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Fim

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
A Trip to the Moon, 1902. The film is considered to be a turning point in narrative and sci-fi film development.

Fim – wanda kuma ake kira fim, hoton motsi, hoto mai motsi, hoto, wasan kwaikwayo ko (slang) flick –aikin fasaha ne na gani wanda ke kwatanta kwarewa kuma in ba haka ba yana sadarwa ra'ayoyi, labarun, tsinkaye, ji, kyau, ko yanayi ta hanyar amfani na hotuna masu motsi. Waɗannan hotuna gabaɗaya suna tare da sauti kuma, da wuya, wasu abubuwan motsa jiki. Kalmar "cinema", gajeriyar kallon fina- finai, ana yawan amfani da ita wajen yin fim da masana'antar fina-finai, da kuma fasahar da ta samo asali.[1]

Rikodi da watsa fim[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hotuna masu motsi na fim an ƙirƙira su ta hanyar ɗaukar hotuna na ainihi tare da kyamarar hoto mai motsi, ta hanyar ɗaukar hotuna ko ƙananan ƙira ta amfani da fasaha na raye-raye na gargajiya, ta hanyar CGI da wasan kwaikwayo na kwamfuta, ko ta hanyar haɗuwa da wasu ko duk waɗannan fasahohin. da sauran tasirin gani.[2]

Etymology da madadin sharuddan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunan "fim" da farko ana magana ne zuwa sirara na emulsion na photochemical a kan tsiri na celluloid wanda ya kasance ainihin matsakaici don yin rikodi da nuna hotunan motsi.

Wasu sharuɗɗan da yawa sun wanzu don hoton motsi ɗaya, gami da "hoto", "nunin hoto", "hoton motsi", "hotunan hoto", da "flick". Kalmar da aka fi sani a Amurka ita ce "fim", yayin da a Turai an fi son "fim". Kalmomin archaic sun haɗa da "hotuna masu rai" da "ɗaukar hoto".

"Flick" gabaɗaya kalma ce ta ɓatanci, wanda aka fara rubuta shi a cikin shekarar 1926. Ya samo asali ne a cikin fi'ili flicker, saboda ficewar fina-finan farko.[3]

Sharuɗɗan gama gari na filin gabaɗaya sun haɗa da "babban allo", "lallon azurfa", "fina-finai", da "cinema"; Ana amfani da na ƙarshe daga cikin waɗannan, a matsayin jumla mai mahimmanci, a cikin matani na ilimi da maƙasudai masu mahimmanci. A cikin shekarun farko, ana amfani da kalmar “sheet” wani lokaci maimakon “allon”.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masu riga-kafi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fasahar fim ta zana al'adun gargajiya da yawa a baya a fannoni kamar ba da labari, adabi, wasan kwaikwayo da fasahar gani. Siffofin zane-zane da nishaɗi waɗanda tuni suka fito da hotuna masu motsi da/ko hasashen sun haɗa da:

  • shadowgraphy, mai yiwuwa ana amfani dashi tun zamanin da
  • kamara obscura, al'amari na halitta wanda aka yi amfani da shi azaman taimakon fasaha tun zamanin da.
  • Inuwa yar tsana, mai yiwuwa ya samo asali kusan 200 KZ a tsakiyar Asiya, Indiya, Indonesia ko China
  • Lantarki na sihiri, wanda aka haɓaka a cikin 1650s. A Multi-media phantasmagoria ya nuna cewa sihiri fitilu sun shahara daga 1790 a cikin farkon rabin na 19th karni kuma zai iya ƙunshi inji nunin faifai, raya tsinkaya, mobile projectors, superimposition, narkar da views, live 'yan wasan kwaikwayo, hayaki (wani lokacin don aiwatar da hotuna a kan). wari, sauti har ma da girgizar wutar lantarki.

Kafin celluloid[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

GIF mai rai na Prof. Stampfer's Stroboscopische Scheibe No. X (Trentsensky & Vieweg 1833)

An gabatar da ka'idar raye-raye na stroboscopic a cikin shekarar 1833 tare da diski na stroboscopic (wanda aka fi sani da phénakisticope) kuma daga baya aka yi amfani da shi a cikin zoetrope (tun shekarar 1866), littafin juyawa (tun shekarar 1868), da praxinoscope (tun shekara ta 1877), kafin ya zama ka'ida ta asali don cinematography.[4]

Gwaje-gwaje tare da na'urorin wasan kwaikwayo na tushen phenakisticope na farko an yi su aƙalla a farkon shekarar 1843 kuma an nuna su a bainar jama'a a cikin shekarar 1847. Jules Duboscq ya tallata tsarin hasashen phénakisticope a Faransa daga kusan 1853 har zuwa 1890s.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Nelmes, Jill (2004). An introduction to film studies (3rd ed., Reprinted. ed.). London: Routledge. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-415-26269-9 . Archived from the original on 2022-03-12. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  2. Streible, Dan (11 April 2008). Fight Pictures: A History of Boxing and Early Cinema . University of California Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-520-94058-1 .
  3. Streible, Dan (11 April 2008). Fight Pictures: A History of Boxing and Early Cinema . University of California Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-520-94058-1 .
  4. Christopherson, Susan (2013-03-01). "Hollywood in decline? US film and television producers beyond the era of fiscal crisis". Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society . 6 (1): 141–157. doi :10.1093/ cjres/rss024 . ISSN 1752-1378 .