Hepatitis B

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Hepatitis B cuta ce mai saurin kamuwa da cutar hanta (HBV) wacce ke shafar hanta;[1][2] nau'in ciwon hanta ne.[3] Yana iya haifar da kamuwa da cuta mai tsanani da na yau da kullun.[1] Mutane da yawa ba su da alamun bayyanar cututtuka yayin kamuwa da cutar ta farko.[1] A cikin m kamuwa da cuta, wasu na iya tasowa da sauri na rashin lafiya tare da amai, fata mai launin rawaya, gajiya, duhun fitsari da ciwon ciki.[1] Sau da yawa waɗannan alamun suna ɗaukar makonni kaɗan kuma da wuya kamuwa da cuta ta farko ke haifar da mutuwa.[1][4] Yana iya ɗaukar kwanaki 30 zuwa 180 don fara bayyanar cututtuka.[1] A cikin wadanda suka kamu da cutar a kusa da lokacin haihuwa kashi 90 cikin 100 na kamuwa da cutar hanta na kullum wato Hepatitis B yayin da kasa da kashi 10 cikin 100 na wadanda suka kamu da cutar bayan sun kai shekaru biyar suna kamuwa da cutar.[5] Yawancin wadanda ke da cututtuka na yau da kullum ba su da alamun cututtuka; duk da haka, cirrhosis da ciwon hanta na iya tasowa daga ƙarshe.[6] Cirrhosis ko ciwon hanta yana faruwa a cikin kusan kashi 25% na waɗanda ke fama da rashin lafiya.[1]

Ana kamuwa da cutar ta hanyar kamuwa da cutar jini ko ruwan jiki.[1] Kamuwa da cuta a kusa da lokacin haihuwa ko kuma ta hanyar saduwa da jinin wasu a lokacin ƙuruciya ita ce mafi yawan hanyar da ake samun ciwon hanta a wuraren da cutar ta zama ruwan dare.[1] A wuraren da cutar ba kasafai ba, yin amfani da miyagun ƙwayoyi a cikin jijiya da jima'i sune hanyoyin kamuwa da cuta da yawa.[1] Sauran abubuwan haɗari sun haɗa da yin aiki a fannin kiwon lafiya, ƙarin jini, dialysis, zama tare da wanda ya kamu da cutar, balaguron balaguro a ƙasashen da yawan kamuwa da cutar ya yi yawa, da zama a wata cibiya.[1][5] Tattoo da acupuncture ya haifar da adadi mai yawa a cikin 1980s; duk da haka, wannan ya zama ƙasa da kowa tare da ingantacciyar haifuwa.[7] Ba za a iya yada ƙwayoyin Hepatitis B ta hanyar riƙe hannu, raba kayan abinci, sumbata, runguma, tari, atishawa, ko shayarwa.[5] Ana iya gano cutar kwanaki 30 zuwa 60 bayan bayyanar cututtuka.[1] Yawancin lokaci ana tabbatar da ganewar asali ta hanyar gwada jinin don sassan ƙwayoyin cuta da kuma rigakafin ƙwayoyin cuta.[1] Yana daya daga cikin manyan ƙwayoyin cutar hanta guda biyar: A, B, C, D, da E.[8]

An yi rigakafin kamuwa da cutar ta hanyar rigakafi tun 1982.[1][9] Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ta ba da shawarar yin rigakafin a farkon ranar rayuwa idan zai yiwu.[1] Ana buƙatar ƙarin allurai biyu ko uku a wani lokaci don cikakken tasiri.[1] Wannan maganin yana aiki kusan kashi 95% na lokaci.[1] Kimanin kasashe 180 ne suka ba da rigakafin a matsayin wani bangare na shirye-shiryen kasa tun daga shekara ta 2006.[10] An kuma ba da shawarar cewa a yi gwajin dukkan jini na cutar hanta ta B kafin karin jini, da kuma amfani da kwaroron roba don hana kamuwa da cuta.[1] A lokacin kamuwa da cuta ta farko, kulawa yana dogara ne akan alamun da mutum yake da shi.[1] A cikin wadanda suka kamu da cututtuka na yau da kullum, maganin rigakafi irin su tenofovir ko interferon na iya zama da amfani; duk da haka, waɗannan magungunan suna da tsada.[1] Wani lokaci ana amfani da dashen hanta don cirrhosis.[1]

Kusan kashi uku na mutanen duniya sun kamu da cutar a lokaci guda a rayuwarsu.[1] Akalla mutane miliyan 391, ko kuma kashi 5% na al’ummar duniya, sun kamu da cutar ta HBV mai tsanani a shekarar 2017.[11] Yayin da wasu miliyan 145 suka kamu da cutar ta HBV mai tsanani a shekarar.[11] Sama da mutane 750,000 ke mutuwa daga cutar hanta ta hanta a kowace shekara.[1] Kimanin 300,000 daga cikin waɗannan suna da nasaba da ciwon hanta.[12] Cutar ta fi kamari a yammacin Pacific (6.2%) da Afirka (6.1%) yankuna.[8] A Turai farashin yana da 1.6% kuma a cikin Amurka yana da 0.7%.[1] Tun asali an san shi da "serum hepatitis".[13]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 "Hepatitis B Fact sheet N°204". who.int. July 2014. Archived from the original on 9 November 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  2. Logan, Carolynn M.; Rice, M. Katherine (1987). Logan's Medical and Scientific Abbreviations. J. B. Lippincott and Company. pp. 232. ISBN 0-397-54589-4.
  3. "Hepatitis MedlinePlus". U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
  4. Rubin, Raphael; Strayer, David S. (2008). Rubin's Pathology : clinicopathologic foundations of medicine (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 638. ISBN 9780781795166.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public – Transmission". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Archived from the original on 11 December 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  6. Chang MH (June 2007). "Hepatitis B virus infection". Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 12 (3): 160–167. doi:10.1016/j.siny.2007.01.013. PMID 17336170.
  7. Thomas HC (2013). Viral Hepatitis (4th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 83. ISBN 9781118637302.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Global hepatitis report 2017 (PDF). WHO. 2017. ISBN 978-92-4-156545-5.
  9. Pungpapong S, Kim WR, Poterucha JJ (2007). "Natural History of Hepatitis B Virus Infection: an Update for Clinicians". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 82 (8): 967–975. doi:10.4065/82.8.967. PMID 17673066.
  10. Williams R (2006). "Global challenges in liver disease". Hepatology. 44 (3): 521–526. doi:10.1002/hep.21347. PMID 16941687.
  11. 11.0 11.1 GBD 2017 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (10 November 2018). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017". Lancet. 392 (10159): 1789–1858. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32279-7. PMC 6227754. PMID 30496104.
  12. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442.
  13. Barker LF, Shulman NR, Murray R, Hirschman RJ, Ratner F, Diefenbach WC, Geller HM (1996). "Transmission of serum hepatitis. 1970". Journal of the American Medical Association. 276 (10): 841–844. doi:10.1001/jama.276.10.841. PMID 8769597.