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Inorganic Chemistry

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Inorganic Chemistry
branch of chemistry (en) Fassara da academic discipline (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na kimiya
Bangare na kimiya
Is the study of (en) Fassara inorganic compound (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan inorganic chemist (en) Fassara
Hannun riga da Organic chemistry
Tsarin tsarin ionic a cikin potassium oxide, K 2 O

Inorganic Chemistry yana hulɗar da synthesis da halayyar mahaɗan inorganic da organometallic mahaɗi. Wannan filin ya ƙunshi mahaɗan sinadarai waɗanda ba su da tushen carbon, waɗanda su ne batutuwan sinadarai na halitta. Bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin bangarorin biyu ya yi nisa da cikakkiya, saboda akwai rugujewa da yawa a cikin subdiscipline na organometallic chemistry. Yana da aikace-aikace a kowane fanni na sinadarai masana'antu, ciki har da catalysis, kayan kimiyya, pigments, surfactants, coatings, magunguna, man fetur, da noma.[1]

Key concepts[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Samfurin ta kenan

Yawancin mahaɗi na inorganic sune mahaɗi na ionic, sun ƙunshi cations da anions waɗanda ke haɗawa da haɗin gwiwar ionic.[2] Misalan gishiri (wanda shine mahaɗi na ionic) sune magnesium chloride MgCl 2, wanda ya ƙunshi magnesium cations Mg 2+ da chloride anions Cl; ko sodium oxide Na 2 O, wanda ya ƙunshi sodium cations Na + da oxide anions O 2-. A cikin kowane gishiri, adadin ions sun kasance kamar yadda cajin lantarki ya soke, ta yadda babban fili ya zama tsaka tsaki na lantarki. Ana bayyana ions ta yanayin yanayin iskar oxygen kuma ana iya samun sauƙin samuwar su daga yuwuwar ionization (da cations) ko daga alaƙar electron (anions) na abubuwan iyaye.

Ƙarfin haɗin gwiwa a cikin mahadi na ionic ana kiransa makamashin lattice. Ana iya siffanta shi azaman zafin da aka saki lokacin da ions na cajin kishiyar a lokacin gas don haɗawa zuwa wani ƙarfi na ionic. Misali, idan muka dauki sinadarin sodium da chlorine atom mu hada su<math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"><semantics><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mstyle scriptlevel="0" displaystyle="false"><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><msup><mtext> </mtext><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo> </mo></mrow></msup><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false"> </mo><mtext> </mtext><mo stretchy="false"> </mo></mrow><mo> </mo><msup><mtext> </mtext><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo> </mo></mrow></msup><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false"> </mo><mtext> </mtext><mo stretchy="false"> </mo></mrow><mo stretchy="false"> </mo><mtext> </mtext><mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD"><mo stretchy="false"> </mo><mtext> </mtext><mo stretchy="false"> </mo></mrow></mrow></mstyle></mrow><annotation encoding="application/x-tex"> </annotation></semantics></math></img>za mu samu , saboda wannan lambar ba ta da kyau za mu sami amsawar exothermic, idan wannan lambar ta kasance tabbatacce zai zama halayen endothermic. Wata hanyar kwatanta makamashin lattice ita ce makamashin da ake buƙata don raba mole guda na ion mai ƙarfi zuwa iskar gas, wannan shine juzu'in bayanin da ya gabata. Ba zai yiwu a ƙayyade waɗannan ƙididdiga ta gwaji ba saboda yawan yanayin da zai iya rinjayar abin da ya faru amma ana iya ƙididdige shi ta amfani da zagayowar Born-Haber.

Muhimman nau'ikan mahaɗi na inorganic sune oxides, carbonates, sulfates, da halides. Yawancin mahaɗan inorganic suna da alaƙa da manyan abubuwan narkewa. Gishirin da ba a iya gani ba yakan kasance poor conductors a cikin ƙasa mai ƙarfi amma yana tashi kaɗan yayin da ya narke. Sauran mahimman siffofi sun haɗa da babban wurin narkewa da sauƙi na crystallization. Inda wasu gishiri (misali, NaCl ) ke narkewa sosai a cikin ruwa, wasu (misali, FeS ) ba sayi.

Mafi sauƙaƙan halayen inorganic shine ƙaura sau biyu lokacin da aka haɗa gishiri biyu ana musanya ions ba tare da canji a yanayin iskar oxygen ba. A redox halayen daya reactant, da oxidant, lowers ta hadawan abu da iskar shaka jihar da kuma wani reactant, da reductant, da hadawan abu da iskar shaka yanayin ya karu. Sakamakon net shine musayar electrons. Musanya electron na iya faruwa a kaikaice kuma, misali, a cikin batura, mahimmin ra'ayi a cikin ilimin electrochemistry

Lokacin da mai amsawa ɗaya ya ƙunshi atom ɗin hydrogen, ana iya ɗaukar martani ta hanyar musayar protons a cikin sinadarai na acid-base. A cikin ma'anar gabaɗaya, kowane nau'in sinadari da ke da ikon ɗaure nau'ikan electron ana kiransa Lewis acid; Akasin haka, duk wani kwayoyin halitta da ke son ba da gudummawar nau'in electron ana kiransa tushen Lewis. A matsayin haɓakar hulɗar tushen acid, ka'idar HSAB tana la'akari da polarizability da girman ions.

Ana samun mahaɗan inorganic a cikin yanayi kamar ma'adanai. Ƙasa na iya ƙunshi ƙarfe sulfide kamar pyrite ko calcium sulfate kamar gypsum. Hakanan ana samun mahaɗan inorganic suna aiki da yawa azaman biomolecules: azaman electrolytes (sodium chloride), a cikin ajiyar makamashi (ATP) ko a cikin gini (kashin baya na polyphosphate a cikin DNA).

Inorganic Chemistry

Muhimmin fili na farko da mutum ya yi shi ne ammonium nitrate don takin ƙasa ta hanyar Haber. An haɗa mahaɗan inorganic don amfani azaman masu haɓakawa kamar vanadium (V) oxide da titanium (III) chloride, ko azaman reagents a cikin sunadarai na halitta kamar lithium aluminum hydride.[3]

Rukunin sunadarai na inorganic sune sunadarai na organometallic, cluster chemistry da sunadarai na bioinorganic. Waɗannan fagagen fage ne masu aiki na bincike a cikin sinadarai na inorganic, waɗanda ke nufin sabbin abubuwan haɓakawa, superconductors, da hanyoyin kwantar da hankali.



Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

EDTA yana ƙaddamar da haɗin gwiwar Co <sup id="mwjw">3+</sup> ion a cikin [Co(EDTA)]-
  1. "Careers in Chemistry: Inorganic Chemistry". American Chemical Society. Archived from the original on 2012-10-29.
  2. Coll, Richard K.; Treagust, David F. (2003). "Investigation of secondary school, undergraduate, and graduate learners' mental models of ionic bonding". Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 40 (5): 464–486. Bibcode:2003JRScT..40..464C. doi:10.1002/tea.10085. ISSN 0022-4308.
  3. Witschi, H. (2000-05-01). "Fritz Haber: 1868-1934". Toxicological Sciences. 55 (1): 1–2. doi:10.1093/toxsci/55.1.1. PMID 10788553.