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Grace O'Malley

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Grace O'Malley
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Clare Island (en) Fassara da County Mayo (en) Fassara, 1530
ƙasa Kingdom of Ireland (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Rockfleet Castle (en) Fassara da County Mayo (en) Fassara, 1603
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Owen O'Malley
Abokiyar zama Risdeárd an Iarainn Bourke (en) Fassara
Yara
Karatu
Harsuna Goidelic (en) Fassara
Harshen Latin
Faransanci
Yaren Sifen
Greek (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a pirate (en) Fassara
Aikin soja
Ya faɗaci Nine Years' War (en) Fassara

Grace O'Malley (c. 1530 – c.1603), kuma aka sani da Gráinne O'Malley[1] (Irish: Gráinne Ní Mháille), ita ce shugabar Ó a, daular Máille ta yammacin Ireland da 'yar Eóghan Dubhdara Ó Máille.

A cikin tarihin al'adun Irish an fi saninta da Gráinne Mhaol (Anglicised da Granuaile) kuma sanannen mutum ce ta tarihi a tarihin Irish na ƙarni na sha shida. Hakanan an sanya sunanta a cikin takaddun Ingilishi na zamani ta hanyoyi daban-daban, ciki har da Gráinne O'Maly, Graney O'Mally, Granny ni Maille, Grany O'Mally, Grayn Ny Mayle, Grane ne Male, Grainy O'Maly, da Granee O' Maillie,[2] da wuya kamar Grace O'Malley.[3] A cikin shahararrun al'adun gargajiya ana kiranta da "The Pirate Queen".

Ba a ambaci O'Malley a cikin tarihin Irish ba, don haka shaidun rubuce-rubucen rayuwarta sun fito galibi daga tushen Ingilishi, musamman "Labarun Tambayoyi" goma sha takwas, tambayoyin da aka yi mata a rubuce a madadin Elizabeth I.[4] An ambace ta a cikin Takardun Jiha na Turanci da kuma a cikin wasu takaddun nau'ikan, da.[5]

Grace O'Malley

Bayan mutuwar mahaifinta, ta ɗauki nauyin jagorancin ubangiji ta ƙasa da ruwa, duk da cewa tana da ɗan'uwa, Dónal an Píopa Ó Máille. Auren Dónal an Chogaidh (Donal "na yaki") Ó Flaithbheartaigh ya kawo mata babban arziki da tasiri, wanda aka ruwaito yana mallakar shanu da dawakai har 1,000. A cikin 1593, lokacin da 'ya'yanta Tibbot Bourke da Murchadh Ó Flaithbheartaigh (Murrough O'Flaherty) da ɗan'uwanta Dónal an Píopa ("Donal of the Pipes") suka kama shi daga hannun gwamnan Ingila na Connacht, Sir Richard Bingham, O' Malley ya je Ingila don neman a sake su. Ta gabatar da bukatarta ga Sarauniya Elizabeth ta I a hukumance a kotun ta dake fadar Greenwich.

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi O'Malley a Ireland a kusa da 1530, lokacin da Henry na VIII ya kasance Sarkin Ingila kuma ya rike lakabin Ubangiji na Ireland. A karkashin manufofin gwamnatin Ingila a lokacin, dangin Irish masu cin gashin kansu an bar su galibi suna amfani da nasu. Koyaya, wannan ya canza a tsawon rayuwar O'Malley yayin da cin nasarar Tudor na Ireland ya taru.

