Hanyar ruwa

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Kasuwa mai iyo akan ɗayan hanyoyin ruwa na Thailand

Hanyar ruwa ita ce kowane jikin ruwa mai kewayawa . Bambance-bambance mai faɗi yana da amfani don guje wa shubuha, kuma ɓatashi zai kasance da mabambanta mahimmanci dangane da ƙayyadaddun kalmar dai-dai a cikin wasu harsuna. Bambanci na farko ya zama dole tsakanin hanyoyin jigilar ruwa da hanyoyin ruwa da jiragen ruwa na cikin gida ke amfani da su. Hanyoyin jigilar kayayyaki na ruwa suna ƙetara tekuna da tekuna, da wasu tafkuna, inda ake tsammanin zazzagewa, kuma babu aikin injiniya da ake buƙata, sai dai don samar da daftarin jigilar ruwa mai zurfi don kusanci tashar jiragen ruwa ( tashoshi ), ko don samar da ɗan gajeren yanke a kan isthmus; wannan shine aikin magudanar ruwa . Ba a yawanci bayyana tashoshi da aka bushe a cikin teku a matsayin hanyoyin ruwa. Akwai keɓanta ga wannan bambance-bambancen farko, musamman ma don dalilai na shari'a, duba ƙarƙashin ruwan duniya.

Inda tashar jiragen ruwa ke cikin ƙasa, ana tunkarar su ta hanyar ruwa da za a iya kiranta "cikin ƙasa" amma a aikace ana kiranta da "hanyar ruwa ta ruwa" (misali Seine Maritime, Loire Maritime, Seeschiffahrtsstraße Elbe). Kalmar "hanyar ruwa ta cikin ƙasa" tana nufin koguna masu kewayawa da magudanan ruwa da aka ƙera don amfani da su kawai ta hanyar ruwa na cikin ƙasa, a fakaice da ƙanƙanta fiye da na jiragen ruwa da ake da su.

Domin hanyar ruwa ta kasance mai kewayawa, dole ne ya cika sharudda da yawa:

  • dole ne ya kasance mai zurfi sosai don saukar da tasoshin lodi zuwa daftarin zane ;
  • dole ne ya kasance mai faɗi don ba da izinin wucewar tasoshin tare da faɗin zane ko katako ;
  • dole ne ya kasance ba tare da cikas ga kewayawa ba kamar magudanar ruwa da raƙuman ruwa, ko ba da hanyar da ke kewaye da su (kamar makullin canal ko ɗaga jirgin ruwa );
  • halin yanzu dole ne ya kasance mai sauƙi don ba da damar jiragen ruwa su yi gaba ba tare da wahala ba;
  • tsayin igiyar ruwa (a kan tafkuna) dole ne ya wuce ƙimar da aka tsara ajin jirgin.

Jirgin ruwa da ke amfani da magudanan ruwa ya bambanta daga kananan jiragen ruwa na dabba zuwa manya-manyan tankunan ruwa da na jiragen ruwa, kamar jiragen ruwa na balaguro .

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin ruwa sun kasance muhimmin ɓangare na ayyukan ɗan adam tun farko zamanin da aka rigaya da kuma kewayawa ya ba da damar jiragen ruwa da magudanar ruwa su ratsa ta kowane jikin ruwa . Grand Canal (China), Gidan Tarihi na Duniya na UNESCO, tsarin hanyar ruwa mafi dadewa a duniya, ana daukarsa a matsayin daya daga cikin mafi girma kuma mafi girman aikin injiniya a duniya.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Misalin rarraba hanyoyin ruwa na cikin ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Waterway Classes in Europe
Rarraba hanyoyin ruwa na cikin ƙasa na Turai, an daidaita su daga taswirar UNECE na hanyoyin ruwa na cikin ƙasa na Turai, 4th ed., 2010

Taron Ministocin Sufuri na Turai ya kafa a shekarata 1953 tsarin rarraba hanyoyin ruwa wanda daga baya aka fadada don yin la'akari da ci gaban turawa. Turai wata nahiya ce da ke da halaye iri-iri na hanyoyin ruwa, wanda ke sa wannan rarrabuwa ya zama mai daraja don jin daɗin nau'ikan nau'ikan hanyoyin ruwa. Hakanan akwai kyawawan halaye na hanyoyin ruwa iri-iri a cikin ƙasashe da yawa na Asiya, amma ba a sami wani abin da ya dace na ƙasashen duniya don daidaito ba. Wannan rarrabuwa yana samar da Hukumar Tattalin Arziki ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya don Turai, Kwamitin Sufuri na cikin gida, da kuma Jam'iyyar Aiki akan Sufurin Ruwa na Cikin Gida. Ana nuna ƙaramin sigar wannan taswirar anan.

Manyan hanyoyin ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

UNECE European Waterways Map
Hanyar hanyar ruwa ta Turai, bambanta hanyoyin ruwa ta Class (I zuwa VII)
  • Suez Canal
  • Panama Canal
  • Hanyar Ruwa ta Great Lakes
  • Saint Lawrence Seaway

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]