Dokar Haƙƙin Bayani, 2005

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Dokar Haƙƙin Bayani, 2005
Act of the Parliament of India (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Bangare na list of Acts of the Parliament of India for 2005 (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Indiya
Applies to jurisdiction (en) Fassara Indiya
Wanda yake bi Freedom of Information Act, 2002 (en) Fassara
Ranar wallafa 21 ga Yuni, 2005
Shafin yanar gizo egazette.nic.in…
Legislated by (en) Fassara Parliament of India (en) Fassara
Amended by (en) Fassara Right to Information (Amendment) Act, 2019 (en) Fassara da Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019 (en) Fassara
Legal citation of this text (en) Fassara Act No. 22 of 2005
Effective date (en) Fassara 15 ga Yuni, 2005 da 12 Oktoba 2005
Date of promulgation (en) Fassara 15 ga Yuni, 2005

Haƙƙin Bayani ( RTI ) wani aiki ne na Majalisar Dokokin kasar Indiya wanda ya tsara dokoki da matakai game da haƙƙin 'yan ƙasa na samun bayanai. Ya maye gurbin tsohuwar Dokar 'Yancin Bayanai, ta shekarar 2002 . A ƙarƙashin tanade-tanaden Dokar RTI, kowane ɗan ƙasar Indiya na iya neman bayani daga “hukumar jama’a” (gwamnati ko “kayan aikin Jiha”) wanda ake buƙatar ba da amsa cikin gaggawa ko cikin kwanaki talatin 30 . Idan lamarin ya shafi rayuwar mai nema da 'yancinsa, dole ne a bayar da bayanin a cikin sa'o'i arba'in da takwas 48. Har ila yau, dokar ta bukaci kowace hukuma ta jama'a da ta sanya bayanan su na kwamfuta don yadawa da kuma buga wasu nau'ikan bayanai a hankali domin 'yan kasa su bukaci mafi karancin hanyoyin neman bayanai a hukumance.

Majalisar dokokin kasar Indiya ta zartar da dokar RTI a ranar shabiyar 15 ga watan Yuni na shekara ta 2005 kuma ta fara aiki daga ranar shabiyu 12 ga watan Oktoba na shekara ta 2005. Kowace rana akan matsakaita, ana shigar da aikace-aikacen RTI sama kimanin guda dubu hudu da dari takwas 4800. A cikin shekaru goma10 na farko na fara wannan doka, an shigar da kimanin guda 17,500,000 aikace-aikace.

Kodayake Ba a haɗa Haƙƙin Bayani a matsayin Babban Hakki a cikin Tsarin Mulki na kasar Indiya, yana kare haƙƙin haƙƙin 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki da magana a ƙarƙashin Mataki na goma sha tara 19 (1) (a) da Haƙƙin Rayuwa da 'Yanci a ƙarƙashin Mataki na ashirin da daya 21 wanda aka ba da tabbacin ta Tsarin Mulki. Hukumomin da ke ƙarƙashin Dokar RTI ta shekarar 2005 ana kiransu hukumomin jama'a. Jami'in Bayanin Jama'a (PIO) ko Hukumar Daukaka Kara ta farko a cikin hukumomin jama'a suna yin aikin shari'a na yanke hukunci kan aikace-aikacen da daukaka kara bi da bi. An aiwatar da wannan doka ne domin a tabbatar da haƙƙi na asali a cikin kundin tsarin mulkin kasar Indiya 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki'. Tun da RTI yana cikin haƙƙin 'Yancin Magana da Magana a ƙarƙashin sashe na goma sha tara 19 na Kundin Tsarin Mulkin kasar Indiya, haƙƙi ne na asali.

Dokar sirri ta hukuma ta shekara ta1923 ta iyakance bayyana bayanai a kasar Indiya bisa al'ada da sauran wasu dokoki na musamman, waɗanda sabuwar Dokar RTI ta soke. Haƙƙin Bayani yana tsara ainihin haƙƙin ɗan ƙasar Indiya. RTI ya tabbatar da cewa yana da amfani sosai, amma an yi watsi da shi ta Dokar Kariya ta Whistle Blowers, 2011 .

