Harshen Wolaitta

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Wolaitta
Wolayttatto Doonaa
Asali a Ethiopia
Yanki Wolaita Zone of South Ethiopia
Ƙabila Samfuri:Sigfig million Welayta (2022)[1]
'Yan asalin magana
L1: Samfuri:Sigfig million (2022)e27
L2: Samfuri:Sigfig[1]
Latin taught in schools[1] and Ethiopic script used by adults
Official status
Babban harshe a Wolaita Zone
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-2 wal
ISO 639-3 wal
Glottolog wola1242[2]


Wolaitta, ko Wolayttatto Doonaa harshen Arewa Omotic ne na kungiyar Ometo da ake magana da shi a shiyyar Wolayita da wasu sassan Kudancin Kasa, Kasa, da Jama'ar Habasha . Yaren mutanen Welayta ne . Ƙididdiga na yawan jama'a ya bambanta sosai saboda ba a yarda da inda iyakokin harshe suke ba.

Akwai maganganu masu karo da juna game da yadda ake yawan magana da Wolaytta. Wasu suna ganin Melo, Oyda, da Gamo-Gofa-Dawro suma yare ne, amma galibin tushe, gami da Ethnologue da ISO 639-3 yanzu sun lissafa waɗannan a matsayin harsuna daban. Mabambantan al'ummomin masu magana kuma sun san su a matsayin harsuna daban-daban. [3] An ce iri-iri da ake kira Laha suna 'kusa' da Wolaytta a Hayward (1990) amma Blench ya lissafa su azaman yare daban; duk da haka, ba a haɗa shi a cikin Ethnologue .

Wolaytta ta wanzu a rubuce tun cikin shekarun 1940, lokacin da Ofishin Jakadancin cikin gida na Sudan ya fara tsara tsarin rubuta shi. Daga baya tawagar da Dr. Bruce Adams ya jagoranta ta sake duba tsarin rubutun. Sun gama Sabon Alkawari a shekara ta 1981 da kuma dukan Littafi Mai Tsarki a shekara ta 2002. Ya kasance ɗaya daga cikin harsunan farko da Dergi ya zaɓa don yaƙin neman karatu (1979-1991), kafin kowane harsunan kudanci. Girman kai da yaren su na Welaytta ya haifar da martani mai zafi a cikin 1998 lokacin da gwamnatin Habasha ta rarraba litattafai da aka rubuta a cikin Wegagoda - harshe na wucin gadi wanda ya danganta da hade Wolaytta tare da wasu harsuna masu alaka. Sakamakon haka an cire littattafan karatu a Wegagoda kuma malamai sun koma na Wolaytta.

A wajen magana da yarensu, mutanen Wolaytta suna amfani da karin magana da yawa. Babban tarin su, a cikin rubutun Habasha, an buga shi a cikin 1987 ( kalandar Habasha ) [upper-alpha 1] ta Kwalejin Harsunan Habasha. [4] Littafin Fikre Alemayehu na MA na shekarar 2012 daga Jami’ar Addis Ababa ya yi nazarin karin maganar Wolaytta da ayyukansu. [5]

Kamanceceniya da[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Gamo 79% zuwa 93%
  • Kashi 84%
  • Dawro 80%
  • Kullo 80%[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (December 2022)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ]
  • Dorze 80%
  • Kashi 48%
  • Namiji 43%

Matsayin harshe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Harshen shine harshen hukuma a yankin Wolayita na Habasha. An buga wasu sassa na Littafi Mai Tsarki a shekara ta 1934, Sabon Alkawari a shekara ta 1981, da kuma dukan Littafi Mai Tsarki a shekara ta 2002.

Fassarar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Consonants[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wakasa (2008) ya ba da wayoyi masu zuwa don Wolaytta. (Shi kuma yana da mˀ, nˀ, lˀ</link> , amma waɗannan gungu ne masu baƙar fata, ⟨ m7, n7, l7 ⟩ .) Abubuwan da ke cikin ⟨ kusurwa ⟩ suna nuna haruffan Latin, inda wannan ya bambanta da IPA:

Consonants
Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive voiceless p t k ʔ Samfuri:Angle bracket
voiced b d ɡ
ejective Samfuri:Angle bracket Samfuri:Angle bracket, ɗ (?) Samfuri:Angle bracket Samfuri:Angle bracket
Affricate voiceless Samfuri:Angle bracket
voiced Samfuri:Angle bracket
ejective tʃʼ Samfuri:Angle bracket
Fricative voiceless s ʃ Samfuri:Angle bracket h, Samfuri:Angle bracket
voiced z ʒ Samfuri:Angle bracket
Approximant l j Samfuri:Angle bracket w
Rhotic r

