Hawan jini

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

Hawan jini (HTN ko HT), wanda kuma aka sani da cutar hawan jini (HBP), yanayin likita ne na dogon lokaci wanda hawan jini a cikin arteries ke ci gaba da karuwa.[1] Hawan jini yawanci baya haifar da alamu.[2] Hawan jini na dogon lokaci, duk da haka, babban haɗari ne ga cututtukan jijiyoyin jini, bugun jini, gazawar zuciya, fibrillation, cututtukan jijiya na gefe, hasarar hangen nesa, cututtukan koda na yau da kullun, da hauka.[3][4][5][6]

An rarraba hawan jini a matsayin hauhawar jini na farko (mahimmanci) ko hauhawar jini na biyu.[7] Kusan kashi 90-95% na shari'o'in sune na farko, wanda aka ayyana a matsayin hawan jini saboda rashin takamaiman salon rayuwa da abubuwan halitta.[7][8] Abubuwan salon rayuwa waɗanda ke ƙara haɗarin sun haɗa da gishiri mai yawa a cikin abinci, yawan nauyin jiki, shan taba, da amfani da barasa.[2][7] Sauran 5-10% na lokuta an kasafta su azaman hawan jini na biyu, wanda aka ayyana a matsayin hawan jini saboda wani dalili da za a iya gane shi, kamar ciwon koda na kullum, kunkuntar jijiyoyin koda, cutar endocrine, ko amfani da kwayoyin hana haihuwa.[7]

Ana bayyana hawan jini ta ma'aunai biyu, matsi na systolic da diastolic, wanda shine matsakaicin matsakaici da mafi ƙarancin matsi, bi da bi.[2] Ga yawancin manya, hawan jini na al'ada a hutawa yana tsakanin kewayon 100-130 millimeters mercury (mmHg) systolic da 60-80 mmHg diastolic.[9][10] Ga mafi yawan manya, hawan jini yana samuwa idan hawan jinin da ke hutawa ya ci gaba a ko sama da 130/80 ko 140/90 mmHg.[7][9] Lambobi daban-daban sun shafi yara.[11] Kula da hawan jini na gaggawa a cikin awanni 24 ya bayyana mafi daidai fiye da ma'aunin hawan jini na tushen ofis.[7][12]

Canje-canjen salon rayuwa da magunguna na iya rage hawan jini da rage haɗarin matsalolin lafiya.[13] Canje-canjen salon rayuwa sun haɗa da asarar nauyi, motsa jiki na jiki, rage cin gishiri, rage shan barasa, da abinci mai kyau.[7] Idan canje-canjen salon rayuwa bai wadatar ba to ana amfani da magungunan hawan jini.[13] Har zuwa magunguna uku na iya sarrafa hawan jini a cikin kashi 90% na mutane.[7] Maganin hawan jini mai matsakaicin matsakaici (wanda aka kwatanta da> 160/100 mmHg) tare da magunguna yana da alaƙa da ingantacciyar rayuwa.[14] Tasirin maganin hawan jini tsakanin 130/80 mmHg da 160/100 mmHg bai fito fili ba, tare da wasu bita na samun fa'ida wasu[9][15][16] kuma suna samun fa'ida mara tabbas.[17][18][19] Hawan jini yana shafar tsakanin kashi 16 zuwa 37% na al'ummar duniya.[7] A cikin 2010 an yi imanin cewa hauhawar jini ya kasance sanadin kashi 18% na duk mace-mace (miliyan 9.4 a duniya).[20]

