Jump to content

Harshen Irish

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Harshen Irish
An Ghaeilge — Gaeilge
'Yan asalin magana
harshen asali: 276,310 (2012)
second language (en) Fassara: 1,030,000 (2012)
harshen asali: 141,000 (2019)
Baƙaƙen boko, Ogham (en) Fassara da Latin, Gaelic type (en) Fassara
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-1 ga
ISO 639-2 gle
ISO 639-3 gle
Glottolog iris1253[1]

Irish (Standard Irish: Gaeilge), kuma aka sani da Irish Gaelic ko kawai Gaelic (/ ˈɡeɪlɪk/ Template:Respell), harshe ne na Goidelic na reshen Celtic Insular na dangin harshen Celtic, wanda wani yanki ne na harshen Indo-Turai. iyali. Irish ɗan asalin tsibirin Ireland ne kuma shine yaren farko na yawan jama'a har zuwa karni na 19, lokacin da a hankali Ingilishi ya mamaye, musamman a cikin shekarun ƙarshe na karni. A yau, har yanzu ana magana da Irish a matsayin yaren farko a yankunan Ireland tare da ake kira Gaeltacht, wanda kashi 2% na yawan jama'ar Ireland ne kawai ke rayuwa a cikin 2022. Har ila yau, babban rukuni na masu magana da yare na biyu suna magana da shi, galibi a cikin birane. yankunan. [Ana bukatan hujja]

Adadin mutanen (shekaru 3 zuwa sama) a Ireland waɗanda suka yi iƙirarin za su iya magana da Irish a cikin Afrilu 2022 sun kasance 1,873,997, wakiltar 40% na waɗanda suka amsa, amma daga cikin waɗannan, 472,887 sun ce ba su taɓa magana ba kuma ƙarin 551,993 sun ce sun yi magana kawai. cikin tsarin ilimi. Nazarin harshe na masu magana da Irish don haka ya dogara da farko akan adadin masu amfani da yau da kullun a Ireland a wajen tsarin ilimi, wanda a cikin 2022 ya kasance 20,261 a cikin Gaeltacht da 51,707 a wajensa, jimlar 71,968. Dangane da ƙidayar jama'a ta 2021 na Arewacin Ireland, mutane 43,557 sun bayyana cewa suna magana da Irish a kullun, 26,286 suna magana a kowane mako, 47,153 suna magana ƙasa da mako-mako, kuma 9,758 sun ce za su iya magana da Irish, amma ba su taɓa magana ba. Daga 2006 zuwa 2008, fiye da 22,000 Irish Amirkawa sun ba da rahoton yin magana da Irish a matsayin harshensu na farko a gida, tare da sau da yawa wannan lambar tana da'awar "wasu ilmi" na harshen.

Ga yawancin tarihin Irish da aka yi rikodin, Irish shine yaren mutanen Irish mafi girma, waɗanda suka ɗauke shi tare da su zuwa wasu yankuna, kamar Scotland da Isle of Man, inda Irish ta Tsakiya ta haifar da Gaelic na Scotland da Manx. Har ila yau, na ɗan lokaci, ana magana da shi a ko'ina cikin Kanada, tare da kiyasin 200,000-250,000 na Kanada masu magana da Irish a kowace rana a cikin 1890. A tsibirin Newfoundland, wani yare na Irish na musamman ya samo asali kafin fadowa da amfani a farkon karni na 20.

Tare da tsarin rubuce-rubuce, Ogham, wanda ya samo asali tun aƙalla karni na 4 AD, wanda a hankali aka maye gurbinsa da rubutun Latin tun karni na 5 AD, Irish yana da ɗaya daga cikin tsoffin adabi na harshe a Yammacin Turai. A tsibirin, harshen yana da manyan yaruka uku: Connacht, Munster da Ulster Irish. Dukansu ukun suna da banbance-banbance a cikin maganganunsu da rubutunsu. Har ila yau, akwai "takardar rubutaccen tsari" wanda kwamitin majalisa ya tsara a shekarun 1950. Harafin Irish na gargajiya, bambance-bambancen haruffan Latin mai haruffa 18, an ci nasara ta daidaitattun haruffan Latin (duk da cewa suna da haruffa 7-8 da aka yi amfani da su da farko a cikin kalmomin lamuni).

Irish yana da matsayin tsarin mulki a matsayin yaren hukuma na ƙasa da na farko na Jamhuriyar Ireland, kuma har ila yau harshe ne na hukuma na Ireland ta Arewa kuma tsakanin harsunan hukuma na Tarayyar Turai. Hukumar jama'a ta Foras na Gaeilge ce ke da alhakin haɓaka harshe a duk faɗin tsibirin. Irish ba shi da wata hukuma mai tsari amma daidaitaccen tsarin rubutaccen tsari na zamani yana jagorantar sabis na majalisa da sabon ƙamus ta kwamitin sa-kai tare da shigar da jami'a.

A cikin An Caighdeán Oifigiúil ("Jami'in [Rubuta] Standard") sunan harshen Gaeilge, daga sigar Kudancin Connacht, wanda aka rubuta Gaedhilge kafin sake fasalin rubutun na 1948, wanda shine asalin Gaedhealg, nau'in da aka yi amfani da shi a cikin Na gargajiya. Gaelic. Sakamakon rubutun na zamani daga gogewar silent Template:Vr a cikin Gaedhilge. Tsofaffin rubutun kalmomi sun haɗa da Gaoidhealg mga a cikin Gaelic na gargajiya da Goídelc sga a cikin Tsohon Irish. Goidelic, wanda aka yi amfani da shi don nufin dangin harshe, an samo shi daga tsohuwar kalmar Irish.

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙididdigar harshe a cikin yarukan Irish na zamani daban-daban sun haɗa da: Gaeilge ga in Galway, Gaeilg/Gaeilic/Gaeilig ga a cikin Mayo da Ulster, da Gaelainn/Gaoluinn ga a West/Cork Kerry Munster, da kuma Gaedhealaing a tsakiyar da East Kerry/ Cork da Waterford Munster don nuna lafazin lafazin gida.

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gaeilge kuma yana da ma'ana mai faɗi, gami da Gaelic na Scotland da Isle of Man, da na Ireland. Lokacin da mahallin ya buƙace su, ana bambanta waɗannan kamar Gaeilge na hAlban, Gaeilge Mhanann da Gaeilge na hÉireann bi da bi.

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin Ingilishi (ciki har da Hiberno-Turanci), yawanci ana kiran yaren Irish, da Gaelic da Irish Gaelic. Ana iya ganin kalmar Irish Gaelic lokacin da masu magana da Ingilishi suka tattauna dangantakar da ke tsakanin harsunan Goidelic guda uku (Irish, Scottish Gaelic da Manx). Gaelic kalma ce ta gama gari don harsunan Goidelic, kuma idan mahallin ya bayyana sarai ana iya amfani da shi ba tare da cancanta ba don komawa ga kowane harshe daban-daban. Lokacin da mahallin ya keɓanta amma ba a sani ba, kalmar na iya cancanta, kamar Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic ko Manx Gaelic. A tarihi ana amfani da sunan "Erse" (/ɜːrs/ Template:Respell) a wani lokaci a cikin Scots sannan a cikin Ingilishi don komawa Irish; da Scottish Gaelic.

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Main

An fara ba da shaidar ɗan Irish da aka rubuta a cikin rubutun Ogham daga karni na 4 AD, matakin yaren da aka fi sani da Irish Primitive. An sami waɗannan rubuce-rubucen a ko'ina cikin Ireland da gabar yammacin Biritaniya. Tsohon Irish ya sami canji zuwa Tsohon Irish har zuwa karni na 5. Tsohon Irish, wanda aka samo daga karni na 6, yayi amfani da haruffan Latin kuma an tabbatar da shi da farko a gefe zuwa rubutun Latin. A wannan lokacin, harshen Irish ya sha wasu kalmomin Latin, wasu ta hanyar Old Welsh, ciki har da kalmomin ecclesiastical: misalan easpag (bishop) daga episcopus, da Domhnach (Lahadi, daga dominica).

A karni na 10, Tsohon Irish ya samo asali zuwa Irish ta Tsakiya, wanda ake magana a cikin Ireland, Isle na Man da sassan Scotland. Harshen babban rukunin adabi ne, gami da Ulster Cycle. Daga karni na 12, Irish ta tsakiya ya fara canzawa zuwa Irish na zamani a Ireland, zuwa Scottish Gaelic a Scotland, kuma zuwa cikin yaren Manx a cikin Isle of Man.

Irish na Zamani na Farko, tun daga karni na 13, shine tushen harshen adabi na Ireland da Scotland masu jin Gaelic. Irish na zamani, kamar yadda aka tabbatar a cikin aikin marubuta irin su Geoffrey Keating, ana iya cewa ya wanzu tun daga karni na 17, kuma shine matsakaicin shahararrun adabi tun daga lokacin.

Tun daga karni na 18, harshen ya ɓace a gabashin ƙasar. Dalilan da suka kawo wannan sauyi sun kasance masu sarkakiya amma sun zo ga abubuwa da dama:

Ƙarfafa amfani da shi ta hanyar gwamnatin Anglo-Irish.

Cocin Katolika na goyon bayan Ingilishi akan Irish.

Yaduwar harsuna biyu daga shekarun 1750 zuwa gaba.

The distribution of the Irish language in 1871

Canjin ya kasance da diglossia (harsuna biyu da al'umma ɗaya ke amfani da su a cikin yanayi daban-daban na zamantakewa da tattalin arziƙi) da kuma rikodi na harsuna biyu (kakanin kakanni masu magana da Irish monoglot tare da yara masu harsuna biyu da jikoki masu magana da Ingilishi guda ɗaya). A tsakiyar karni na 18, Ingilishi ya zama yaren tsakiyar Katolika, Cocin Katolika da masu ilimin jama'a, musamman a gabashin kasar. Ƙara, yayin da ƙimar Ingilishi ta bayyana, iyaye sun ba da izinin haramcin Irish a makarantu. Ƙara sha'awar ƙaura zuwa Amurka da Kanada shi ma direba ne, saboda iya turanci ya ba wa sabbin baƙi damar samun ayyukan yi a wuraren da ba na noma ba. Kimanin kashi ɗaya bisa huɗu zuwa kashi ɗaya bisa uku na baƙin haure na Amurka a lokacin Babban Yunwa masu magana da Irish ne.

Irish bai kasance mai rahusa ba ga sabuntar Ireland a ƙarni na 19, kamar yadda ake ɗauka sau da yawa. A farkon rabin karni har yanzu akwai kusan mutane miliyan uku waɗanda Irish ya zama harshen farko don su, kuma adadinsu kaɗai ya sa su zama al'adu da zamantakewa. Masu magana da Irish sukan dage kan yin amfani da yaren a kotunan doka (ko da sun san Turanci), kuma Irish ma ya zama ruwan dare a cikin hada-hadar kasuwanci. Harshen ya kasance mai tasiri sosai a cikin "juyin sadaukarwa" wanda ke nuna daidaitattun ayyukan addinin Katolika kuma an yi amfani da shi sosai a cikin mahallin siyasa. Har zuwa lokacin Babban Yunwa har ma bayan haka, kowane nau'i na amfani da yaren, Irish birni ne kuma yaren karkara.