Dokar Haƙƙin Bayani (gyara), ta shekarar 2019, na neman gyara Sashe na goma sha uku 13, dana 16, zuwa 27 na Dokar RTI. Sashi na goma sha uku 13 na ainihin dokar: Ya tsara wa'adin babban kwamishinan yada labarai na tsakiya da kwamishinonin yada labarai na shekaru biyar 5 (ko har ya kai shekaru sittin da biyar 65, ko wacce ta gabata). A ƙarshe a cikin shari'ar Ashwanee K. Singh a ranar ashirin 20 ga watan Satumba na shekara ta 2020, an tabbatar da cewa haƙƙin samun bayanai wani hakki ne na asali.

Iyakar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rasitin biyan kuɗi don tattara bayanai ƙarƙashin dokar RTI

Dokar ta shafi duk kasar Indiya. [lower-alpha 1] Ya shafi dukkan hukumomin tsarin mulki, ciki har da zartarwa, majalisa da shari'a; duk wata cibiya ko hukuma da aka kafa ko kafa ta wata doka ta majalisa ko majalisar jiha. Hakanan an ayyana a cikin Dokar cewa hukumomi ko hukumomin da aka kafa ko aka kafa ta hanyar oda ko sanarwa na gwamnatin da ta dace gami da hukumomin "mallaka, sarrafawa ko samar da kudade masu yawa" ta gwamnati, ko ƙungiyoyin da ba na Gwamnati ba "sun samar da kudade sosai, kai tsaye ko a kaikaice ta kudade".

Jiki masu zaman kansu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masu zaman kansu ba sa cikin dokar A cikin shawarar Sarbjit Roy vs Delhi Hukumar Kula da Wutar Lantarki, Hukumar Kula da Lantarki ta Tsakiya ta kuma sake tabbatar da cewa kamfanoni masu zaman kansu na jama'a sun fada cikin tsarin RTI. Ya zuwa shekarar 2014, cibiyoyi masu zaman kansu da kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu suna karɓar sama da kashi 95% na kuɗaɗen kayayyakin more rayuwa daga gwamnati sun zo ƙarƙashin dokar.

Jam'iyyun siyasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hukumar Yada Labarai ta Tsakiya (CIC) ta yi imanin cewa jam'iyyun siyasa hukumomin gwamnati ne kuma suna da alhakin jama'a a karkashin dokar RTI. CIC ta ce jam'iyyu takwas na kasa - Congress, BJP, NCP, CPI (M), CPI, BSP, NPP da AITC - gwamnatin tsakiya ta ba da kudade mai yawa a kaikaice kuma suna da halayen hukumomin gwamnati a karkashin dokar RTI yayin da suke yin aiki. ayyukan jama'a. Amma a watan Agustan na shekara ta 2013 gwamnati ta gabatar da wani kudurin doka na ‘yancin samun bayanai (gyara) wanda zai cire jam’iyyun siyasa daga cikin dokar. A halin yanzu babu wata jam'iyya da ke karkashin dokar RTI kuma an shigar da karar shigar da dukkan jam'iyyun siyasa karkashinta.

Gyara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dokar Haƙƙin Bayani ta shekarar 2019 ta wuce a ranar 25 ga watan Yuli, nashekarat ta 2019 ta gyara sharuɗɗan sabis na CIC da kwamishinonin Watsa Labarai a cibiyar da a cikin jihohi. An soki lamirin a matsayin zubar da ‘yancin kai na kwamitocin yada labarai.

Hukuncin Kotun Koli

Kotun Koli ta kasar Indiya a ranar 13 ga watan Nuwamba, nashekara ta 2019, ta amince da hukuncin da babbar kotun Delhi ta yanke na kawo ofishin babban alkalin kasar Indiya a karkashin dokar hakkin Yada Labarai (RTI).

