Harsunan ugric

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

Harsunan Ugric ko / ( / ˈjuː ɡrɪk , ˈ uː -/ ko / ˈ juː ɡ r iən , ˈ uː -/ ) reshe ne da aka tsara na dangin harshen Uralic .


Ugric ya ƙunshi ƙananan ƙungiyoyi uku: Hungarian, Khanty, da Mansi . Biyu na ƙarshe an yi la'akari da su a al'adance kamar harsuna guda ɗaya, kodayake manyan yarukansu sun bambanta sosai don haka ana iya ɗaukar su ƙananan dangi na harsuna uku zuwa huɗu kowanne. Harshen Proto-Ugric na gama gari an bayyana cewa an yi magana daga ƙarshen 3rd karni BC har zuwa rabin farko na 1st karni BC, a yammacin Siberiya, gabas da kudancin Ural Mountains . Daga cikin harsuna uku, Khanty da Mansi an saba ware su daga Hungarian a matsayin Ob-Ugric, kodayake an san fasalin haɗakar Mansi da Hungarian musamman.

Sunan Ugric ya samo asali ne daga mummuna, tsohuwar kalmar Rasha ce ga Magyars (Hungarians) da Yugra, yanki a arewacin Rasha . An fara nuna alaƙa tsakanin waɗannan kalmomi a farkon ƙarni na 16. Duk da haka, a cewar István Vásáry ba a tabbatar da haɗin kai tsakanin waɗannan kalmomi biyu ba, kuma sunan Ugric ya dogara ne akan ilimin al'adun gargajiya . [1]

Ci gaban sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Consonants[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fasalolin sauti guda biyu gama-gari na harsunan Ugric sune sake tsara tsarin Proto-Uralic (PU) na baƙaƙen baƙaƙe da haƙƙoƙin baƙaƙe :

  • PU *s da * š sun haɗu kuma sun haɓaka zuwa sautin da ba na sibilant ba (yiwuwar [θ]</link> ko [ ɬ ] ), mai son Mansi /t/</link> , Khanty *ɬ → /t/</link> ko /l/</link> (ya danganta da yare), kuma an yi hasara a cikin Harshen Hungarian.
  • PU * ś depalatalized zuwa * s.
  • PU medial * x, * k, * w gabaɗaya an ba da izini ga * ɣ .

Duk da haka an nuna cewa waɗannan canje-canjen sun shafi harsunan Samoyedic kuma.

Tarin baƙar fata *lm yana cikin yarukan Ugric galibi an rage shi zuwa bayyane /m/</link> (misali PU *śilmä 'ido' → Hungarian szem, Mansi сам /sam/</link> , Khanty сем /sem/</link> ). Wani keɓantawa na musamman shine lamba '3', wanda a cikinsa Hungarian ( három ) da Mansi (hum /xuːrəm/</link> ) nuna gungu na asali * rm, yayin da sauran dangin Uralic suna ba da shawarar asali * lm (Khanty холәм, Finnish kolme, Estoniya kolm, Inari Sami kulma, Erzya колмо, da dai sauransu) An jera wannan akai-akai azaman hujja don yin la'akari. Harshen Hungarian yana da alaƙa da Mansi fiye da Khanty. Hakanan an ba da shawarar juzu'i-Hungarian da Mansi suna riƙe ainihin sigar lamba, yayin da Khanty da duk yarukan Finno-Permic da sun ƙirƙira /l/</link> saboda wasu dalilai. [2]

Harshen Hungarian da ma'aunin adabin Mansi da Khanty na yanzu  duk suna raba ra'ayi na Proto-Uralic * k zuwa /h/</link> ko /x/</link> kafin wasulan baya, misali 'kifi': PU *kala → Hungarian hal, Mansi хул /xuːl/</link> , Khanty хул /xul/</link> . Wannan shi kansa ba fasalin Ugric na gama gari bane - /k/</link> ya rage a cikin wasu yarukan Mansi da Khanty (misali Khanty Gabas /kul/</link> , Kudancin Mansi /koːl/</link> 'kifi'), amma an yi jayayya ya haifar da rarrabuwar ka'idar Ugric na * k zuwa gaba da baya allophones [k]</link> ~ [q]</link> , tare da na karshen sa'an nan kuma da kansa spirantizing a cikin kowane hali uku.

Hakanan nau'ikan Ugric guda uku suna raba tsaka-tsaki na Proto-Uralic * δ zuwa * l (kamar yadda harsunan Permic suke yi), amma yana yiwuwa wannan ya haifar da bayyanar retroflex * ɭ daga PU * l a cikin Khanty. Wata yuwuwar jayayyar ita ce irin wannan ɓangarorin takwarorinsu mai ruɗi *δ́ → Mansi /lʲ/</link> , mai yiwuwa ya kasance canji na lokaci guda tare da ɓangarorin * ð . A Khanty reflex shine /j/</link> , alhãli kuwa al'amuran /lʲ/</link> akwai kuma, wanda zai iya ba da shawarar ci gaba daban. Ba a sake gina ainihin * ĺ don tsofaffin matakan Uralic ba, duk da haka, wanda ya bar asalin Khanty /lʲ/</link> budaddiyar tambaya.

Bidi'a a sarari iyakance ga harsunan Ugric shine haɓakar * ŋ zuwa *ŋk, kodayake akwai keɓantawa da yawa a cikin kowane harshe ga wannan.

Wasula[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ci gaban tsarin wasali ya kasance ƙarƙashin fassarar. Dukkan rassan Ugric guda uku sun bambanta tsayin wasali ; a cikin Harshen Hungarian wannan ya makara, gabaɗaya ana samun ta ta hanyar tsawaita ramuwa bayan asarar wasula marasa ƙarfi da *ɣ. Harsunan Ob-Ugric, duk da haka, sun sami bambance-bambancen adadinsu musamman daga bambance-bambancen ingancin PU: don haka misali a cikin Mansi ta Arewa, PU * peljä 'ear' → * päĺ → /palʲ/</link> , amma PU *pälä 'rabi' → *pääl → /paːl/</link> .

Bambance-bambance tsakanin PU stem wasulan (*a/*ä vs. *i) ba sa wanzuwa haka a cikin yarukan Ugric na zamani, amma yawanci suna barin alamar su akan halayen wasali a cikin harafin farko, yana ba da shawarar riƙe bambanci aƙalla ga Proto. -Ugric mataki. Misali, PU *ń ï xl i 'kibiya' → Hungarian nyíl, amma PU *m ï ks a 'hanta' → Hungarian máj . Ana samun ragowar wasula na asali na asali a cikin tsoffin bayanan Hungarian, kamar PU *konta 'ƙungiyar, ƙungiyar farauta' → Tsohon Hungarian hodu 'dakaru' (→ Modern Hungarian had ).

  1. András Róna-Tas. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. Empty citation (help)