Takaitacciyar Bidiyo (rubutun)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet". CDC. 19 February 2015. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  3. Lackland DT, Weber MA (May 2015). "Global burden of cardiovascular disease and stroke: hypertension at the core". The Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 31 (5): 569–71. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2015.01.009. PMID 25795106.
  4. Mendis, Shanthi; Puska, Pekka; Norrving, Bo (2011). Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control (PDF) (1st ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization in collaboration with the World Heart Federation and the World Stroke Organization. p. 38. ISBN 9789241564373. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 August 2014.
  5. Hernandorena I, Duron E, Vidal JS, Hanon O (July 2017). "Treatment options and considerations for hypertensive patients to prevent dementia". Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy (Review). 18 (10): 989–1000. doi:10.1080/14656566.2017.1333599. PMID 28532183.
  6. Lau DH, Nattel S, Kalman JM, Sanders P (August 2017). "Modifiable Risk Factors and Atrial Fibrillation". Circulation (Review). 136 (6): 583–596. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.023163. PMID 28784826.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 Poulter NR, Prabhakaran D, Caulfield M (August 2015). "Hypertension". Lancet. 386 (9995): 801–12. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(14)61468-9. PMID 25832858.
  8. Carretero OA, Oparil S (January 2000). "Essential hypertension. Part I: definition and etiology". Circulation. 101 (3): 329–35. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.101.3.329. PMID 10645931.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE, Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, DePalma SM, Gidding S, Jamerson KA, Jones DW, MacLaughlin EJ, Muntner P, Ovbiagele B, Smith SC, Spencer CC, Stafford RS, Taler SJ, Thomas RJ, Williams KA, Williamson JD, Wright JT (June 2018). "2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines". Hypertension. 71 (6): e13–e115. doi:10.1161/HYP.0000000000000065. PMID 29133356.
  10. Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, Redon J, Zanchetti A, Böhm M, et al. (July 2013). "2013 ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)". European Heart Journal. 34 (28): 2159–219. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/eht151. PMID 23771844.
  11. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, Cushman WC, Dennison-Himmelfarb C, Handler J, Lackland DT, LeFevre ML, MacKenzie TD, Ogedegbe O, Smith SC, Svetkey LP, Taler SJ, Townsend RR, Wright JT, Narva AS, Ortiz E (February 2014). "2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8)". JAMA. 311 (5): 507–20. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.284427. PMID 24352797.
  12. Naish, Jeannette; Court, Denise Syndercombe (2014). Medical sciences (2 ed.). p. 562. ISBN 9780702052491.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?". National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. 10 September 2015. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  14. Musini, Vijaya M.; Tejani, Aaron M.; Bassett, Ken; Puil, Lorri; Wright, James M. (2019). "Pharmacotherapy for hypertension in adults 60 years or older". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6: CD000028. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000028.pub3. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 6550717. PMID 31167038.
  15. Sundström J, Arima H, Jackson R, Turnbull F, Rahimi K, Chalmers J, Woodward M, Neal B (February 2015). "Effects of blood pressure reduction in mild hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Annals of Internal Medicine. 162 (3): 184–91. doi:10.7326/M14-0773. PMID 25531552.
  16. Xie X, Atkins E, Lv J, Bennett A, Neal B, Ninomiya T, Woodward M, MacMahon S, Turnbull F, Hillis GS, Chalmers J, Mant J, Salam A, Rahimi K, Perkovic V, Rodgers A (January 2016). "Effects of intensive blood pressure lowering on cardiovascular and renal outcomes: updated systematic review and meta-analysis". Lancet. 387 (10017): 435–43. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00805-3. PMID 26559744. Archived from the original on 16 April 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  17. Diao D, Wright JM, Cundiff DK, Gueyffier F (August 2012). "Pharmacotherapy for mild hypertension". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8 (8): CD006742. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006742.pub2. PMID 22895954.
  18. Garrison SR, Kolber MR, Korownyk CS, McCracken RK, Heran BS, Allan GM (August 2017). "Blood pressure targets for hypertension in older adults". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8: CD011575. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011575.pub2. PMC 6483478. PMID 28787537.
  19. Musini VM, Gueyffier F, Puil L, Salzwedel DM, Wright JM (August 2017). "Pharmacotherapy for hypertension in adults aged 18 to 59 years". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 8: CD008276. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008276.pub2. PMC 6483466. PMID 28813123.
  20. Campbell NR, Lackland DT, Lisheng L, Niebylski ML, Nilsson PM, Zhang XH (March 2015). "Using the Global Burden of Disease study to assist development of nation-specific fact sheets to promote prevention and control of hypertension and reduction in dietary salt: a resource from the World Hypertension League". Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 17 (3): 165–7. doi:10.1111/jch.12479. PMID 25644474.