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Haƙƙoƙin turawa

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Haƙƙoƙin turawa

Hakkokin turawa sune haƙƙoƙin gargajiya na batutuwan Ingilishi sannan daga baya masu magana da Ingilishi na Burtaniya. A cikin ƙarni na 18, wasu daga cikin ’yan mulkin mallaka da suka ki amincewa da mulkin Birtaniyya a cikin yankuna goma sha uku na Arewacin Amurka da za su zama Amurka ta farko sun yi jayayya cewa ana tauye hakkinsu na al’ada a matsayinsu na Ingila. Masu mulkin mallaka suna so kuma suna tsammanin haƙƙoƙin da (ko kakanninsu) suka samu a baya a Ingila: karamar hukuma, sannan Kuma wakilcin gwamnati, game da al'amuran shari'a (an mayar da wasu 'yan mulkin mallaka zuwa Ingila don gwaji) kuma musamman game da haraji. [2] Imani da waɗannan haƙƙoƙin daga baya ya zama tabbataccen yarda ga juyin juya halin Amurka.

Turawan mulkin mallaka na Amurka tun daga karni na 17 sun kasance kasa mai albarka don 'yanci a tsakiyar tattaunawar siyasar Turai. [5] Duk da haka, yayin da amincewa da sanarwar 'yancin kai ya gabato, batun da ke tsakanin 'yan mulkin mallaka wanda ke da mahimmanci na musamman ya zama mai rarraba. George Mason, Kuma daya daga cikin iyayen da suka kafa Amurka, ya kuma bayyana cewa "Ba mu da'awar komai sai 'yanci da gata na 'yan Ingila a matsayi guda, kamar dai mun ci gaba a tsakanin 'yan'uwanmu a Birtaniya." [4]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masanin shari'a na Ingilishi na ƙarni na 18 William Blackstone yayi ƙoƙarin bayyana haƙƙoƙin ƴan ƙasar Ingila.

A cikin al'adar tarihin Whig, Alkali William Blackstone ya kira su "Cikakken hakkoki na kowane Bature", kuma ya bayyana yadda aka kafa su sannu a hankali fiye da ƙarni na tarihin Turanci, Sannan a cikin littafinsa na Ƙa'idodin Dokokin Ingila, wanda shine ɓangare na farko. Sharhinsa masu tasiri a kan Dokokin Ingila . [1] Sun kasance wasu haƙƙoƙi na asali waɗanda aka fahimci duk batutuwa na masarautar Ingilishi suna da haƙƙin su, [1] kamar waɗanda aka bayyana a cikin Magna Carta tun shekarata 1215, Kokarin Dama a 1628, Dokar Habeas Corpus shekarar 1679 da Bill of Rights 1689.

A cikin shari'ar shari'a da aka fi sani da Calvin's Case, ko kuma Case na Postnati, Dokokin Dokokin sun yanke shawara a shekarata 1608 cewa 'yan Scots da aka haifa bayan Sarki James I sun haɗu da Scotland da Ingila ( maɗaukaki ) suna da duk haƙƙin Ingilishi. Wannan shawarar za ta yi tasiri na gaba kan manufar "haƙƙin Ingilishi" a Amurka ta Burtaniya. [8] [9] [10]

Wasiyya a cikin dokokin Amurka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sakamakon shigar da shi cikin daidaitattun maganganun doka na ƙarni na 19, [lower-alpha 1] Case Calvin sananne ne a farkon tarihin shari'a na Amurka. [9] Yin la'akari da shari'ar da Kotun Koli ta Amurka da kotunan jihohi suka mayar da shi ya zama doka game da zama ɗan ƙasar Amirka kuma ya ƙarfafa ra'ayin jus soli . – haƙƙin da za a iya gane ɗan ƙasa ko ɗan ƙasa ga duk wanda aka haifa a cikin ƙasar da ke da alaƙa – a matsayin farkon kayyade dalilin sarrafa sayan zama dan kasa ta haihuwa.

Alkalin Kotun Koli Joseph P. Bradley ya tabbatar da cewa "hakkokin 'yan Ingila" sun kasance tushe na dokokin Amurka a ra'ayinsa da ya sabawa ra'ayinsa game da shari'ar kisan gilla, Sannna Kuma fassarar Kotun Koli ta farko na Kwaskwarima na Goma sha Hudu ga Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Amurka, a 1873. [lower-alpha 2]

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Hakkokin jama'a da na siyasa
  • 'Yancin jama'a a Burtaniya
  • Yarjejeniya Ta Farko na Virginia
  • Hakkoki na dabi'a da na shari'a
  • Majalisa a cikin Gudanarwa
  • Dan kasa na Roman
  • Dokar Haƙƙin Ingilishi

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Compiled by Edward Coke, William Blackstone, and James Kent.
  2. In his dissenting decision, Bradley wrote:

    The people of this country brought with them to its shores the rights of Englishmen, the rights which had been wrested from English sovereigns at various periods of the nation's history.... England has no written constitution, it is true, but it has an unwritten one, resting in the acknowledged, and frequently declared, privileges of Parliament and the people, to violate which in any material respect would produce a revolution in an hour. A violation of one of the fundamental principles of that constitution in the Colonies, namely, the principle that recognizes the property of the people as their own, and which, therefore, regards all taxes for the support of government as gifts of the people through their representatives, and regards taxation without representation as subversive of free government, was the origin of our own revolution.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Blackstone, Fundamental Laws of England, the first part of Commentaries on the Laws of England, pp. 123–24. Scanned in text available at Yale Law School Libraries online. Retrieved 26 August 2010.