Wannan ƙwaƙƙwaran harshe ya bayyana a ƙoƙarin da wasu masana al'umma suka yi don magance tabarbarewar harshe. A ƙarshen karni na 19, sun ƙaddamar da farfaɗowar Gaelic a yunƙurin ƙarfafa koyo da amfani da Irish, ko da yake ƴan manyan xaliban da suka ƙware yaren. Motar farfaɗowar ita ce Gaelic League (Conradh na Gaeilge), kuma an ba da fifiko musamman kan al'adar jama'a, wanda a cikin Irish yana da wadata musamman. Haka kuma an yi kokarin bunkasa aikin jarida da adabi na zamani.

Ko da yake an lura cewa Cocin Katolika ta taka rawa wajen raguwar harshen Irish kafin Gaelic Revival, Ikilisiyar Furotesta ta Ireland ita ma ta yi ƙaramin ƙoƙari don ƙarfafa amfani da Irish a cikin mahallin addini. An buga fassarar Tsohon Alkawari na Irish na Leinsterman Muircheartach Ó Cíonga, wanda Bishop Bedell ya ba da izini, bayan 1685 tare da fassarar Sabon Alkawari. In ba haka ba, ana ganin Anglicisation a matsayin daidai da 'wayewa' ɗan ƙasar Irish. A halin yanzu, masu magana da Irish na zamani a cikin coci suna turawa don farfado da harshe.

An kiyasta cewa akwai kusan masu magana da Irish monoglot 800,000 a cikin 1800, wanda ya ragu zuwa 320,000 a ƙarshen yunwa, kuma a ƙarƙashin 17,000 ta 1911. Seán Ó hEinirí, na Cill Ghallagáin, County Mayo, wanda ya mutu 26 Yuli 1998 mai yiwuwa mai magana da harshen Irish ɗaya na ƙarshe.

Matsayi da manufa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Main

Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Ireland ya amince da Irish a matsayin harshe na ƙasa da na farko na Ireland (Turanci shine sauran yaren hukuma). Duk da haka, kusan duk kasuwancin gwamnati da muhawarar majalisa ana gudanar da su cikin Ingilishi.

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 1938, wanda ya kafa Conradh na Gaeilge (Gaelic League), Douglas Hyde, an kaddamar da shi a matsayin shugaban Ireland na farko. Rikodin nasa na isar da sanarwar Ofishinsa na farko a cikin Roscommon Irish ɗaya daga cikin ƴan rikodin yare ne kawai.

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

.[2][3][4][5]

Bilingual sign in Grafton Street, Dublin

A cikin ƙidayar 2016, 10.5% na masu amsa sun bayyana cewa suna magana da Irish, ko dai kullum ko mako-mako, yayin da sama da mutane 70,000 (4.2%) ke magana da shi azaman hanyar sadarwa ta yau da kullun.

Daga kafuwar Jihar Free Irish a cikin 1922 (duba Tarihin Jamhuriyar Ireland), sabbin waɗanda aka nada zuwa Ma'aikatar Jama'a ta Jamhuriyar Ireland, gami da ma'aikatan gidan waya, masu karɓar haraji, masu binciken aikin gona, Garda Síochána ('yan sanda), da sauransu. , ana buƙatar samun ƙwarewa cikin Irish. Ta hanyar doka, Garda wanda aka yi magana da Irish dole ne ya amsa cikin Irish kuma.[6]

A cikin 1974, a wani ɓangare ta hanyar ayyukan ƙungiyoyin zanga-zangar kamar Ƙungiyar 'Yancin Harshe, an canza buƙatun shiga aikin gwamnati zuwa ƙwarewa cikin yare ɗaya kawai.

Duk da haka, Irish ya kasance abin da ake buƙata na binciken a duk makarantun da ke cikin Jamhuriyar da ke karɓar kuɗin jama'a (duba Ilimi a Jamhuriyar Ireland). Hakanan dole ne malaman makarantun firamare su ci jarrabawar tilas da ake kira Scrúdú Cáilíochta sa Ghaeilge. Tun daga 2005, Garda Síochána daukar ma'aikata suna buƙatar izinin izinin barin Certificate Irish ko Ingilishi, kuma suna karɓar darussa cikin Irish a cikin shekaru biyu na horo. Dole ne a buga takardun hukuma na gwamnatin Irish cikin duka Irish da Ingilishi ko Irish kadai (bisa ga Dokar Harsuna 2003, wanda An Coimisinéir Teanga, mai kula da harshen Irish ya tilasta).

Jami'ar Ƙasa ta Ireland tana buƙatar duk ɗaliban da ke son shiga kwas ɗin digiri a cikin tsarin tarayya na NUI don cin nasarar batun Irish a cikin Jarrabawar Takaddun Shaida ko GCE/GCSE. Ana keɓancewa daga wannan buƙatun ga ɗaliban da aka haife su ko kuma sun kammala karatun firamare a wajen Ireland, da kuma ɗaliban da aka gano suna da dyslexia.

Ana buƙatar NUI Galway ta nada mutanen da suka ƙware a cikin yaren Irish, muddin kuma sun ƙware a duk sauran fannonin guraben da aka nada su. Dokar Galway ta Kwalejin Jami'ar, 1929 (Sashe na 3) ne ya shimfida wannan buƙatu..[7]A cikin 2016, jami'ar ta fuskanci cece-kuce lokacin da ta sanar da nadin shugaban da ba ya jin Irish. MisneachTemplate: Bayyana zanga-zangar adawa da wannan shawarar. A shekara mai zuwa jami'ar ta ba da sanarwar cewa Ciarán Ó hÓgartaigh, ƙwararren mai magana da Irish, zai zama shugabanta na 13..[Ana bukatan hujja]

Bilingual road signs in Creggs, County Galway

An shafe shekaru da dama ana tafka muhawara mai karfi a fagen siyasa, ilimi da sauran da'irori game da gazawar mafi yawan dalibai a makarantun Ingilishi-matsakaici don cimma cancanta a cikin Irish, ko da bayan shekaru goma sha hudu na koyarwa a matsayin daya daga cikin manyan darussa uku..[8][9][10] Haka kuma raguwar masu magana da harshen gargajiya a lokaci guda ya kasance abin damuwa sosai.[11][12][13][14]

A cikin 2007, mai shirya fina-finai Manchán Magan ya sami 'yan masu magana da Irish a Dublin, kuma ya fuskanci rashin fahimta lokacin ƙoƙarin yin magana da Irish kawai a Dublin. Bai iya aiwatar da wasu ayyuka na yau da kullun ba, kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin shirinsa na No Béarla.[15]

Akwai, duk da haka, girma na masu magana da Irish a cikin birane, musamman a Dublin. Mutane da yawa sun sami ilimi a makarantun da Irish ya zama yaren koyarwa. Irin waɗannan makarantu ana san su da Gaelskoileanna a matakin firamare. Waɗannan makarantun Irish-matsakaicin suna ba da rahoton wasu sakamako masu kyau ga ɗalibai fiye da makarantun Ingilishi.[16] A cikin 2009, wata takarda ta ba da shawarar cewa a cikin tsararraki, masu amfani da al'ada na Irish waɗanda ba Gaeltacht ba na iya kasancewa membobin birni, aji na tsakiya, da ƴan tsiraru masu ilimi sosai..[17]

Dokokin majalisa yakamata su kasance cikin duka Irish da Ingilishi amma galibi ana samunsu cikin Ingilishi kawai. Wannan ba duk da cewa Mataki na ashirin da 25.4 na Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Ireland ya buƙaci a samar da "fassarar hukuma" na kowace doka a cikin harshen hukuma ɗaya nan da nan a cikin wani yaren hukuma, idan ba a riga an wuce ta cikin harsunan hukuma ba.[18]

A cikin Nuwamba 2016, RTÉ ta ba da rahoton cewa sama da mutane miliyan 2.3 a duk duniya suna koyon Irish ta hanyar Duolingo app.[19]Shugaban Irish Michael Higgins a hukumance ya karrama wasu masu fassarori na sa kai don haɓaka bugu na Irish, kuma ya ce yunƙurin neman hakkin yaren Irish ya kasance "aikin da ba a gama ba".[20]

Samfuri:Main

The percentage of respondents who said they spoke Irish daily outside the education system in the 2011 census in the State.to be updated

Akwai yankunan karkara na Ireland inda har yanzu ana magana da Irish a kowace rana zuwa wani yanki a matsayin yaren farko. An san waɗannan yankuna daban-daban kuma a gaba ɗaya kamar Gaeltacht (jam'i Gaeltachtaí). Yayin da ƙwararrun masu magana da Irish na waɗannan yankuna, waɗanda aka ƙididdige adadinsu a 20Template:Endash30,000,[21] are a minority of the total number of fluent Irish speakers, they represent a higher concentration of Irish speakers than other parts of the country and it is only in Gaeltacht areas that Irish continues to be spoken as a community vernacular to some extent.

According to data compiled by the Department of Tourism, Culture, Arts, Gaeltacht, Sport and Media, only 1/4 of households in Gaeltacht areas are fluent in Irish. The author of a detailed analysis of the survey, Donncha Ó hÉallaithe of the Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, described the Irish language policy followed by Irish governments as a "complete and absolute disaster". The Irish Times, referring to his analysis published in the Irish language newspaper Foinse, quoted him as follows: "It is an absolute indictment of successive Irish Governments that at the foundation of the Irish State there were 250,000 fluent Irish speakers living in Irish-speaking or semi Irish-speaking areas, but the number now is between 20,000 and 30,000."[21]

In the 1920s, when the Irish Free State was founded, Irish was still a vernacular in some western coastal areas.[22] A cikin 1930s, wuraren da sama da kashi 25% na yawan jama'a ke magana da Irish an rarraba su da Gaeltacht. A yau, yankunan Gaeltacht mafi ƙarfi, a adadi da zamantakewa, su ne na Kudancin Connemara, yamma da Dingle Peninsula, da arewa maso yammacin Donegal, inda yawancin mazauna har yanzu suna amfani da Irish a matsayin harshensu na farko. Ana kiran waɗannan yankuna da sunan Fíor-Ghaeltacht (Gaeltacht na gaskiya), kalmar da aka fara amfani da ita a hukumance ga yankunan da sama da 50% na yawan jama'a ke magana da Irish.