Mulki da tsari[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haƙƙin samun bayanai a kasar Indiya manyan hukumomi biyu ne ke tafiyar da su:

  • Hukumar Watsa Labarai ta Tsakiya (CIC) – Babban Kwamishinan Watsa Labarai wanda ke jagorantar dukkan sassan tsakiya da ma’aikatu- tare da nasu jami’an Watsa Labarai (PIO). CICs suna ƙarƙashin Shugaban kasar Indiya kai tsaye.
  • Kwamitocin Watsa Labarai na Jihohi – Jami’an Watsa Labarai na Jiha ko SPOs ne ke shugabantar dukkan ma’aikatu da ma’aikatun Jiha. Ofishin na SPIO yana karkashin Gwamnan Jihar ne kai tsaye.

Hukumomin Watsa Labarai na Jihohi da na Tsakiya hukumomi ne masu zaman kansu kuma Hukumar Watsa Labarai ta Tsakiya ba ta da hurumin kula da Hukumar Watsa Labarai ta Jiha.

Kudade[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana buƙatar ɗan ƙasa da ke son neman wasu bayanai daga hukuma ta jama'a ya aika, tare da aikace-aikacen ( odar wasiƙa ko DD ( Demand draft ) ko cheque na banki) ko tambarin kotu da za a biya ga Jami'in Asusun na hukuma kamar yadda kudin da aka wajabta don neman bayanai. Idan mutumin ya fito daga al'umma marasa galihu, ba ya buƙatar biya. [1] Hakanan ana iya buƙatar mai nema ya biya ƙarin kuɗi ga farashin samar da bayanin, cikakkun bayanai waɗanda PIO (Jami'in Watsa Labarai) za a sanar da mai nema kamar yadda RTI ACT ya tsara.

Haƙƙin dijital na tsarin bayanai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An kafa wata hanyar sadarwa ta digital, RTI Portal, kofa ga 'yan ƙasa don neman bayanai cikin sauri kan cikakkun bayanai na Hukumomin Ƙorafi na farko, PIOs da sauransu. Hukumomin gwamnati daban-daban a karkashin gwamnatin kasar Indiya da kuma gwamnatocin jihohi. Wani shiri ne da Sashen Ma'aikata da Horaswa, Ma'aikatar Ma'aikata, Korafe-korafen Jama'a da Fansho suka ɗauka.

Rigingimu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Haƙƙin samun bayanai a kasar Indiya yana cike da cece-kuce tun daga amfani da su a fagen yaƙin siyasa, neman digiri na ilimi na abokan hamayyar siyasa, ko kuma ƙararrakin ba da bayanai kan manyan ayyuka zuwa zargin amfani da ƙungiyoyin jama'a. Rikicin da jihar ta yi wa RTI ya kawo cikas ga 'yancin dan kasa na sani.

Hare-hare kan masu fafutuka na RTI da shawarwarin kariya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayanai na Initiative Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) sun yi nuni da shari’o’i sama da guda dari uku da goma 310 a duk fadin kasar Indiya inda aka kai wa mutane hari, ta jiki ko ta jiki ko kuma aka lalata musu kadarori saboda bayanan da suka nema karkashin hukumar RTI. Bayanan sun jefa sama da mutane hamsin 50 da ake zargi da kisan kai da kuma kisan kai biyu wadanda ke da alaƙa kai tsaye da aikace-aikacen RTI da aka shigar. Dokar RTI ta shekara ta 2005 ta shafi duka gwamnatocin tsakiya da na jihohi. Hakanan ya shafi ayyuka da ma'aikatun hukumomin gwamnati.

Akwai yarjejeniya da ake ganin akwai bukatar gyara dokar RTI don ba da kariya ga masu neman bayanai a karkashin dokar . Cibiyar kare haƙƙin ɗan adam ta yankin Asiya ta ba da shawarar cewa a saka wani babi na daban, "don Kare waɗanda ke neman bayanai ƙarƙashin Dokar (RTI)", a cikin dokar.

