Dutsen Nguru

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Dutsen Nguru
Morogoro panorama.jpg
General information
Height above mean sea level (en) Fassara 2,400 m
Labarin ƙasa
Eastern Arc Mountains sheme (2).jpg
Geographic coordinate system (en) Fassara 6°00′S 37°30′E / 6°S 37.5°E / -6; 37.5
Mountain range (en) Fassara Eastern Arc Mountains (en) Fassara
Kasa Tanzaniya

Dutsen Nguru tsaunuka ne a Yankin Morogoro, Tanzania, Afirka. Dutsen Nguru wani bangare ne na tsaunukan Arc na Gabas. Duwatsun galibi suna cike da dazuzzuka, da nau'in tsuntsaye 83 (Romdal 2001) da violet na Afirka. Akwai gandun daji da yawa a cikin tsaunuka.

Labarin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manyan tsaunukan Nguru sun kai fadin 1672.90 km².[1] Matsayi mafi girma shine mita 2400 a Nguru ta Kudu.[2] Yankin yana gudana kusan arewa maso gabas, kudu maso yamma, kuma an raba shi ta kwarin Kogin Mjonga, wani yanki ne na Kogin Wami. Yankin yana cikin ruwan Wami. Filin Wami da yankin Mkata da ke kudu maso gabas da gabas. Duwatsun Uluguru suna kudu maso gabas a gefen filin. Duwatsun Ukaguru suna kudu maso yamma, kuma duwatsun Nguu suna arewa; an raba dukkanin jeri daga duwatsun Nguru ta ƙananan tuddai. Kasar da ke da tudu ta raba Maasai Steppe arewa maso yamma.

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duwatsun Nguru suna kama iska mai dauke da danshi daga tekun Indiya, wanda ke samar da mafi yawan ruwan sama a tsaunukan. Ruwan sama mai matsakaita 1800mm a shekara.[3] Mafi yawan ruwan sama yana faruwa ne a lokacin damina na Nuwamba zuwa Mayu, ko da yake hazo da ruwan sama mai sauƙi suna faruwa a tsawan tsaunuka a cikin watannin rani. Ruwan sama ya fi yawa a kan gangaren kudu da gabas, kuma ya yi kasa a inuwar duwatsu zuwa arewa da yamma. Yanayin zafin jiki yana da sanyi kuma ruwan sama yana sama da wuri mai tsayi.[4]

Ilimin duwatsu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dutsen Nguru, tare da wasu a cikin Arc ta Gabas, sun haɗu da tsoffin dutsen Precambrian wanda aka ɗauke shi sama da miliyoyin shekaru tare da laifofi. Lokaci na kwanan nan na haɓakawa ya fara shekaru miliyan 30 da suka gabata, amma tsarin lissafi da tsarin haɓakawa na iya zama sun tsufa. sashen da aka samo daga waɗannan tsoffin duwatsun ba su da dahuwa kamar ƙananan ƙananan duwatsu masu aman wuta zuwa arewa da yamma.[5]

Fure da dabbobi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kimanin shekaru miliyan talatin da suka wuce, gandun daji mai yawa ya mamaye yankin. A lokacin mai sanyaya da lokacin bushewa kimanin shekaru miliyan goma da suka wuce, an jujjuya gandun dajin zuwa savanna, an bar tsaunukan tsaunuka a matsayin "tsibirai" inda gandun daji masu zafi ke cigaba da bunƙasa. Dorewar yanayi mai danshi na tsawon lokaci da kebancewa kowane kewayon tsaunika ya haifar da babbar matsala ta endemism, da kuma fure iri daban-daban da dabbobi.[6] Nguru da sauran tsaunukan Arc na Gabas suna da manyan nau'o'in halittu masu yawa tare da yawancin nau'ikan halittu (fiye da kashi 25 cikin 100 na nau'o'in kashin baya).[7]