Akwai yankunan Gaeltacht a cikin ƙananan hukumomi masu zuwa:[23][24]

Gweedore (Gaoth Dobhair), County Donegal, ita ce babbar Ikklesiya ta Gaeltacht a Ireland. Kolejoji na bazara na harshen Irish a Gaeltacht suna halartar dubun dubatar matasa kowace shekara. Dalibai suna zaune tare da iyalai na Gaeltacht, suna halartar darasi, shiga cikin wasanni, je céilithe kuma suna wajabta jin Irish. Ana ƙarfafa dukkan al'amuran al'ada da al'adun Irish.

Siyasa

Dokar Harsunan Hukuma 2003

Samfuri:Main

Dublin airport sign in both English and Irish languages

An zartar da dokar a ranar 14 ga Yuli 2003 tare da babbar manufar inganta adadi da ingancin ayyukan jama'a da gwamnati da sauran ƙungiyoyin jama'a ke bayarwa cikin Irish. An Coimisinéir Teanga (Kwamishina Harshen Irish) ne ke kula da bin dokar da aka kafa a cikin 2004 kuma ana kawo musu koke ko damuwa da suka shafi Dokar. Akwai sassan 35 da aka haɗa a cikin Dokar duk suna bayyani daban-daban na amfani da Irish a cikin takaddun hukuma da sadarwa. A cikin waɗannan sassan akwai batutuwa kamar amfani da yaren Irish a cikin kotuna, wallafe-wallafen hukuma, da sunayen wuri. An yi wa dokar kwaskwarima kwanan nan a watan Disamba na 2019 don ƙarfafa dokar da ta riga ta kasance. Duk canje-canjen da aka yi sun yi la'akari da bayanan da aka tattara daga binciken kan layi da rubuce-rubucen rubuce-rubuce.

Tsarin Harsuna na hukuma 2019–2022

An ƙaddamar da Tsarin Harsuna na hukuma 1 ga Yuli 2019 kuma takarda ce mai shafuka 18 da ke bin ka'idodin Dokar Harsuna na hukuma 2003. Manufar Tsarin ita ce samar da ayyuka ta hanyar matsakaicin Irish da/ko Ingilishi. A cewar Sashen Taoiseach, ana nufin "haɓaka tattalin arziƙi mai ɗorewa da al'umma mai nasara, don biyan bukatun Ireland a ƙasashen waje, aiwatar da Shirin Gwamnati da gina kyakkyawar makoma ga Ireland da dukan 'yan ƙasa."

Dabarun Shekaru 20 don Harshen Irish 2010-2030 Samfuri:Main

An samar da dabarun ne a ranar 21 ga Disamba 2010 kuma za ta ci gaba da aiki har zuwa 2030; yana da niyya don ƙaddamar da ƙarfin harshe da farfaɗo da harshen Irish.[25] Takardun mai shafi 30 da Gwamnatin Ireland ta buga yayi cikakken bayani game da manufofin da take shirin yin aiki a kai a yunƙurin kiyayewa da haɓaka yaren Irish da Gaeltacht. An kasu kashi hudu daban-daban da nufin inganta manyan wuraren aiki guda 9 da suka hada da:

  • "Ilimi"
  • "The Gaeltacht"
  • "Idar da Harshen Iyali - Tsangwama na Farko"
  • "Gudanarwa, Ayyuka da Al'umma"
  • "Media da Fasaha"
  • "Kamus"
  • "Dokoki da Matsayi"
  • "Rayuwar Tattalin Arziki"
  • "Initiatives-yanke"[26]

Babban burin wannan dabarun shine ƙara adadin masu magana da yau da kullun daga 83,000 zuwa 250,000 a ƙarshen aikinsa. A shekarar 2022, adadin irin wadannan masu magana ya ragu zuwa 71,968.[27]

Ireland ta Arewa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Main

A sign for the Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure in Northern Ireland, in English, Irish and Ulster Scots.

Kafin rabuwar Ireland a cikin 1921, an san Irish a matsayin batun makaranta kuma a matsayin "Celtic" a wasu cibiyoyin matakin uku. Tsakanin 1921 zuwa 1972, Ireland ta Arewa ta zama gwamnati. A cikin waɗannan shekarun jam'iyyar siyasa da ke riƙe da iko a Majalisar Dokokin Stormont, Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), ta kasance maƙiya ga harshen. Abin da ke tattare da wannan kiyayya shi ne yadda masu kishin kasa suka yi amfani da harshen. A cikin watsa shirye-shirye, an keɓe kan rahoton batutuwan al'adu marasa rinjaye, kuma an cire Irish daga rediyo da talabijin kusan shekaru hamsin na farko na gwamnatin da ta gabata. Bayan Yarjejeniyar Jumma'a mai kyau ta 1998, a hankali harshen ya sami digiri na farko a Ireland ta Arewa daga Burtaniya, sannan, a cikin 2003, ta hanyar amincewa da gwamnatin Birtaniyya dangane da harshen Yarjejeniya ta Turai don Harsunan Yanki ko Ƙananan Yara. A cikin yarjejeniyar St Andrews na 2006 gwamnatin Burtaniya ta yi alkawarin kafa doka don inganta harshen kuma a cikin 2022 ta amince da dokar amincewa da Irish a matsayin harshen hukuma tare da Ingilishi. Kudirin ya sami izinin sarauta a ranar 6 ga Disamba 2022.

An yi amfani da harshen Irish sau da yawa a matsayin ciniki yayin kafa gwamnati a Arewacin Ireland, wanda ya haifar da zanga-zangar kungiyoyi da kungiyoyi irin su An Dream Dearg.[28]

Majalisar Turai

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Irish ya zama yaren hukuma na EU a ranar 1 ga Janairu 2007, ma'ana cewa MEPs da ƙwarewar Irish yanzu suna iya magana da yaren a Majalisar Tarayyar Turai da kwamitoci, kodayake a cikin yanayin na ƙarshe dole ne su ba da sanarwar gaba ga mai fassara a lokaci guda. domin a tabbatar da cewa za a iya fassara abin da suke faɗa zuwa wasu harsuna.

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yayin da yaren hukuma na Tarayyar Turai, ƙa'idodin yanke shawara ne kawai aka samu har zuwa 2022, saboda rashin jin daɗi na shekaru biyar, wanda Gwamnatin Irish ta buƙata lokacin yin shawarwarin sabon matsayin harshen. Gwamnatin Ireland ta sadaukar da kanta don horar da adadin masu fassara da masu fassara da kuma ɗaukar nauyin da ya shafi hakan.[29] Wannan ɓarna a ƙarshe ya zo ƙarshe a ranar 1 ga Janairu 2022, wanda ya sa Irish ya zama cikakkiyar sanannen yaren EU a karon farko a tarihin jihar..[30]

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kafin Irish ya zama yaren hukuma an ba shi matsayin yaren yarjejeniya kuma kawai manyan takardu na EU an samar dasu cikin Irish.

Wajen Ireland Samfuri:Main

Yaren Irish an yi amfani da shi zuwa ƙasashen waje a cikin zamani ta hanyar ɗimbin baƙi, musamman zuwa Burtaniya da Arewacin Amurka, amma kuma zuwa Australia, New Zealand da Argentina. Babban ƙungiyoyin farko sun fara ne a cikin ƙarni na 17, galibi sakamakon mamaye Cromwellian na Ireland, wanda ya ga yawancin Irish da aka tura zuwa Indies Yamma. Hijira na Irish zuwa Amurka an kafa shi da kyau tun karni na 18, kuma an ƙarfafa shi a cikin 1840s ta hanyar dubbai da suka tsere daga Yunwa. Wannan jirgin kuma ya shafi Biritaniya. Har zuwa wannan lokacin yawancin masu hijira suna magana da Irish a matsayin harshensu na farko, kodayake Ingilishi yana kafa kansa a matsayin harshen farko. Masu magana da Irish sun fara isa Ostiraliya a ƙarshen karni na 18 a matsayin masu laifi da sojoji, kuma yawancin mazauna Irish sun bi, musamman a cikin 1860s. New Zealand kuma ta sami wasu daga cikin wannan kwararar. Argentina ita ce kaɗai ƙasar da ba ta Turanci ba ta karɓi ɗimbin ƴan ƙaura na Irish, kuma akwai 'yan Irish kaɗan a cikinsu.

'Yan kaɗan daga cikin ƙauran ba su iya karatu da harshen Irish, amma an kawo rubuce-rubucen rubuce-rubuce a cikin yaren zuwa Australia da Amurka, kuma a Amurka ne aka kafa jaridar farko da ta fara amfani da Irish mai mahimmanci: An Gaodhal. A Ostiraliya ma, harshen ya sami hanyar bugawa. Farfaɗowar Gaelic, wacce ta fara a Ireland a cikin 1890s, ta sami martani a ƙasashen waje, tare da kafa rassan Conradh na Gaeilge a duk ƙasashen da masu magana da Irish suka yi hijira.

Rushewar ɗan Irish a Ireland da jinkirin ƙaura ya taimaka wajen tabbatar da raguwar harshe a ƙasashen waje, tare da ɓarna na yanayi a cikin ƙasashen da suka karbi bakuncin. Duk da haka, ƙananan ƙungiyoyin masu sha'awar sun ci gaba da koyo da haɓaka Irish a cikin ƙasashen waje da sauran wurare, yanayin da ya ƙarfafa a rabin na biyu na karni na 20. A yau ana koyar da harshen a matakin manyan makarantu a Arewacin Amurka, Ostiraliya da Turai, kuma masu magana da Irish a wajen Ireland suna ba da gudummawa ga aikin jarida da adabi a cikin harshen. Akwai manyan cibiyoyin sadarwa masu magana da Irish a cikin Amurka da Kanada; Alkaluman da aka fitar na tsawon lokacin 2006-2008 sun nuna cewa 22,279 Irish Amirkawa sun yi iƙirarin jin Irish a gida.

Har ila yau, harshen Irish yana ɗaya daga cikin yarukan Celtic League, ƙungiya mai zaman kanta da ke inganta yancin kai, asalin Celtic da al'adu a Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall da Isle of Man, wanda aka sani tare da Celtic. kasashe.