Matakan kariya da aka ba da shawarar sun haɗa da:

  • Wajibi, rajistar korafe-korafen barazanar ko hare-hare ga masu fafutuka na RTI a cikin Rahoton Bayanin Farko da kuma gabatar da irin waɗannan FIR a gaban alkali ko alkali na yankin a cikin sa'o'i 24 don ba da umarnin kariya ga waɗanda ke cikin barazanar da danginsu, da kuma lokaci-lokaci. sake duba irin matakan kariya
  • Gudanar da bincike kan barazanar ko harin da dan sandan da bai kai matsayin Mataimakin Sufeton 'Yan Sanda / Mataimakin Kwamishinan 'Yan Sanda za a kammala shi a cikin kwanaki casa'in 90 kuma muna amfani da RTI don samun fa'ida.

Haƙƙin mallaka na hankali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A baya-bayan nan da yawa daga cikin 'yan kungiyoyin farar hula sun yi zargin tauye dokar 'yancin ba da labari ta hanyar neman hujjar haƙƙin mallaka na hukumomin gwamnati daga lokaci zuwa lokaci.

Mafi shahara sune:

  • Haƙƙin Bayanin da RBI ta musanta game da Bayar da kuɗi yana ambaton Dokokin Dukiya ta Hankali.
  • Haƙƙin Ba da Bayani da Sashen Ban ruwa na Uttar Pradesh ya hana bayan fiye da watanni 8 ana jiran aikin ci gaban Kogin Gomti. Ƙungiyar masu bincike sun nemi Tasirin Muhalli da Rahoton Ayyuka akan aikin wanda aka yi wa alama don mummunan tasiri, asarar kuɗin haraji daga masana kimiyyar muhalli da rahotannin bincike.

An hana mutane yin rajistar RTI[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hukumar Yada Labarai ta Jihar Gujarat ta haramtawa mutane goma 10 shigar da tambayoyin RTI, inda ta yi nuni da cewa wadannan mutanen suna kulantar da jami’an gwamnati” ta hanyar shigar da tambayoyi da yawa. Babu wani tanadi da Hukumar za ta iya hana mutane yin rajistar RTI. Abin da ya sa aka soki haramcin da cewa "bai sabawa kundin tsarin mulki kasa ba".

Muhawara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kin amincewa da RTI[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masana sun yi iƙirarin cewa ainihin manufar Dokar Haƙƙin Watsa Labarai don tabbatar da gwamnati ta gaskiya da riƙon amana tana raguwa yayin da aka ki amincewa da buƙatun RTI kuma tsarin mulki kasa ya cika da miliyoyin buƙatun.

Yawancin RTIs an ƙi su saboda buƙatun bureaucratic (ciki har da yaren fasaha da ake amfani da shi) na shigar da ƙara suna da matukar wahala kuma suna da doka ga talakawa. Kashi sittin 60 cikin dari 100 na roko na RTI da aka yi wa Kwamishinonin Watsa Labarai a Delhi an ƙi su ne saboda dalilai daban-daban, waɗanda suka haɗa da cewa ba a buga ƙararrakin ko ba a rubuta su cikin Turanci ba, ko kuma rashin fihirisar takaddun da aka haɗe ko jerin kwanan wata. [2] Wannan shingen tsarin mulki, wanda ya fi muni ga waɗanda ba su da damar samun ilimi mai zurfi ko bayanai, ya sa ba za a iya samun damar samun bayanai ba. Yawancin 'yan ƙasa dole ne su nemi ƙungiyoyin sa-kai, masu fafutuka na RTI, ko lauyoyi, don shigar da RTI ɗin su. [3]

Kasar Indian Express ta ruwaito a ranar 10 ga watan Agusta, na shekara ta 2022 cewa Hukumar Watsa Labarai ta Gujarat (GIC) ta sanya baki tare da hana sama da masu neman tara shigar da kara a karkashin dokar RTI a cikin shekaru biyu da suka gabata.

