Influenza

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Mura, wanda aka fi sani da "mura", cuta ce mai saurin kamuwa da kwayar cutar mura.[1] Alamun na iya zama mai laushi zuwa mai tsanani.[2] Alamomin da aka fi sani sun hada da: zazzabi mai zafi, hanci, ciwon makogwaro, ciwon tsoka da gabobi, ciwon kai, tari, da gajiya.[1] Wadannan alamomin yawanci suna farawa kwanaki biyu bayan kamuwa da kwayar cutar kuma galibi suna wucewa kasa da mako guda.[1] Tari, duk da haka, na iya wucewa fiye da makonni biyu.[1] A cikin yara, ana iya samun gudawa da amai, amma waɗannan ba a saba gani ba ga manya.[3] Zawo da amai sun fi faruwa a cikin gastroenteritis, wanda cuta ce da ba ta da alaƙa kuma wani lokaci ba daidai ba ana kiranta da "murar ciki" ko "mura na sa'o'i 24".[3] Matsalolin mura na iya haɗawa da ciwon huhu na viral, ciwon huhu na biyu na kwayan cuta, cututtukan sinus, da kuma tabarbarewar matsalolin kiwon lafiya da suka gabata kamar asma ko gazawar zuciya.[4][2]

Uku daga cikin nau'ikan ƙwayoyin cuta guda huɗu na cutar mura suna shafar ɗan adam: Nau'in A, Nau'in B, da Nau'in C.[4][5] Nau'in D ba a san yana cutar da mutane ba, amma an yi imanin cewa yana da damar yin hakan.[5][6] Yawancin lokaci, kwayar cutar tana yaduwa ta iska daga tari ko atishawa.[1] An yi imanin wannan yana faruwa mafi yawa a cikin ɗan gajeren nisa.[7] Hakanan ana iya yaduwa ta hanyar taɓa wuraren da ƙwayoyin cuta suka gurbata sannan kuma a taɓa idanu, hanci, ko baki.[2][7][8] Mutum na iya kamuwa da wasu kafin da kuma lokacin da suke nuna alamun.[2] Ana iya tabbatar da kamuwa da cutar ta hanyar gwada makogwaro, sputum, ko hanci don ƙwayar cuta.[4] Akwai gwaje-gwaje masu sauri da yawa; duk da haka, mutane na iya samun kamuwa da cutar koda kuwa sakamakon ba ya da kyau.[4] Wani nau'in amsawar sarkar polymerase wanda ke gano RNA kwayar cutar ya fi daidai.[4]

Wanke hannu akai-akai yana rage haɗarin yaɗuwar ƙwayar cuta, kamar yadda yake sa abin rufe fuska.[9] Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) ta ba da shawarar allurar rigakafin mura a kowace shekara ga waɗanda ke cikin haɗari,[1] da kuma Cibiyar Kula da Cututtuka (CDC) na waɗanda shekarunsu suka wuce watanni shida zuwa sama.[10] Alurar riga kafi yawanci yana tasiri akan nau'ikan mura uku ko hudu.[1] Yawancin lokaci ana jurewa da kyau.[1] Maganin rigakafin da aka yi na shekara guda ba zai yi amfani ba a cikin shekara mai zuwa, tun da kwayar cutar tana tasowa da sauri.[1] An yi amfani da magungunan rigakafi irin su neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, da sauransu, don magance mura.[1] Amfanin magungunan rigakafin ƙwayoyin cuta a cikin waɗanda ke da lafiya ba su da alama ya fi haɗarin su.[11] Ba a sami fa'ida ga waɗanda ke da sauran matsalolin lafiya ba.[11][12]

Mura na yaduwa a duniya a duk shekara a barkewar cutar, wanda ya haifar da cutar kusan miliyan uku zuwa biyar na rashin lafiya mai tsanani da kuma mutuwar mutane 290,000 zuwa 650,000.[1][13] Kimanin kashi 20% na yaran da ba a yi musu allurar ba da kashi 10% na manya da ba a yi musu allurar ba suna kamuwa da cutar kowace shekara.[14] A yankin arewaci da kudancin duniya, annobar cutar ta fi faruwa ne a lokacin sanyi, yayin da a kusa da yankin equator, ana iya samun bullar cutar a kowane lokaci na shekara.[1] Mutuwa tana faruwa galibi a cikin ƙungiyoyi masu haɗari - matasa, tsofaffi, da waɗanda ke da wasu matsalolin lafiya.[1] Barkewar cutar da aka fi sani da annoba ba ta da yawa.[4] A cikin karni na 20, cutar mura uku ta faru: mura ta Spain a 1918 (mutuwar miliyan 17-100), mura ta Asiya a 1957 (mutuwar miliyan biyu), da mura na Hong Kong a 1968 (mutuwar miliyan daya).[15][16][17] Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ta ayyana barkewar sabuwar cutar mura A/H1N1 a matsayin annoba a watan Yunin 2009.[18] mura na iya shafar wasu dabbobi, da suka hada da alade, dawakai, da tsuntsaye.[19]