An yi magana da Irish a matsayin harshen al'umma har zuwa farkon karni na 20 a tsibirin Newfoundland, a cikin wani nau'i da aka sani da Newfoundland Irish. Har yanzu ana amfani da wasu ƙamus na Irish, nahawu, da fasalulluka a cikin Ingilishi na Newfoundland na zamani..[31]

Bayanan ƙidayar 2016 sun nuna:

Adadin mutanen da suka amsa 'e' don iya magana da Irish a cikin Afrilu 2016 ya kasance 1,761,420, raguwa kaɗan (0.7 bisa ɗari) akan adadi na 2011 na 1,774,437. Wannan yana wakiltar kashi 39.8 cikin 100 na masu amsa idan aka kwatanta da 41.4 a cikin 2011... Daga cikin 73,803 masu magana da Irish yau da kullun (a wajen tsarin ilimi), 20,586 (27.9%) sun rayu a yankunan Gaeltacht.[32]

Masu magana da Irish na yau da kullun a yankunan Gaeltacht tsakanin 2011 da 2016

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Gaeltacht Area 2011 2016 Change 2011/2016 Change 2011/2016 (%)
County Cork 982 872 Samfuri:Decrease 110 Samfuri:Decrease 11.2%
County Donegal 7,047 5,929 Samfuri:Decrease 1,118 Samfuri:Decrease 15.9%
Galway City 636 647 Samfuri:Increase 11 Samfuri:Increase 1.6%
County Galway 10,085 9,445 Samfuri:Decrease 640 Samfuri:Decrease 6.3%
County Kerry 2,501 2,049 Samfuri:Decrease 452 Samfuri:Decrease 18.1%
County Mayo 1,172 895 Samfuri:Decrease 277 Samfuri:Decrease 23.6%
County Meath 314 283 Samfuri:Decrease 31 Samfuri:Decrease 9.9%
County Waterford 438 467 Samfuri:Increase 29 Samfuri:Increase 6.6%
All Gaeltacht Areas 23,175 20,586 Samfuri:Decrease 2,589 Samfuri:Decrease 11.2%
Source:[33]

A cikin 1996, ɓangarorin zaɓe guda uku a cikin Jiha inda Irish ke da mafi yawan masu magana yau da kullun sune An Turloch (91%+), Scainimh (89%+), Min an Chladaigh (88%+).[34]

Yaruka na gargajiya da yawa suna wakilta Irish da nau'ikan Irish "birane" iri-iri. Ƙarshen sun sami rayukan nasu da kuma yawan masu magana da harshe. Bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin yarukan suna sa kansu su ji cikin damuwa, ƙaranci, ƙamus da fasali na tsari.

Kusan magana, manyan yankuna ukun da suka tsira sun zo daidai da lardunan Connacht (Cúige Chonnacht), Munster (Cúige Mumhan) da Ulster (Cúige Uladh). Hukumar Folklore ta Irish ce ta yi rikodin wasu yarukan Leinster (Cúige Laighean) da sauransu..[35] Newfoundland,a gabashin Kanada, yana da wani nau'i na Irish da aka samo daga Munster Irish na ƙarshen karni na 18 (duba Newfoundland Irish).

Samfuri:Main

A tarihi, Connacht Irish yana wakiltar mafi yawan yammacin yankin yare wanda ya taɓa shimfiɗa daga gabas zuwa yamma a tsakiyar Ireland. Yare mafi ƙarfi na Connacht Irish ana samunsa a cikin Connemara da tsibirin Aran. Mafi kusa da babban Connacht Gaeltacht shine yaren da ake magana a cikin ƙaramin yanki akan iyakar Galway (Gaillimh) da Mayo (Maigh Eo). Akwai bambance-bambance da yawa tsakanin sanannen nau'in Kudancin Connemara na Irish, sigar Mid-Connacht/Joyce Country (a kan iyaka tsakanin Mayo da Galway) da siffofin Achill da Erris a arewacin lardin.

Siffofin a cikin Connacht Irish sun bambanta da ma'auni na hukuma sun haɗa da zaɓi don kalmomin magana da ke ƙarewa a -achan, misali. lagachan maimakon lagú, "raunana". Furcin da ba daidai ba na Cois Fharraige tare da tsayin wasula da raguwar ƙarewa yana ba shi sauti na musamman. Fasalolin yare na Connacht da Ulster sun haɗa da lafazin kalma-ƙarshe / w/ kamar [w], maimakon kamar [vˠ] a cikin Munster. Misali, sliabh ("dutse") shine [ʃlʲiəw] a cikin Connacht da Ulster sabanin [ʃlʲiəβ] a kudu. Bugu da ƙari, masu magana da Connacht da Ulster sukan haɗa da "mu" karin magana maimakon amfani da daidaitattun sinadarai da aka yi amfani da su a cikin Munster, misali. Ana amfani da bhí muid don "mun kasance" maimakon bhíomar.

Kamar yadda yake a cikin Munster Irish, wasu gajerun wasulan suna tsawaita wasu kuma ana diphthongised kafin Template:Vr, a cikin kalmomin monosyllabic da kuma cikin maɗaukakiyar syllable na kalmomi masu yawa inda syllable ke biye da baƙaƙe. Ana iya ganin wannan a cikin ceann [cɑːn̪ˠ] "kai", cam [kɑːmˠ] "karkace", gearr [ɟɑːɾˠ] "gajere", ko [ouɾˠd̪ˠ] "sledgehammer", gall [gɑːl̪ˠ] "bare, ba-ta-bare [iːn̪ˠt̪ˠəsˠ] "abin al'ajabi, al'ajabi", da dai sauransu. Siffar Samfura:Vr, lokacin da suke faruwa a ƙarshen kalmomi kamar agaibh, ana kiran su da [iː].

A Kudancin Connemara, alal misali, akwai ɗabi'ar maye gurbin kalma-ƙarshe /vʲ/ da /bʲ/, a cikin kalma kamar sibh, libh da dóibh (lafazin bi da bi a matsayin "shiv," "liv" da "dófa" a cikin sauran wuraren). Wannan sanya sautin B kuma yana nan a ƙarshen kalmomin da ke ƙarewa da wasula, kamar acu ([ˈakəbˠ]) da 'leo ([lʲoːbˠ])). Hakanan akwai halin barin /g/ a cikin agam, agat da sakewa, halayen sauran yarukan Connacht. Duk waɗannan lafuzzan suna na yanki musamman.

Lafazin lafazin da ya yaɗu a Ƙasar Joyce (yankin da ke kusa da Lough Corrib da Lough Mask) ya yi kama da na Kudancin Connemara, tare da irin wannan tsarin ga kalmomin agam, agat da sake da kuma irin wannan hanyar magana ta wasula da baƙaƙe amma akwai. bambance-bambance ne masu ban sha'awa a cikin ƙamus, tare da wasu kalmomi kamar doiligh (mawuyaci) da foscailte waɗanda aka fi son fiye da deacair da oscailte da aka saba. Wani al’amari mai ban sha’awa na wannan yare mai ban sha’awa shi ne, kusan dukkan wasulan da ke qarshen kalmomi ana kiran su da [iː]: eile (other), cosa (kafa) da déanta ( aikata) ana iya kiran su da eilí, cosaí da sauransu. déantaí bi da bi.

Yaren Arewacin Mayo na Erris (Iorras) da Acaill (Acaill) yana cikin nahawu da ilimin halittar jiki ainihin yaren Connacht amma yana nuna wasu kamanceceniya da Ulster Irish saboda babban ƙaura na mutanen da aka kora suna bin Shuka Ulster. Misali, kalmomin da suke ƙarewa -Template:Vr suna da sauti mai laushi da yawa, tare da karkatar da kalmomi kamar leo da dóibh tare da Samfura:Vr, bada leofa da dófa bi da bi. Bugu da ƙari ga ƙamus na wasu yanki na Connacht, mutum kuma yana samun kalmomin Ulster kamar amharc (ma'anar "duba"), nimhneach (mai zafi ko ciwo), druid (kusa), mothaigh (ji), doiligh (mawuyaci), úr. (sabo), da tig le (don iya - watau nau'i mai kama da féidir).

Shugaban Irish Douglas Hyde yana yiwuwa yana ɗaya daga cikin masu magana na ƙarshe na yaren Roscommon na Irish.[3]

Samfuri:Main

Munster Irish shine yaren da ake magana a cikin yankunan Gaeltacht na gundumomin Cork (Contae Chorcaí), Kerry (Contae Chiarraí), da Waterford (Contae Phort Láirge). Ana iya samun yankunan Gaeltacht na Cork a tsibirin Cape Clear (Oileán Chléire) da Muskerry (Múscraí); na Kerry na kwance a Corca Dhuibhne da Iveragh Peninsula; da na Waterford a cikin Ring (An Rinn) da Old Parish (An Sean Phobal), duka biyun sun haɗu da Gaeltacht na nDéise. Daga cikin larduna uku, Irish da ake magana a Cork da Kerry sun yi kama da na Waterford.

Wasu siffofi na musamman na Munster Irish sune:

  • Amfani da kalmomi na roba a layi daya da tsarin jigo mai suna, don haka "I must" shine caithfead a cikin Munster, yayin da sauran yaruka sun fi son caithfidh mé (mé na nufin "I"). "Na kasance" da "ku kasance" bhíos da bhís ne a cikin Munster amma yawanci bhí mé da bhí tú a wasu yarukan. Waɗannan halaye ne masu ƙarfi, kuma ana amfani da sifofin bhíos da sauransu a Yamma da Arewa, musamman idan kalmomin sun ƙare a cikin sashe.
  • Amfani da nau'ikan fi'ili masu zaman kansu/dogara waɗanda ba a haɗa su cikin Ma'auni ba. Misali, "Na gani" a cikin Munster shine chím, wanda shine tsari mai zaman kansa; Har ila yau Ulster Irish yana amfani da nau'i mai kama, tchím, yayin da "Ban gani ba" shine ní fheicim, feicim kasancewa nau'i na dogara, wanda ake amfani da shi bayan barbashi kamar ní ("ba"). An maye gurbin Chím da feicim a cikin Standard. Hakazalika, sigar gargajiya da aka kiyaye a cikin Munster bheirim "Na bayar"/ní thugaim shine tugaim/ní thugaim a cikin Ma'auni; gheibhim I get/ní bhfaighim is faighim/ní bhfaighim.
  • Lokacin da kafin Template:Vr da sauransu, a cikin kalmomin monosyllabic kuma a cikin maɗaukakin maɗaukaki na kalmomi masu yawa inda harafin ke biye da baƙar fata, wasu gajerun wasulan suna tsawaita yayin da wasu kuma suna diphthongised, a ceann [cɑun̪ˠ] "kai", cam [ kɑumˠ] "karkace", gearr [ɟɑːɾˠ] "gajeren", ord [oːɾˠd̪ˠ] "sledgehammer", gall [gɑul̪ˠ] "bare, ba Gael", iontas [uːn̪ˠtˠˠəsach, [uːn̪ˠtˠəsach a] [ da] "aboki, abokin aure", da dai sauransu.
  • Gine-ginen da ya ƙunshi ea "shi" ana yawan amfani da shi. Don haka "Ni ɗan Irish ne" ana iya cewa Éireannach mé kuma Éireannach is ea mé a Munster; akwai bambance-bambance a hankali a cikin ma'ana, duk da haka, zaɓi na farko shine bayani mai sauƙi na gaskiya, yayin da na biyu ya kawo girmamawa ga kalmar Éireannach. A zahiri ginin wani nau'in "gabatarwa ne".
  • Dukansu kalmomi na namiji da na mata suna ƙarƙashin lenition bayan insan (sa/san) "a cikin", den "na", da don "to/ga": sa tsiopa "a cikin shagon", idan aka kwatanta da Standard sa siopa. (The Standard lenites kawai mata suna a cikin dative a cikin wadannan lokuta).
  • Eclipsis of Template:Vr after sa: sa bhfeirm, "a cikin gona", maimakon san fheirm.
  • Eclipsis of Template:Vr and Template:Vr after preposition + the single article, with all prepositions except after insan, den and don: ar an dtigh "akan gidan", ag an ndoras "a bakin kofa".