Itacen daji na Miombo ya mamaye filin Mkata-Wami zuwa gabas, da ƙananan tsaunuka a kudu, yamma, da arewa. Dazuzzuka sun faɗo daga tsawan mita 300 zuwa 2000. Gandun daji ya banbanta a cikin nau'ikan halittu tare da dagawa da kuma hanyar gangaren. A ƙasan tsaunuka a gabashin gangaren, gandun daji masu ƙarancin ƙarancin ruwa sun mamaye, tare da fure mai kama da gandun dajin bakin teku na Zanzibar-Inhambane da ke gabashin gabas. A tsaunuka mafi girma, tsaunuka gida ne ga gandun dazuzzuka masu tsafta, tare da halayen Afromontane.[8] Kananan gandun daji suna faruwa daga tsawan mita 900 zuwa 1400 akan gangaren gabas, kuma tsakanin tsawan mita 1400 zuwa 1500 akan gangaren yamma. Gandun dajin Montane ya mamaye tsakanin mita 1400 zuwa 2000 akan gangaren gabas, tare da gandun daji masu girgije a tsawan tsauni. A gefen gangaren yamma akwai gandun daji masu bushewa tsakanin mita 1600 zuwa 200. A saman mita 2000, tsaunukan sun fi yawa.[9] Wani bincike na hotunan tauraron dan adam da aka dauka tsakanin 1999 da 2003 an gano kilomita 297 na tsaunuka har yanzu suna cikin dazuzzuka.[10]

Yankunan da aka kiyaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duwatsu suna da ajiyar yanayi guda ɗaya da kuma gandun daji guda biyu, jimlar su a hekta 31,409 ha.[11] Yankin Mkingu yana gida ne ga ɗayan mafi girman wuraren da ba a magance su ba a cikin gandun dajin.[12] Mkingu an kirkireshi ne daga hadewar dajin Nguru ta Kudu da ke Kure (19 ha793 ha) da Mkindo CFR (7,451 ha).[13] Kanga ta Kudu CFR (6,664 ha) yana cikin yankin arewa maso gabas na tsaunuka, an raba shi daga babban toshi ta kwarin Mjonga. Magotwe ya tanada (709 ha) yana kan tsawan dutse a gefen gabas, tsakanin tsaunukan tsauni biyu.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. N. D. Burgess et al. (2007). "The biological importance of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and Kenya". Biological Conservation 134 (2007) pp. 209–231.
  2. "Nguru". Eastern Arc Mountains Conservation Endowment Fund. Accessed 20 September 2019.
  3. BirdLife International (2019) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Nguru Mountains. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/09/2019.
  4. "Eastern Arc forests". World Wildlife Fund ecoregion profile. Accessed 10 September 2019.
  5. "Eastern Arc forests". World Wildlife Fund ecoregion profile. Accessed 10 September 2019.
  6. Briggs, Philip (2009). Northern Tanzania: The Bradt Safari Guide with Kilimanjaro and Zanzibar. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-84162-292-7.
  7. Newmark, W. D., 2002, Conserving Biodiversity in East African Forests, a Study of the Eastern Arc Mountains. Ecological Studies 155. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 197
  8. N. D. Burgess et al. (2007). "The biological importance of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and Kenya". Biological Conservation 134 (2007) pp. 209–231
  9. "Nguru". Eastern Arc Mountains Conservation Endowment Fund. Accessed 20 September 2019.
  10. N. D. Burgess et al. (2007). "The biological importance of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and Kenya". Biological Conservation 134 (2007) pp. 209–231
  11. "Nguru". Eastern Arc Mountains Conservation Endowment Fund. Accessed 20 September 2019.
  12. BirdLife International (2019) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Nguru Mountains. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/09/2019.
  13. "Nguru". Eastern Arc Mountains Conservation Endowment Fund. Accessed 20 September 2019.

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Romdal T. "An ornithological survey of the Nguru Mountains, Tanzania". Scopus 22, pages 49–62. 2001.
  • Monela, G.C. Tropical rainforest deforestation; biodiversity, benefits and sustainable land use: analysis of economic and ecological aspects related to the Nguru Mountains, Tanzania. PhD Thesis, Norway, 1994.