunkasa rashin lafiya.[1][4] Abubuwan da ke tattare da kwayoyin halitta suna da kusan kashi 70-90% na haɗarin kamuwa da cutar bipolar.[5][6] Abubuwan haɗari na muhalli sun haɗa da tarihin cin zarafin yara da damuwa na dogon lokaci.[1] An rarraba yanayin a matsayin cutar bipolar I idan an sami aƙalla nau'in manic guda ɗaya, tare da ko ba tare da ɓarnawar ɓarna ba, kuma a matsayin cuta ta biyu idan an sami aƙalla ɓangaren hypomanic guda ɗaya (amma babu cikakken manic episodes) da kuma babban abin takaici.[2] Idan alamun sun kasance saboda magunguna ko matsalolin likita, ba a gano su a matsayin rashin lafiya ba.[2] Sauran sharuɗɗan da ke da alamun bayyanar cututtuka tare da cutar bipolar sun haɗa da rashin kulawa da hankali, rashin lafiyar mutum, schizophrenia, da rashin amfani da kayan abu da kuma sauran wasu yanayi na likita.[1] Ba a buƙatar gwajin likita don ganewar asali, kodayake gwajin jini ko hoton likita na iya kawar da wasu matsalolin.[7]

Masu daidaita yanayin yanayi-lithium da wasu magungunan kashe qwari irin su valproate da carbamazepine- su ne ginshiƙan rigakafin sake dawowa na dogon lokaci.[8] Ana ba da magungunan kashe-kashe a lokacin tashin hankali na manic, da kuma a cikin yanayin da ba a jurewa masu daidaita yanayin yanayi ba ko kuma ba su da tasiri, ko kuma inda rashin bin doka ya yi rauni.[9] Akwai wasu shaidun cewa ilimin halin ɗan adam yana inganta yanayin wannan cuta.[10] Yin amfani da magungunan kashe qwari a cikin abubuwan da ke cikin damuwa yana da rigima-suna iya yin tasiri amma suna da tasiri wajen haifar da ɓarna.[11] Duk da haka, maganin cututtuka na damuwa yana da wuyar gaske.[9] Electroconvulsive far (ECT) yana da tasiri a cikin m manic da damuwa aukuwa, musamman tare da psychosis ko catatonia.[9] Ana iya buƙatar shiga asibitin masu tabin hankali idan mutum yana da haɗari ga kansu ko wasu; magani na rashin son rai wani lokaci yakan zama dole idan wanda abin ya shafa ya ki magani.[1]

Ciwon ciki yana faruwa a kusan kashi 1% na al'ummar duniya.[9] A kasar Amirka, an kiyasta kusan kashi 3% a wani lokaci a rayuwarsu; rates suna kama da mata da maza.[12][13] Mafi yawan shekarun da alamun bayyanar cututtuka ke farawa shine 25.[1] Kusan kashi ɗaya cikin huɗu zuwa kashi uku na mutanen da ke fama da rashin lafiya suna da matsalolin kudi, zamantakewa, ko aiki saboda rashin lafiya.[1] Cutar bipolar yana cikin manyan abubuwan 20 na nakasa a duniya kuma yana haifar da tsada mai tsada ga al'umma.[14] Saboda zaɓin salon rayuwa da illolin magunguna, haɗarin mutuwa daga abubuwan halitta kamar cututtukan zuciya na zuciya a cikin mutanen da ke da bipolar ya ninka na yawan jama'a.[1]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Anderson IM, Haddad PM, Scott J (December 27, 2012). "Bipolar disorder". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 345: e8508. doi:10.1136/bmj.e8508. PMID 23271744.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 American Psychiatry Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 123–154. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
  3. "DSM IV Criteria for Manic Episode". Archived from the original on July 31, 2017.
  4. Goodwin, Guy M. (2012). "Bipolar disorder". Medicine. 40 (11): 596–598. doi:10.1016/j.mpmed.2012.08.011.
  5. Charney, Alexander; Sklar, Pamela (2018). "Genetics of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder". In Charney, Dennis; Nestler, Eric; Sklar, Pamela; Buxbaum, Joseph (eds.). Charney & Nestler's Neurobiology of Mental Illness (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780190681425.
  6. Bobo WV (October 2017). "The Diagnosis and Management of Bipolar I and II Disorders: Clinical Practice Update". Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Review). 92 (10): 1532–1551. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2017.06.022. PMID 28888714.
  7. NIMH (April 2016). "Bipolar Disorder". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on July 27, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2016.
  8. Grande I, Berk M, Birmaher B, Vieta E (April 2016). "Bipolar disorder". Lancet. 387 (10027): 1561–1572. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00241-X. PMID 26388529.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Grande I, Berk M, Birmaher B, Vieta E (April 2016). "Bipolar disorder". Lancet. 387 (10027): 1561–1572. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00241-X. PMID 26388529.
  10. Goodwin GM, Haddad PM, Ferrier IN, Aronson JK, Barnes T, Cipriani A, Coghill DR, Fazel S, Geddes JR, Grunze H, Holmes EA, Howes O, Hudson S, Hunt N, Jones I, Macmillan IC, McAllister-Williams H, Miklowitz DR, Morriss R, Munafò M, Paton C, Saharkian BJ, Saunders K, Sinclair J, Taylor D, Vieta E, Young AH (June 2016). "Evidence-based guidelines for treating bipolar disorder: Revised third edition recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 30 (6): 495–553. doi:10.1177/0269881116636545. PMC 4922419. PMID 26979387. Currently, medication remains the key to successful practice for most patients in the long term. ... At present the preferred strategy is for continuous rather than intermittent treatment with oral medicines to prevent new mood episodes.
  11. Cheniaux E, Nardi AE (October 2019). "Evaluating the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in patients with bipolar disorder". Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 18 (10): 893–913. doi:10.1080/14740338.2019.1651291. PMID 31364895.
  12. Schmitt A, Malchow B, Hasan A, Falkai P (February 2014). "The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders". Front Neurosci. 8 (19): 19. doi:10.3389/fnins.2014.00019. PMC 3920481. PMID 24574956.
  13. Diflorio A, Jones I (2010). "Is sex important? Gender differences in bipolar disorder". International Review of Psychiatry. 22 (5): 437–452. doi:10.3109/09540261.2010.514601. PMID 21047158.
  14. Ferrari, AJ; Stockings, E; Khoo, JP; Erskine, HE; Degenhardt, L; Vos, T; Whiteford, HA (August 2016). "The prevalence and burden of bipolar disorder: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Bipolar Disorders (Review). 18 (5): 440–50. doi:10.1111/bdi.12423. PMID 27566286.