Matsawa gabaɗaya yana kan harafi na biyu na kalma lokacin da kalmar farko ta ƙunshi ɗan gajeren wasali, kuma na biyun yana ɗauke da dogon wasali ko diphthong, ko shine -Template:Vr, e.g. Ciarán yana adawa da [ˈciəɾˠaːn̪ˠ] a cikin Connacht da Ulster.

Samfuri:Main

Ulster Irish ita ce yare da ake magana a cikin yankunan Gaeltacht na Donegal. Waɗannan yankuna sun ƙunshi duk al'ummomin Ulster inda aka yi magana da Irish a cikin layin da ba a karye ba tun lokacin da yaren ya kasance babban yaren Ireland. Al'ummomin da ke jin Irish a wasu sassan Ulster sakamakon farfaɗowar harshe ne - iyalai masu magana da Ingilishi sun yanke shawarar koyon Irish. Kididdiga ta nuna cewa mutane 4,130 suna magana a gida.

A cikin harshe, mafi mahimmancin yarukan Ulster a yau shine abin da ake magana, tare da ƴan bambance-bambance, a cikin Gweedore (Gaoth Dobhair = Inlet of Streaming Water) da The Rosses (na Rossa).

Sautin Ulster Irish ya bambanta sosai da sauran manyan yaruka biyu. Yana raba fasali da yawa tare da yarukan kudu na Scottish Gaelic da Manx, haka kuma yana da kyawawan kalmomi da inuwar ma'anoni. Duk da haka, tun bayan mutuwar waɗannan yarukan Irish da ake magana da su a cikin abin da yake a yau Arewacin Ireland, mai yiwuwa ƙari ne a ga Ulster Irish na yau a matsayin tsaka-tsaki tsakanin Scottish Gaelic da yarukan kudanci da yamma na Irish. Gaelic na Arewacin Scotland yana da fasalulluka da yawa waɗanda ba Ulster ba tare da Munster Irish.

Ɗayan sanannen hali na Ulster Irish, Scots Gaelic da Manx shine amfani da mummunan barbashi cha(n) a maimakon Munster da Connacht ní. Ko da yake kudancin Donegal Irish yana son yin amfani da fiye da cha (n), cha (n) ya kusan kawar da su a cikin yarukan arewa (misali Rosguill da Tory Island), kodayake ko a cikin waɗannan yankunan níl "ba" ya fi kowa fiye da chan fhuil. ko kuma ku bhfuil.[36][37] Wani abin lura shi ne lafazin kalmar fi'ili na mutum ɗaya wanda ya ƙare -(a)im as -(e)am, wanda kuma aka saba da Isle of Man da Scotland (Munster/Connacht siúlaim "Ina tafiya", Ulster siúlam).

Leinster

Har zuwa farkon karni na 19 har ma daga baya, ana magana da Irish a duk yankuna goma sha biyu na Leinster. Shaidar da sunayen wuri, tushen adabi da rubuce-rubucen magana ke nuna cewa babu yaren Leinster kamar haka. Madadin haka, babban yaren da ake amfani da shi a lardin ana wakilta shi da babban bel na tsakiya wanda ya tashi daga yamma Connacht zuwa gabas zuwa gadar Liffey da kudu zuwa Wexford, kodayake yana da bambance-bambancen gida da yawa. Ƙananan yaruka biyu sun wakilci jawabin Ulster na gundumomin Meath da Louth, waɗanda suka yi nisa zuwa kudu har zuwa kwarin Boyne, da kuma yaren Munster da aka samu a Kilkenny da kudancin Laois.

Babban yare yana da halaye waɗanda ke wanzuwa a yau kawai a cikin Irish na Connacht. Yawanci yana sanya damuwa akan harafin farko na kalma, kuma yana nuna fifiko (wanda aka samo a cikin sunayen wuri) don ma'anar fa'ida:Vr inda daidaitaccen rubutun shine Samfura:Vr. Don haka kalmar cnoc (tudu) za a iya kiranta croc. Misalai sune sunayen wuri Crooksling (Cnoc Slinne) a cikin County Dublin da Crukeen (Cnoicín) a Carlow. Gabashin Leinster ya nuna diphthongization ko wasula iri ɗaya kamar a cikin Munster da Connacht Irish a cikin kalmomi kamar zabe (rami), cill (monastery), coill (itace), ceann (kai), cam (karkace) da mafarki (jama'a). Wani fasalin yare shine lafazin Template:Vr, wanda gabaɗaya ya zama [eː] a gabas Leinster (kamar a cikin Munster), da [iː] a yamma (kamar a cikin Connacht).[38]

Shaida ta farko game da harshen Irish a gabas Leinster ana samunsa a cikin The Fyrst Boke na Gabatarwar Ilimi (1547), ta likitan Ingilishi kuma matafiyi Andrew Borde..[39] Kalmomin misalin da yake amfani da su sun haɗa da waɗannan:

English Leinster Irish
Anglicised spelling Irish spelling
How are you? Kanys stato? [Canas 'tá tú?]
I am well, thank you Tam a goomah gramahagood. [Tá mé go maith, go raibh maith agat.]
Sir, can you speak Irish? Sor, woll galow oket? [Sir, 'bhfuil Gaeilig [Gaela'] agat?]
Wife, give me bread! Benytee, toor haran! [A bhean an tí, tabhair arán!]
How far is it to Waterford? Gath haad o showh go part laarg?. [Gá fhad as [a] seo go Port Láirge?]
It is one a twenty mile. Myle hewryht. [Míle a haon ar fhichid.]
When shall I go to sleep, wife? Gah hon rah moyd holow? [Gathain a rachamaoid a chodladh?]
The Pale – According to Statute of 1488

The Pale (An Pháil)wani yanki ne a kusa da ƙarshen tsakiyar Dublin a ƙarƙashin ikon gwamnatin Ingila. A ƙarshen karni na 15 ya ƙunshi yanki kusa da bakin teku daga Dalkey, kudu na Dublin, zuwa garin garrison na Dundalk, tare da iyakacin ƙasa wanda ya ƙunshi Naas da Leixlip a cikin Earldom na Kildare da Trim da Kells a cikin County Meath zuwa arewa. . A cikin wannan yanki na "English tunge" Turanci bai taɓa zama babban yare ba - kuma ya kasance ɗan ɗan lokaci kaɗan; ’yan mulkin mallaka na farko su ne Norman waɗanda ke magana da Norman Faransanci, kuma kafin waɗannan Norse. Harshen Irish ya kasance yaren mafi yawan jama'a. Wani jami'in Ingilishi ya yi magana game da Pale a cikin 1515 cewa "dukkan talakawan yankunan da aka ce rabin yankunan da ke biyayya ga dokokin Sarki, mafi yawancin su na haihuwar Irish ne, na Irish al'ada da kuma harshen Irish".

Tare da ƙarfafa al'adu da siyasa na Ingilishi, sauyin harshe ya fara faruwa amma wannan bai bayyana a fili ba sai karni na 18. Ko da a lokacin, a cikin shekaru goma na 1771-81, yawan masu magana da Irish a Meath ya kasance aƙalla 41%. A 1851 wannan ya faɗi ƙasa da 3%.[40]

Gabaɗaya raguwa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Turanci ya fadada sosai a Leinster a cikin karni na 18 amma har yanzu masu magana da Irish suna da yawa. A cikin shekarun 1771-81 wasu ƙananan hukumomi sun ƙididdige kaso na masu magana da Irish kamar haka (ko da yake ƙididdiga na iya yin ƙasa da yawa)

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

:[40]

Kilkenny 57%
Louth 57%
Longford 22%
Westmeath 17%

Harshen ya ga mafi saurin raguwar farkonsa a cikin lardunan Dublin, Kildare, Laois, Wexford, da Wicklow. A cikin 'yan shekarun nan, County Wicklow an lura da shi a matsayin mafi ƙarancin kashi na masu magana da Irish na kowace yanki a Ireland, tare da kawai 0.14% na yawan jama'arta suna da'awar samun ilimin harshe. Adadin yaran da ke jin Irish a Leinster ya ragu kamar haka: 17% a cikin 1700s, 11% a cikin 1800s, 3% a cikin 1830s, kuma kusan babu a cikin 1860s. Ƙididdiga na Irish na 1851 ya nuna cewa har yanzu akwai adadin tsofaffin masu magana a County Dublin. An yi rikodin sauti tsakanin 1928 zuwa 1931 na wasu daga cikin masu magana na ƙarshe a Omeath, County Louth (yanzu ana samun su ta hanyar dijital). Shahararriyar mai magana ta gargajiya ta ƙarshe a Omeath, da kuma a cikin Leinster gabaɗaya, ita ce Annie O'Hanlon (née Dobbin), wacce ta mutu a shekara ta 1960. Yarenta, hakika, reshe ne na Irish na kudu maso gabas Ulster..[41]

Amfani da birni daga tsakiyar zamanai zuwa karni na 19

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana magana da Irish a matsayin yaren al'umma a cikin garuruwa da biranen Irish har zuwa karni na 19. A cikin ƙarni na 16 da 17 ya yaɗu har ma a cikin Dublin da Pale. Mai kula da Ingilishi William Gerard (1518-1581) yayi sharhi kamar haka: "Dukkan Ingilishi, kuma mafi yawansu tare da jin daɗi, har ma a Dublin, suna magana da Irish," yayin da tsohon masanin tarihin Ingilishi Richard Stanihurst (1547-1618) ya koka da cewa "Lokacin da su zuriyar ba ta zama gaba ɗaya ba don kiyayewa, kamar yadda kakanninsu suka yi ƙarfin hali wajen cin nasara, harshen Irish yana da 'yanci a cikin Turanci Pale: wannan canker ya ɗauki tushe mai zurfi, kamar yadda jikin da ya kasance cikakke da sauti, ya kasance kadan da kadan. mai rauni, kuma a cikin hanyar da ta lalace gabaɗaya."

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yaren Irish na Dublin, wanda yake kamar yadda yake tsakanin yaren Ulster na gabas na Meath da Louth zuwa arewa da yaren Leinster-Connacht da ke gaba da kudu, mai yiwuwa ya nuna halayen duka biyun a fannin sauti da nahawu. A cikin County Dublin ita kanta ƙa'idar gabaɗaya ita ce sanya damuwa a farkon wasalin kalmomi. Da lokaci ya bayyana cewa nau'ikan shari'ar ɗabi'a sun ɗauki sauran ƙarshen shari'ar a cikin jam'i (wani hali da aka samu kaɗan a cikin wasu yarukan). A cikin wasiƙar da aka rubuta a Dublin a shekara ta 1691, mun sami misalai kamar haka: gnóthuimh (harka ce mai tuhuma, daidaitaccen nau'i na gnóthaí), tíorthuibh (harka mai tuhuma, ma'auni shine tíortha) da leithscéalaibh (harka mai ban mamaki, daidaitaccen tsari shine leithscéalta). ).