Takaitacciyar Bidiyo (rubutun)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 "Influenza (Seasonal)". World Health Organization (WHO). 6 November 2018. Archived from the original on 30 November 2019. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Key Facts About Influenza (Flu)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 9 September 2014. Archived from the original on 2 December 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Duben-Engelkirk, Paul G.; Engelkirk, Janet (2011). Burton's microbiology for the health sciences (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 314. ISBN 978-1-60547-673-5.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Longo, Dan L. (2012). "Chapter 187: Influenza". Harrison's principles of internal medicine (18th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-174889-6.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Types of Influenza Viruses Seasonal Influenza (Flu)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 27 September 2017. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  6. Su S, Fu X, Li G, Kerlin F, Veit M (25 August 2017). "Novel Influenza D virus: Epidemiology, pathology, evolution and biological characteristics". Virulence. 8 (8): 1580–91. doi:10.1080/21505594.2017.1365216. PMC 5810478. PMID 28812422.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Brankston G, Gitterman L, Hirji Z, Lemieux C, Gardam M (April 2007). "Transmission of influenza A in human beings". Lancet Infect Dis. 7 (4): 257–65. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(07)70029-4. PMID 17376383.
  8. "Influenza in children". Paediatr Child Health. 10 (8): 485–7. October 2005. doi:10.1093/pch/10.8.485. PMC 2722601. PMID 19668662.
  9. Jefferson T, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, Ferroni E, Al-Ansary LA, Bawazeer GA, et al. (July 2011). "Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses" (PDF). Cochrane Database Syst Rev (7): CD006207. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006207.pub4. PMC 6993921. PMID 21735402.
  10. Grohskopf LA, Alyanak E, Broder KR, Walter EB, Fry AM, Jernigan DB (2019). "Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices – United States, 2019–20 Influenza Season" (PDF). MMWR Recomm Rep. 68 (3): 1–21. doi:10.15585/mmwr.rr6803a1. PMC 6713402. PMID 31441906.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Michiels B, Van Puyenbroeck K, Verhoeven V, Vermeire E, Coenen S (2013). "The value of neuraminidase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of seasonal influenza: a systematic review of systematic reviews". PLOS One. 8 (4): e60348. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...860348M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060348. PMC 3614893. PMID 23565231.
  12. Ebell MH, Call M, Shinholser J (April 2013). "Effectiveness of oseltamivir in adults: a meta-analysis of published and unpublished clinical trials". Family Practice. 30 (2): 125–33. doi:10.1093/fampra/cms059. PMID 22997224.
  13. "Up to 650 000 people die of respiratory diseases linked to seasonal flu each year". World Health Organization (WHO) (Press release). 14 December 2017. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  14. Somes MP, Turner RM, Dwyer LJ, Newall AT (May 2018). "Estimating the annual attack rate of seasonal influenza among unvaccinated individuals: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Vaccine. 36 (23): 3199–207. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.04.063. PMID 29716771.
  15. Spreeuwenberg P, Kroneman M, Paget J (December 2018). "Reassessing the Global Mortality Burden of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic". American Journal of Epidemiology. 187 (12): 2561–67. doi:10.1093/aje/kwy191. PMID 30202996.
  16. World Health Organization (December 2005). "Ten things you need to know about pandemic influenza (update of 14 October 2005)". Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 80 (49–50): 428–31. hdl:10665/232955. PMID 16372665.
  17. Jilani TN, Jamil RT, Siddiqui AH (January 2020). "H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu)". StatPearls. PMID 30020613.
  18. Chan, Margaret (11 June 2009). "World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic". World Health Organization (WHO). Archived from the original on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  19. Palmer SR (2011). Oxford textbook of zoonoses : biology, clinical practice, and public health control (2. ed.). Oxford u.a.: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-19-857002-8.