Baƙaƙe guda uku suna buƙatar ƙarin tattaunawa. Wakasa (2008:96f) ya ba da rahoton cewa amfani da ⟨ 7 ⟩ don glottal tasha an maye gurbinsu da amfani da ridda. Sautin da aka rubuta ⟨ nh ⟩ Wakasa (2008:44) ya siffanta shi da ' nasalized glottal fricative '; an ce yana da wuyar gaske, yana faruwa a cikin suna guda ɗaya kawai, tsaka-tsaki, da sunaye masu kyau guda biyu. Matsayin sautin da aka rubuta ⟨ D ⟩ da alama ana jayayya; Adams (1983:48) da Lamberti da Sottile (1997:23, 25-26) sun yi iƙirarin cewa ba ta da ƙarfi, don haka mai yiwuwa [ɗ ]</link> . Wakasa (2008:62) ya musanta cewa wannan baƙon abu ne mai ban tsoro, kuma ya kira shi 'glottalized'. (Dubi implosive don ƙarin kan irin wannan bambance-bambancen.)

Wasula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wolaytta tana da wasula biyar, waɗanda suka bayyana duka dogaye da gajere:

Gaba Tsakiya Baya
Babban i, u,
Tsakar e, o,
Ƙananan a,

Nahawu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin kalma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamar sauran harsunan Omotic, harshen Wolaytta yana da ainihin kalmar tsari SOV (batu-abu-ka'ida), kamar yadda aka nuna a cikin misali mai zuwa (Wakasa 2008:1041):   Yana da jumloli na baya-bayan nan, waɗanda suka gabaci fi’ili (Wakasa 2008:1042):   Sunayen da aka yi amfani da su suna gaba da sunayen da suke gyarawa (Wakasa 2008:1044)   

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Jama'a

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Adams, Bruce A. 1983. Binciken Tagmemic na Harshen Wolaitta. PhD ba a buga ba. karatun digiri, Jami'ar London.
  • Adams, Bruce A. 1990. Sunayen suna a Wolaitta. A cikin Nazarin Harshen Omotic ed. na Richard Hayward, 406-412. London: Makarantar Gabas da Nazarin Afirka.
  • Amha, Azeb. 2001. Ideophones da hadaddun kalmomi a cikin Wolaitta. A cikin Ideophones. Nazarin Nau'i a Harshe, ed. ta Voeltz, FK Erhard da Christa Kilian-Hatz, 49-62. Amsterdam - Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Amha, Azeb. 2010. Haɗaɗɗen kalmomi da wayoyi a cikin Wolaitta sun sake ziyartan. A cikin Haɗaɗɗen tsinkaya: Ra'ayin Juyin Juya Hali akan Tsarin Halitta, ed. na Mengistu Amberber, Brett Baker da Mark Harvey, 259-290. Cambridge: Jami'ar Jami'ar Cambridge.
  • Amha, Azeb. 2001. Wolaitta. A cikin Gaskiya game da Harsunan Duniya, Encyclopedia na Duniya Manyan Harsuna, Da da Yanzu, ed. na J. Garry da C. Rubino, ed. , 809-15. New York - Dublin: HW Wilson.
  • Amha, Azeb, 1996. Sautin-lafazi da yanki mai fa'ida a cikin Wolaitta. A cikin Nazarin Harsunan Afirka 25(2), shafi. 111-138.
  • Lamberti, Marcello da kuma Roberto Sottile. 1997. "Harshen Wolaytta". A cikin Studia Linguarum Africae Orientalis 6 : pp. 79-86. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
  • Ohman, Walter da Hailu Fulass. 1976. Welamo. A cikin Harshe a Habasha, ed. na ML Bender, C. Bowen, R. Cooper, da C. Ferguson, shafi. 155-164. Jami'ar Oxford Press.
  • Wakasa, Motomichi. 2008. Nazarin Harshen Wolaytta na Zamani . Ph.D. littafin rubutu. Jami'ar Tokyo.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

.mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em;list-style-type:decimal}.mw-parser-output .reflist .references{font-size:100%;margin-bottom:0;list-style-type:inherit}.mw-parser-output .reflist-columns-2{column-width:30em}.mw-parser-output .reflist-columns-3{column-width:25em}.mw-parser-output .reflist-columns{margin-top:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .reflist-columns ol{margin-top:0}.mw-parser-output .reflist-columns li{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .reflist-upper-alpha{list-style-type:upper-alpha}.mw-parser-output .reflist-upper-roman{list-style-type:upper-roman}.mw-parser-output .reflist-lower-alpha{list-style-type:lower-alpha}.mw-parser-output .reflist-lower-greek{list-style-type:lower-greek}.mw-parser-output .reflist-lower-roman{list-style-type:lower-roman}

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Samfuri:Omotic languages

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named e27
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Wolaytta". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. Abebe 2002
  4. "Good Amharic Books | Welcome!". Archived from the original on 2013-03-15. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
  5. "An analysis of Wolayta proverbs: Function in focus" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-09-18.[permanent dead link]