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hukumomin Ingilishi na zamanin Cromwellian, sun san cewa ana magana da Irish sosai a Dublin, sun shirya don amfani da shi a hukumance. A shekara ta 1655 an umurci manyan mutane da yawa su kula da wata lacca a Irish da za a yi a Dublin. A cikin Maris 1656 an naɗa wani limamin Katolika da ya tuba, Séamas Corcy, ya yi wa’azi cikin harshen Irish a Ikklesiya ta Bride kowace Lahadi, kuma an umarce shi ya yi wa’azi a Drogheda da Athy. A shekara ta 1657 turawan Ingila yan mulkin mallaka a Dublin sun gabatar da koke ga majalisar gundumomi suna korafin cewa a cikin Dublin kanta "akwai Irish da aka saba kuma yawanci ana magana".

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai shaida na zamani na amfani da Irish a wasu yankunan birane a lokacin. A shekara ta 1657 an gano cewa ya zama dole a yi rantsuwa na Kashe (ƙin yarda da ikon Paparoma) a cikin Irish a cikin Cork don mutane su fahimta.

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Irish yana da ƙarfi sosai a farkon karni na 18 Dublin don zama yaren mawaƙa da marubuta waɗanda Seán da Tadhg Ó Neachtain suka jagoranta, duka mawaƙan bayanin kula. Ayyukan rubuce-rubuce a cikin Irish sun ci gaba a cikin Dublin har zuwa ƙarni na 18. Babban misali shi ne Muiris Ó Gormáin (Maurice Gorman), ƙwararren mai tsara rubuce-rubucen da ya tallata ayyukansa (a Turanci) a cikin Jaridar Dublin ta Faulkner. Har yanzu akwai adadin masu magana da Irish a cikin County Dublin a lokacin ƙidayar 1851.

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin wasu biranen zuriyar mazauna Anglo-Norman na tsakiya, waɗanda ake kira Old English, masu jin yaren Irish ne ko masu harsuna biyu a ƙarni na 16. Mai kula da Ingilishi kuma matafiyi Fynes Moryson, a rubuce a cikin shekaru na ƙarshe na karni na 16, ya ce "Irish na Ingilishi da kuma 'yan ƙasa (ban da na Dublin inda mataimakin ubangiji yake zaune) ko da yake suna iya jin Turanci kamar mu, duk da haka. yawanci suna jin Irish a tsakanin juna, kuma da kyar tattaunawar da muka saba ta sa su yi magana da mu Ingilishi". A Galway, wani birni wanda Tsohuwar yan kasuwa na Ingilishi suka mamaye kuma masu aminci ga Crown har zuwa Yaƙin Irlandan Confederate (1641-1653), amfani da yaren Irish ya riga ya haifar da zartar da dokar Henry VIII (1536), wanda aka nada a matsayin kamar haka:

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abu, cewa kowane mazaunin cikin mu ya ce towne [Galway] kokarin da kansu don jin Turanci, kuma su yi amfani da kansu bayan Turanci facon; kuma, musamman, da ku, da kowane ɗayanku, ku sanya 'ya'yanku su yi wa 'ya'yanku wulakanci, don fahimtar Turanci ...

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rushewar cibiyoyin al'adu na asali a karni na sha bakwai ya ga martabar zamantakewar Irish ta ragu, kuma anglicisation na tsakiyar aji ya biyo baya. Ƙididdigar 1851 ta nuna, duk da haka, cewa garuruwa da biranen Munster har yanzu suna da mahimmancin yawan jama'ar Irish. Da yawa a baya, a cikin 1819, James McQuige, tsohon mai wa'azi na Methodist a Irish, ya rubuta: "A wasu manyan garuruwan kudanci, Cork, Kinsale har ma da garin Bandon na Furotesta, ana sayar da kayayyaki a kasuwanni, kuma suna kuka a cikin manyan biranen kudu. titi, in Irish".[42] Masu magana da Irish sun ƙunshi sama da 40% na yawan mutanen Cork har ma a cikin 1851.[43]

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Amfanin birni na zamani

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙarshen 18th da 19th an sami raguwar adadin masu magana da Irish na Dublin, daidai da yanayin da ake ciki a wasu wurare. Wannan ya ci gaba har zuwa ƙarshen karni na 19, lokacin da farfaɗowar Gaelic ta ga ƙirƙirar cibiyar sadarwa mai ƙarfi ta Irish, wacce rassa daban-daban na Conradh na Gaeilge ke haɗuwa, kuma tare da sabunta ayyukan adabi. A cikin 1930s Dublin yana da rayuwar adabi mai rai a cikin Irish.

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Urban Irish ya kasance wanda ya ci moriyar, daga shekarun da suka gabata na karni na 20, na tsarin Gaelskoileanna mai saurin haɓakawa, yana koyarwa gaba ɗaya ta hanyar Irish. Ya zuwa 2019 akwai irin waɗannan makarantun firamare 37 a Dublin kaɗai.

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An ba da shawarar cewa garuruwa da biranen Ireland suna samun ɗimbin ɗimbin masu magana da Irish, wanda ke nunawa a faɗaɗa kafofin watsa labaru na harshen Irish. Yawancin matasa matasa ne waɗanda, bayan sun ci karo da Irish a makaranta, sun yi ƙoƙari don samun ƙwarewa, yayin da wasu sun sami ilimi ta hanyar Irish kuma wasu sun girma tare da Irish. Waɗanda daga asalin masu magana da Ingilishi yanzu galibi ana bayyana su a matsayin nuachainteoirí ("sabbin masu magana") kuma suna amfani da duk wata dama da ake da su (biki, abubuwan da suka faru "fito") don yin aiki ko inganta Irish.

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An ba da shawarar cewa mizanin kwatankwacin har yanzu Irish na Gaeltacht ne, amma wasu shaidu sun nuna cewa matasa masu magana da birni suna alfahari da samun nasu nau'in yare daban-daban. Kwatankwacin Irish na gargajiya da na birni na nuna cewa banbance tsakanin manyan baki da siriri, wanda ke da mahimmanci ga ilimin harshe na Irish da nahawu, ba a cika ko da yaushe ana lura da shi a cikin Irish na birni. Wannan da sauran sauye-sauye sun sa ya yiwu Irish na birni zai zama sabon yare ko ma, cikin dogon lokaci, ya zama wani nau'i (watau sabon harshe) dabam da Gaeltacht Irish. An kuma yi iƙirarin cewa akwai ƙayyadaddun ƙima a tsakanin masu magana da Irish, tare da girmamawa mafi girma ga Irish na masu magana da harshen Gaeltacht na asali kuma tare da "Dublin" (watau birane) Irish ba shi da wakilci a cikin kafofin watsa labaru. Wannan, duk da haka, yana kamanceceniya da gazawa a tsakanin wasu masu magana da Irish na birni don sanin fasalin nahawu da na sauti masu mahimmanci ga tsarin harshe.[44]

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Main

Babu ma'auni ɗaya na hukuma don faɗin yaren Irish. Wasu ƙamus, kamar Foclóir Póca, suna ba da lamuni guda ɗaya. Kamus na kan layi kamar Foclóir Béarla-Gaeilge suna ba da fayilolin mai jiwuwa a cikin manyan yaruka uku. Bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin yarukan suna da yawa, kuma sun haifar da matsaloli masu maimaitawa wajen fahimtar "misali Irish." A cikin shekarun baya-bayan nan tuntuɓar masu magana da yaruka daban-daban sun ƙaru sosai kuma bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin yarukan ba su da yawa.

An Caighdeán Oifigiúil ("The Official Standard"), sau da yawa ana gajarta zuwa An Caighdeán, mizani ne na rubutun rubutu da nahawu na Irish, wanda gwamnatin Irish ta haɓaka kuma ke amfani da ita. Dokokinta suna bin yawancin makarantu a Ireland, kodayake makarantu a ciki da kuma kusa da yankunan masu jin Irish suma suna amfani da yare na gida. Sashen fassara na Dáil Éireann ne ya buga shi a cikin 1953 kuma an sabunta shi a cikin 2012[45] and 2017.

Samfuri:Main

In pronunciation, Irish ya fi kama da danginsa na kusa, Scottish Gaelic da Manx. Wani abin lura shi ne cewa baƙaƙe (sai dai /h/) suna zuwa bi-biyu, ɗaya “faɗi” (mai faɗi, furuci tare da bayan harshe an ja da baya zuwa ga baki mai laushi) da ɗaya “siriri” (palatalised, furta tare da tsakiyar harshen ya tunkude sama zuwa ga baki mai wuya). Yayin da nau'i-nau'i masu faɗi-sira ba su keɓanta ga Irish ba (ana samun su, alal misali, cikin Rashanci), a cikin Irish suna da aikin nahawu.

wayoyin baki
Labial Coronal Dorsal Glottal
broad slender broad slender broad slender
Stop voiceless Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link
voiced Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link
Fricative/
Approximant
voiceless Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link
voiced Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link
Nasal Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link
Tap Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link
Lateral Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link
wayoyin wasulla
Front Central Back
short long short short long
Close Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link
Mid Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link
Open Samfuri:IPA link Samfuri:IPA link

The diphthongs of Irish are Samfuri:IPAs.

Syntax da ilimin halittar jiki

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Main

Irish fusional ne, VSO, harshe na zarge-zarge. Ba fi'ili ko tauraron dan adam ya tsara shi ba, kuma yana yin amfani da kalmomi masu sassaucin ra'ayi.

Suna ƙi don lambobi 3: maɗaukaki, dual (kawai a haɗe tare da lamba dhá "biyu"), jam'i; 2 jinsi: namiji, mace; da kuma shari'o'i 4: nomino-accusative (ainmneach), vocative (gairmeach), genitive (ginideach), da prepositional-locative (tabharthach), tare da burbushin burbushin tsohuwar zargi (cuspóireach). Siffofin sun yarda da sunaye a lamba, jinsi, da harka. Siffofin suna gabaɗaya suna bin sunaye, kodayake wasu suna gabaci ko gabanin suna. Alamun nuni suna da nau'ikan kusanci, tsaka-tsaki, da sifofi masu nisa. Ana kiran shari'ar prepositional-locative dative ta al'ada, kodayake ta samo asali ne a cikin Proto-Celtic ablative.