Grace O'Malley

Eoghan Dubhdara Ó Máille, mahaifinta,[6] da danginsa sun kasance a Clew Bay, County Mayo. Shi ne Shugaban Sunan Clan Ó Máille kuma Ubangijin Umhaill, kuma ya yi iƙirarin zuriya daga Maille mac Conall. Uí Mháille na ɗaya daga cikin dangin masu safarar teku na Connacht, kuma sun gina jeri na katanga da ke fuskantar teku don kare yankinsu. Sun mallaki mafi yawan abin da ke yanzu shine Barony na Murrisk[6] a kudu maso yammacin County Mayo kuma an gane su a matsayin masu mulkin mallaka na Mac William Íochtar reshen Bourkes, wanda ke sarrafa yawancin abin da ke yanzu County Mayo. Iyalin Bourke (Irish: de Búrca) asalin Anglo-Norman ne (de Burgh) amma ta rayuwar O'Malley ta zama Gaelicized gaba ɗaya. Mahaifiyarta, Margaret ko Maeve, ita ma O'Malley ce. Ko da yake ita kaɗai ce ɗan Dubhdara da matarsa, O'Malley yana da ɗan'uwan uba mai suna Dónal na Píopa.[7] Ko da yake a ƙarƙashin Dokar Brehon kawai maza na derbhfine ne za su iya gaji rigar Shugaban Suna ta Tanistry, O'Malley "an ɗauki shi a matsayin mai riƙe da ƙasa na iyali da ayyukan teku".[8]

Tare da manyan gine-gine na bakin teku kamar Carrickkildavnet, Clan Uí Mháille sun sanya haraji ga duk wadanda ke kamun kifi a gabar ruwansu, wadanda suka hada da masunta daga nesa da Ingila. An san shugaban dangi kawai da sunan mahaifinsa Ó Máille (an fassara shi da The O'Malley). Tatsuniyar yankin sun nuna cewa O'Malley, tun tana yarinya, tana son tafiya balaguron kasuwanci zuwa Spain tare da mahaifinta. Da aka ce mata ba za ta iya ba saboda dogayen gashinta zai kama igiyar jirgin, sai ta yanke mafi yawan gashinta don ta kunyata mahaifinta ya dauke ta. Wannan ya sa ake mata lakabi da "Gráinne Mhaol"; daga maol, ma'ana 'mko' ko 'ciwon gashin gashi'), yawanci ana jin kamar Granuaile.[9] Sunan barkwanci na iya fitowa daga Gráinne Umhaill ("Gráinne na Umhall", Umhall kasancewar gundumar tarihi na yammacin Connacht wanda Uí Mháille ke mamaye da shi).[10]

Grace O'Malley

Tun tana yarinya mai yiwuwa ta zauna a gidan danginta na Belclare da tsibirin Clare,[2] amma wataƙila wani dangi ne ya reno ta, saboda reno ya kasance al'ada a tsakanin manyan Gaelic na Ireland. Ta sami ilimi sosai tun lokacin da ta yi magana da Latin tare da Sarauniya Elizabeth I a 1593.[11]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Chambers, Anne (2003). Granuaile: Ireland's pirate queen Grace O'Malley c. 1530–1603. Dublin: Wolfhound Press. ISBN 0-86327-913-9.
  • Chambers, Anne (2003). Ireland's Pirate Queen: The True Story of Grace O'Malley. New York: MJF Books. ISBN 978-1-56731-858-6. (This is a second, American edition of the book above)
  • Cook, Judith (2004). Pirate Queen: the life of Grace O'Malley 1530–1603. Cork: Mercier Press. ISBN 1-85635-443-1.
  • Druett, Joan (2000). She Captains: Heroines and Hellions of the Sea. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0684856905.
  1. Samfuri:Cite ODNB
  2. 2.0 2.1 Chambers 2003, p. 39
  3. There is only one instance recorded in Chambers in Chapter Nine End of an Era where she is referred to in a dispatch as Grace O'Malley
  4. See the supplement to Chambers, 2003.
  5. Lambeth Palace Library, ms. no 601, p. 10, cited in Chambers 2003, p. 85
  6. 6.0 6.1 Chambers 2003, p. 20
  7. Chambers 2003, p. 21
  8. O'Connell
  9. As used to name the ships ILV Granuaile of the Commissioners of Irish Lights.
  10. Chambers 2003, p. 57
  11. Chambers 2003, p. 36