Amfani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yawancin masu fafutuka suna kallon Dokar Haƙƙin Watsa Labarai a matsayin 'yanci na ƙarshe daga mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya; sun bayyana dokar ta RTI a matsayin “kayan aiki na karfafawa talakawa ‘yan kasa da canza al’adar mulki ta hanyar tabbatar da gaskiya, rashin cin hanci da rashawa, mai shiga tsakani, da rikon amana.” [2] Har ila yau, sun lura cewa buƙatun RTI suna ba da dabarun da abubuwa ga masu fafutuka a kan batutuwan zamantakewa da yawa, ciki har da "haƙƙin ƙasa da muhalli, fa'idodin tsaro na zamantakewa, aikin cibiyoyin kuɗi, sake fasalin tallafin kuɗaɗen jam'iyyun siyasa, abubuwan more rayuwa na jama'a, har ma da na jama'a-masu zaman kansu. sadarwa." [3]

Ƙungiyoyin da aka keɓe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamar yadda yake a sashi na ashirin da hudu 24 na dokar, kungiyoyin leken asiri da tsaro na tsakiya da na jihohi, an kebe su daga dokar RTI sai dai idan akwai cin hanci da rashawa ko take hakkin dan Adam. Irin waɗannan ƙungiyoyin tsakiya an jera su a cikin jadawalin 2 na Dokar. An sabunta jadawalin sau hudu, 4 a cikin watan Satumba na shekara ta 2005, zuwa watan Maris na shekara ta 2008, watan Oktoba na shekara ta 2008 da kuma watan Mayu na shekara ta 2021.

  1. Ofishin leken asiri
  2. Bincike da Bincike Wing ciki har da reshen fasaha, Cibiyar Binciken Jirgin Sama na kasa
  3. Daraktan Leken Asiri na Kuɗi
  4. Ofishin Leken Asirin Tattalin Arziki
  5. Daraktan Gudanarwa
  6. Ofishin Kula da Narcotics
  7. Rundunar Sojoji ta Musamman
  8. Jami'an tsaron kan iyaka
  9. Rundunar 'yan sanda ta tsakiya
  10. 'Yan sandan iyakar Indo-Tibet
  11. Rundunar Tsaron Masana'antu ta Tsakiya
  12. Jami'an tsaron kasa
  13. Assam Rifles
  14. Sashastra Seema Bal
  15. Babban Darakta na Harajin Kuɗi (Bincike)
  16. Ƙungiyar Binciken Fasaha ta Ƙasa
  17. Sashen Hankali na Kuɗi, Indiya
  18. Ƙungiya ta Musamman
  19. Kungiyar Bincike da Ci Gaban Tsaro
  20. Kungiyar hanyoyin kan iyaka
  21. Sakatariyar Majalisar Tsaro ta Kasa (Sakataren Majalisar Tsaron Kasa, a Sakatariyar Majalisar )

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Hare-hare kan masu fafutukar RTI a kasar Indiya
  • Manufar Rarraba Bayanan Ƙasa da Samun Dama - Gwamnatin kasar Indiya
  • Parinamika, tsohuwar ƙungiyar don haƙƙin bayanai tsakanin 'yan ƙasar Indiya

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Earlier, J&K Right to Information Act was in force in the erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir. However, after the revocation of much of Article 370 of the Constitution of India, the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir (and also the Union Territory of Ladakh) came under the Central Act.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. [1][dead link]
  2. 2.0 2.1 Sharma, Aradhana. “State Transparency after the Neoliberal Turn: The Politics, Limits, and Paradoxes of India’s Right to Information Law.” PoLAR: Political & Legal Anthropology Review, vol. 36, no. 2, Nov. 2013, pp. 308–325.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Aniket Aga, and Chitrangada Choudhury. A Dappled Sun: Bureaucratic Encounters in the Working of the Right to Information Act in India. Vol. 38, no. 3, 2019, pp. 540–556.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]