Kalmomi suna haɗuwa don lokuta 3: baya, yanzu, nan gaba; 2 al'amurran: cikakke, mara kyau; lambobi 2: guda ɗaya, jam'i; 4 yanayi: nuni, subjunctive, sharadi, wajibi; 2 nau'ikan dangi, dangi na yanzu da na gaba; kuma a wasu kalmomi, siffofi masu zaman kansu da masu dogaro. Kalmomi suna haɗaka ga mutane 3 da sigar da ba ta dace ba wacce ba ta da ɗan wasan kwaikwayo; mutum na uku yana aiki azaman fom ɗin sirri na kyauta wanda za'a iya bi ko akasin haka zuwa kowane mutum ko lamba.

Akwai kalmomi guda biyu don “zama”, ɗaya don halaye na asali masu nau'i biyu kawai, shine "yanzu" da ba "da" da "sharadi", ɗayan kuma don halaye masu wucewa, tare da cikakkun nau'ikan sifofi banda sifa ta magana. . Kalmomi biyu suna raba suna na fi'ili ɗaya.

Samar da fi'ili na Irish yana ɗaukar tsarin gauraye yayin haɗuwa, tare da duka hanyoyin nazari da na roba da aka yi amfani da su dangane da tsauri, lamba, yanayi da mutum. Misali, a cikin ma'auni na hukuma, kalmomin fi'ili na yanzu sun haɗa nau'i ne kawai a cikin mutum na 1 kawai da sifofi masu zaman kansu (watau molaim 'Na yaba', molaimid 'mun yaba', moltar 'ana yabawa, yabo ɗaya'), yayin da duk sauran mutane. ana isar da su ta hanyar nazari (watau molann sé 'ya yaba', molann sibh 'you pl. yaba'). Matsakaicin analytic zuwa sifofin roba a cikin mizanin fi'ili da aka bayar ya bambanta tsakanin lokuta daban-daban da yanayi. Siffofin al'ada, na wajibi da na baya sun fi son sifofin roba a mafi yawan mutane da lambobi, yayin da sifofi na baya-bayan nan, na gaba da na yanzu sun fi son mafi yawan sifofin nazari.

Ana isar da ma'anar muryar da ba ta dace ba ta hanyar sigar fi'ili mai cin gashin kanta, duk da haka akwai kuma wasu sifofi masu kamanceceniya da ginannun fasikanci da sakamako. Har ila yau, akwai adadin ɓangarorin preverbal da ke yin alama mara kyau, tambayoyi, juzu'i, jumlar dangi, da sauransu. Akwai suna na fi'ili da sifa na magana. Siffofin fi’ili na yau da kullun ne sosai, nahawu da yawa suna gane kalmomi 11 da ba na ka’ida ba.

Abubuwan da aka gabatar sun canza don mutum da lamba. Maganganu daban-daban suna gudanar da shari'o'i daban-daban. A Tsoho da Tsakiyar Irish, prepositions suna gudanar da shari'o'i daban-daban dangane da ma'anar fassarar da aka yi niyya; wannan ya bace a cikin Irish na zamani sai dai a cikin burbushin tsari.

Irish ba shi da wani fi'ili da zai bayyana samun; maimakon haka, ana amfani da kalmar ag ("at", da dai sauransu) tare da ma'anar "be" fi'ili bheith:

Ta leabhar agam. "Ina da littafi." (A zahiri, "akwai littafi a wurina", cf. Russian У меня есть книга, Finnish minulla on kirja, French le livre est à moi)

  • Da fatan za a. "Kai (mufuradi) kuna da littafi."
  • Ta leabhar aige. "Yana da littafi."
  • Ta leabhar ai. "Tana da littafi."
  • Ta sake dawowa. "Muna da littafi."
  • Ta leabhar agaibh. "Ku (jam'i) kuna da littafi."
  • Ta leabhar acu. "Suna da littafi."

Lambobi suna da nau'i uku: m, gama-gari da na yau da kullun. Lambobin daga 2 zuwa 10 (kuma waɗannan a hade tare da manyan lambobi) ba safai ake amfani da su ga mutane ba, ana amfani da ƙididdiga masu ƙima maimakon:

da "Biyu."

dhá leabhar "Littattafai biyu."

beirt "Mutane biyu, ma'aurata", beirt fhear "Maza biyu", beirt bhan "Mata biyu".

dara, tarna (free bambancin) "Na biyu."

Irish has both decimal and vigesimal systems:

10: a deich

20: fiche

30: vigesimal – a deich is fiche; decimal – tríocha

40: v. daichead, dá fhichead; d. ceathracha

50: v. a deich is daichead; d. caoga (also: leathchéad "half-hundred")

60: v. trí fichid; d. seasca

70: v. a deich is trí fichid; d. seachtó

80: v. cheithre fichid; d. ochtó

90: v. a deich is cheithre fichid; d. nócha

100: v. cúig fichid; d. céad

A number such as 35 has various forms:

a cúigdéag is fichid "15 and 20"

a cúig is tríocha "5 and 30"

a cúigdéag ar fhichid "15 on 20"

a cúig ar thríochaid "5 on 30"

a cúigdéag fichead "15 of 20 (genitive)"

a cúig tríochad "5 of 30 (genitive)"

fiche 's a cúigdéag "20 and 15"

tríocha 's a cúig "30 and 5"

The latter is most commonly used in mathematics.

Initial mutations

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Main In Irish, there are two classes of initial consonant mutations, which express grammatical relationship and meaning in verbs, nouns and adjectives:

  • Lenition (séimhiú) describes the change of stops into fricatives.[46] Indicated in Gaelic type by an overdot (ponc séimhithe), it is shown in Roman type by adding an Samfuri:Vr.
    • caith! "throw!" – chaith mé "I threw" (lenition as a past-tense marker, caused by the particle do, now generally omitted)
    • "requirement" – easpa an ghá "lack of the requirement" (lenition marking the genitive case of a masculine noun)
    • Seán "John" – a Sheáin! "John!" (lenition as part of the vocative case, the vocative lenition being triggered by a, the vocative marker before Sheáin)
  • Eclipsis (urú) covers the voicing of voiceless stops, and nasalisation of voiced stops.
    • Athair "Father" – ár nAthair "our Father"
    • tús "start", ar dtús "at the start"
    • Gaillimh "Galway" – i nGaillimh "in Galway"

Mutations are often the only way to distinguish grammatical forms. For example, the only non-contextual way to distinguish possessive pronouns "her", "his" and "their", is through initial mutations since all meanings are represented by the same word a.

  • his shoe – a bhróg (lenition)
  • their shoe – a mbróg (eclipsis)
  • her shoe – a bróg (unchanged)

Due to initial mutation, prefixes, clitics, suffixes, root inflection, ending morphology, elision, sandhi, epenthesis, and assimilation; the beginning, core, and end of words can each change radically and even simultaneously depending on context.

Rubutun Rubutu

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Main

The official symbol of the Irish Defence Forces, showing a Gaelic typeface with dot diacritics

A native writing system, Ogham, was used to write Primitive Irish and Old Irish until Latin script was introduced in the 5th century CE.[47] Since the introduction of Latin script, the main typeface used to write Irish was Gaelic type until it was replaced by Roman type during the mid-20th century.

The traditional Irish alphabet (áibítir) consists of 18 letters: Samfuri:Vr; it does not contain Samfuri:Vr.[48][49] However contemporary Irish uses the full Latin alphabet, with the previously unused letter used in modern loanwords; Samfuri:Vr occurs in a small number of (mainly onomatopoeic) native words and colloquialisms.

Vowels may be accented with an acute accent (Samfuri:Vr; Irish and Hiberno-English: (síneadh) fada "long (sign)"), but it is ignored for purposes of alphabetisation.[50] It is used, among other conventions, to mark long vowels, e.g. Samfuri:Vr is /ɛ/ and Samfuri:Vr is /eː/.

The overdot (ponc séimhithe "dot of lenition") was used in traditional orthography to indicate lenition; An Caighdeán uses a following Samfuri:Vr for this purpose, i.e. the dotted letters (litreacha buailte "struck letters") Samfuri:Vr are equivalent to Samfuri:Vr.

The use of Gaelic type and the overdot today is restricted to when a traditional style is consciously being used, e.g. Óglaiġ na h-Éireann on the Irish Defence Forces cap badge (see above). Extending the use of the overdot to Roman type would theoretically have the advantage of making Irish texts significantly shorter, e.g. gheobhaidh sibh "you (pl.) will get" would become ġeoḃaiḋ siḃ.

Chanza rubutu

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kusan lokacin yakin duniya na biyu, Séamas Daltún, mai kula da Template:Ill (Sashen Fassara na gwamnatin Irish), ya fitar da nasa jagororin yadda ake daidaita rubutun Irish da nahawu. Wannan ma'auni na gaskiya daga baya Jiha ta amince da ita kuma ta haɓaka zuwa Caighdeán Oifigiúil, wanda ya sauƙaƙa da daidaita rubutun kalmomi da nahawu ta hanyar cire haruffan shiru na tsakanin yare da sauƙaƙe haɗar wasali. Inda nau'ikan iri da yawa suka wanzu a cikin yaruka daban-daban don kalma ɗaya, an zaɓi ɗaya, misali:

beirbhiughadh → beiriú "dafa abinci"

bidh → bia "abinci"

Gaedhealg / Gaedhilg / Gaedhealaing / Gaeilic / Gaelainn / Gaoidhealg / Gaolainn → Gaeilge "harshen Irish"

An Caighdeán baya nuna duk yaruka zuwa mataki ɗaya, misali. cruaidh /kɾˠuəj/ "hard", leabaidh / ˈl̠ʲabˠəj/ "gado", da tráigh /t̪ˠɾˠaːj/ "beach" an daidaita su azaman crua, leaba, da trá duk da gyare-gyaren rubutun kalmomi kawai suna nuna fahimtar South Connachtˠˠ, [kɠ] [kɠ] da [t̪ˠɾˠaː], kasa wakiltar sauran fahimtar yare [kɾˠui], [ˈl̠ʲabˠi], da [t̪ˠɾˠaːi] (a cikin Mayo da Ulster) ko [kɾˠuəɟ], [ˈlˠˠˠuəɟ], [ˈlɠˠˠ [ʲ], [ˈl̠ʲʲ] Munster), wanda ya kasance a baya suna wakilta ta hanyar rubutun da aka riga aka gyara.[51] Don haka ne wasu masu magana ke amfani da kalmomin da aka yi kafin gyara don nuna lafuzzan yare.

Sauran misalan sun haɗa da genitive na bia "abinci" (/ bʲiə/; pre-reform biadh) da saol "rayuwa, duniya" (/ sˠeːlˠ/; pre-reform saoghal), gane [bʲiːɟ] da [sˠeːlʲ] a cikin Munster, yana nunawa. Kalmomin pre-Caighdeán bídh da saoghail, waɗanda aka daidaita su azaman bia da saoil duk da rashin wakiltar lafuzzan Munster.[52][53]

Misalin Rubutu

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Irish:
Saolaítear gach duine den chine daonna saor agus comhionann i ndínit agus i gcearta. Tá bua an réasúin agus an choinsiasa acu agus ba cheart dóibh gníomhú i dtreo a chéile i spiorad an bhráithreachais.[54]
English:
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.[55]
  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Irish". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Murphy, Brian (25 January 2018). "Douglas Hyde's inauguration – a signal of a new Ireland". RTÉ. Archived from the original on 7 September 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Douglas Hyde Opens 2RN 1 January 1926". RTÉ News. 15 February 2012. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
  4. "Allocution en irlandais, par M. Douglas Hyde". Bibliothèque nationale de France. 28 January 1922. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  5. "The Doegen Records Web Project". Archived from the original on 7 September 2018.
  6. Ó Murchú, Máirtín (1993). "Aspects of the societal status of Modern Irish". In Ball, Martin J.; Fife, James (eds.). The Celtic Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 471–90. ISBN 0-415-01035-7.
  7. "Obligation to appoint Irish speakers". Archived from the original on 30 November 2005.
  8. "Academic claims the forced learning of Irish 'has failed'". Independent.ie. 19 January 2006.
  9. Regan, Mary (4 May 2010). "End compulsory Irish, says FG, as 14,000 drop subject". Irish Examiner.
  10. Donncha Ó hÉallaithe: "Litir oscailte chuig Enda Kenny": BEO.ie Archived 20 ga Janairu, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  11. Siggins, Lorna (16 July 2007). "Study sees decline of Irish in Gaeltacht". The Irish Times.
  12. Nollaig Ó Gadhra, 'The Gaeltacht and the Future of Irish, Studies, Volume 90, Number 360
  13. Welsh Robert and Stewart, Bruce (1996). 'Gaeltacht,' The Oxford Companion to Irish Literature. Oxford University Press.
  14. Hindley, Reg (1991). The Death of the Irish Language: A Qualified Obituary. Taylor & Francis.
  15. Magan, Manchán (9 January 2007). "Cá Bhfuil Na Gaeilg eoirí? *". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 29 January 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  16. "Why choose Irish-medium education? | Gaeloideachas". gaeloideachas.ie. Retrieved 2023-12-15.
  17. See the discussion and the conclusions reached in 'Language and Occupational Status: Linguistic Elitism in the Irish Labour Market,' The Economic and Social Review, Vol. 40, No. 4, Winter, 2009, pp. 435–460: Ideas.repec.org Archived 29 ga Maris, 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  18. "Constitution of Ireland". Government of Ireland. 1 July 1937. Archived from the original on 17 July 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2007.
  19. "Over 2.3m people using language app to learn Irish". RTE. 25 November 2016. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  20. "Ar fheabhas! President praises volunteer Duolingo translators". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Siggins, Lorna (6 January 2003). "Only 25% of Gaeltacht households fluent in Irish – survey". The Irish Times. p. 5. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  22. Hindley 1991, Map 7: Irish speakers by towns and distinct electoral divisions, census 1926.
  23. "The Gaeltacht | Our Language & the Ghaeltacht". Údarás na Gaeltachta (in Turanci). Retrieved 2023-12-15.
  24. "Gaeltacht Affairs". www.gov.ie (in Turanci). 2020-10-05. Retrieved 2023-12-15.
  25. "20-Year Strategy for the Irish Language". www.gov.ie (in Turanci). 29 September 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  26. Government of Ireland (2010). 20-Year Strategy for the Irish Language 2010-2030. p. 11.
  27. "Irish Language and the Gaeltacht - CSO - Central Statistics Office". www.cso.ie (in Turanci). 2023-12-19. Retrieved 2024-02-19.
  28. "Thousands call for Irish Language Act during Belfast rally". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  29. "Is í an Ghaeilge an 21ú teanga oifigiúil den Aontas Eorpach" [Irish is the 21st official language of the European Union] (in Irish). Archived from the original on 18 March 2008. Retrieved 14 June 2008.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  30. Boland, Lauren (31 December 2021). "Irish to be fully recognised as an official EU language from New Year's Day". TheJournal.ie (in Turanci). Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  31. Clarke, Sandra; Paddock, Harold; MacKenzie, Marguerite (1999). "Language". Heritage: Newfoundland and Labrador.
  32. "7. Irish". Report of the 2016 Census of Ireland. Dublin, Ireland: Central Statistics Office. 2017. pp. 66, 69. Of the 1.76 million who said they could speak Irish, 73,803 said they speak it daily outside the education system, a fall of 3,382 on the 2011 figure. ... (421,274) said they never spoke Irish. ... Of the 73,803 daily Irish speakers (outside the education system), 20,586 (27.9%) lived in Gaeltacht areas. The total population of all Gaeltacht areas in April 2016 was 96,090
  33. "Census 2016 Summary Results – Part 1 – CSO – Central Statistics Office". Cso.ie (in Turanci). Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  34. "Department of Tourism, Culture, Arts, Gaeltacht, Sport and Media" (PDF). www.gov.ie.
  35. "The Doegen Records Web Project". Archived from the original on 8 September 2018.
  36. Hamilton, John Noel (1974). A Phonetic Study of the Irish of Tory Island, County Donegal. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast.
  37. Lucas, Leslie W. (1979). Grammar of Ros Goill Irish, County Donegal. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast.
  38. Williams 1994, pp. 467–478.
  39. Borde, Andrew (1870). Furnivall, F.J. (ed.). "The Fyrst Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge". N. Trubner & Co. pp. 131–135.
  40. 40.0 40.1 See Fitzgerald 1984.
  41. "Cur síos ar an chainteoir ó dhúchas deireannach ón Ó Méith, Co Lú, Anna Uí AnnluainCur síos ar an chainteoir ó dhúchas deireannach ón Ó Méith, Co Lú, Anna Uí Annluain". RTÉ Archives. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  42. Quoted in de Brún 2009, pp. 11–12.
  43. Fitzgerald, Garrett, 'Estimates for baronies of minimal level of Irish-speaking amongst successive decennial cohorts, 117-1781 to 1861–1871,' Volume 84, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 1984
  44. Ó Broin, Brian (16 January 2010). "Schism fears for Gaeilgeoirí". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 16 February 2018. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  45. "An Caighdeán Oifigiúil" [The Official Standard] (PDF) (in Irish). January 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 26 February 2018.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  46. "III the morphonology of Irish". The Sound Structure of Modern Irish (in Turanci). De Gruyter Mouton. 11 April 2014. pp. 235–316. doi:10.1515/9783110226607.235. ISBN 978-3-11-022660-7.
  47. "Celtic languages - Irish | Britannica". www.britannica.com.
  48. Graiméar Gaeilge na mBráithre Críostai. L. A. Ó hAnluain, Christian Brothers (Eagrán nua ed.). Baile Átha Cliath: An Gúm. 1999. ISBN 1-85791-327-2. OCLC 46449130.CS1 maint: others (link)
  49. "Irish Orthography". www.nualeargais.ie. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 23 October 2022.
  50. "Irish 'fada' to get legal protection – and must appear in all State IT systems and computer keyboards". independent (in Turanci). 8 July 2021. Retrieved 31 December 2022.
  51. Doyle, Aidan; Gussmann, Edmund (2005). An Ghaeilge, Podręcznik Języka Irlandzkiego. Redakcja Wydawnictw Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego. p. 417. ISBN 83-7363-275-1.
  52. Doyle, Aidan; Gussmann, Edmund (2005). An Ghaeilge, Podręcznik Języka Irlandzkiego. Redakcja Wydawnictw Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego. p. 412. ISBN 83-7363-275-1.
  53. Doyle, Aidan; Gussmann, Edmund (2005). An Ghaeilge, Podręcznik Języka Irlandzkiego. Redakcja Wydawnictw Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego. p. 432. ISBN 83-7363-275-1.
  54. "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
  55. "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations.

Bibliography

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Caerwyn Williams, J.E. & Ní Mhuiríosa, Máirín (ed.). Traidisiún Liteartha na nGael. An Clóchomhar Tta 1979.
  • McCabe, Richard A.. Spenser's Monstrous Regiment: Elizabethan Ireland and the Poetics of Difference. Oxford University Press 2002. 08033994793.ABA.
  • Hickey, Raymond. The Dialects of Irish: Study of a Changing Landscape. Walter de Gruyter, 2011. 08033994793.ABA.
  • Hickey, Raymond. The Sound Structure of Modern Irish. De Gruyter Mouton 2014. 08033994793.ABA.
  • De Brún, Pádraig. Scriptural Instruction in the Vernacular: The Irish Society and its Teachers 1818–1827. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies 2009. 08033994793.ABA
  • Doyle, Aidan, A History of the Irish Language: From the Norman Invasion to Independence, Oxford, 2015.
  • Fitzgerald, Garrett, 'Estimates for baronies of minimal level of Irish-speaking amongst successive decennial cohorts, 117–1781 to 1861–1871,' Volume 84, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 1984.
  • Garvin, Tom, Preventing the Future: Why was Ireland so poor for so long?, Gill and MacMillan, 2005.
  • Hindley, Reg (1991, new ed.). The Death of the Irish Language: A Qualified Obituary. Routledge. 08033994793.ABA
  • McMahon, Timothy G.. Grand Opportunity: The Gaelic Revival and Irish Society, 1893–1910. Syracuse University Press 2008. 08033994793.ABA
  • Ó Gráda, Cormac. 'Cé Fada le Fán' in Dublin Review of Books, Issue 34, 6 May 2013: "CÉ FADA LE FÁN". Drb.ie. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  • Kelly, James & Mac Murchaidh, Ciarán (eds.). Irish and English: Essays on the Linguistic and Cultural Frontier 1600–1900. Four Courts Press 2012. 08033994793.ABA
  • Ní Mhunghaile, Lesa. 'An Eighteenth Century Irish scribe's private library: Muiris Ó Gormáin's books' in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Volume 110C, 2010, pp. 239–276.
  • Ní Mhuiríosa, Máirín. 'Cumann na Scríbhneoirí: Memoir' in Scríobh 5, ed. Seán Ó Mórdha. Baile Átha Cliath: An Clóchomhar Tta 1981.
  • Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. Labhrann Laighnigh: Téacsanna agus Cainteanna ó Shean-Chúige Laighean. Coiscéim 2011.
  • Ó Laoire, Muiris. Language Use and Language Attitudes in Ireland in Multilingualism in European Bilingual Contexts : Language Use and Attitudes, ed. David Lasagabaster and Ángel Huguet. Multilingual Matters Ltd. 2007. 08033994793.ABA
  • Shibakov, Alexey. Irish Word Forms / Irische Wortformen. epubli 2017. 08033994793.ABA
  • Williams, Nicholas. 'Na Canúintí a Theacht chun Solais' in Stair na Gaeilge, ed. Kim McCone and others. Maigh Nuad 1994. 08033994793.ABA

Mahadan Waje

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Wikisourcelang

Nahawu da Ambaton Kalmomi

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfuri:Navboxes

Samfuri:Ireland topics