Kalma

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Kalmomi a jere

kalma da harshen turanci word na ma'ana ne ga harshen magana da za'a iya bashi ma'ana amatsayin mafi ƙarancin zance (phoneme) da za'a iya furtawa shi kadai ba tare da objective ko practical meaning. A yawancin harsuna, kalmomi na iya zama jeri na graphemes baƙaƙe acikin yadda ake Tsarin rubutu wanda suke samun katsewa na wariya a tsakanin su ga kowace baƙi (harfa) wanda ya zarce wariyar tafi wanda aka sani na cikin kalmomi, ko kuma suke bin wani tsarin rabe-raben kalmomi da aka gindaya.[1] Fahimta ta "kalma" akan yawancin banbanta shi daga morpheme, wanda shine mafi kankantar zance dake da ma'ana, koda ko bazai iya tsayawa akan kansa ba.[1]

Acikin harsuna da dama, fahimtar mai yakamata a kira amatsayin "kalma" ba'a yi su ba, sai dai kawai ya ta'allaka ne ta hanyar tsarin koyo da rubutu.[1] Kuma wannan haka yake ga Harshen Turanci, da kuma yawancin harsuna da ake rubutun su da baƙaƙen da aka samo daga Latin ko baƙaƙen Girka.

Har ayanzu babu wata matsaya a tsakanin masana harshe (linguists) akan cikakken ma'anar "kalma" acikin harshen magana dake cin gashin kansa ga tsarinsa na rubutu, ko ace akan banbancin sa tsakanin furuccinsa da karinsa ("morpheme").[1] Wannan matsalar an tattauna ta sosai a Chinese da wasu harsunan na Gabashin Asiya,[2] and may be mootTemplate:Huh for Afro-Asiatic languages.

Acikin English orthography, maimaituwar kalmar "rock", "god", "write", "with", "the", "not" ana kallonsu amatsayin Kari (morpheme) daya, inda kuma "rocks", "ungodliness", "typewriter", da "cannot" dake hade da kari biyu ko fiye ("rock"+"s", "un"+"god"+"li"+"ness", "type"+"writ"+"er", and "can"+"not"). A turanci da wasu harsunan, Karin magana dake hada kalma yawanci yakan hada asali ne na asali (kamar "rock", "god", "type", "writ", "can", "not") da wasu affixes ("-s", "un-", "-ly", "-ness"). Kalmomi masu asali fiye da daya ("[type][writ]er", "[cow][boy]s", "[tele][graph]ically") ana kiransu compound words.

Kalmomi ana hada su tare da wasu fannonin harshe, kamar phrases ("a red rock", "put up with"), clauses ("I threw a rock"), da jimloli ("I jefa dutsen, amma ban samu ba").

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Haspelmath, Martin (2011). "The indeterminacy of word segmentation and the nature of morphology and syntax" (PDF). Folia Linguistica. 45 (1). doi:10.1515/flin.2011.002. ISSN 0165-4004.
  2. Charles F. Hockett (1951): Review of John De Francis (1950) Nationalism and language reform in China. Published in Language, volume 27, issue 3, pages 439-445. Quote: "an overwhelmingly high percentage of Chinese segmental morphemes (bound or free) consist of a single syllable; no more than perhaps five percent are longer than one syllable, and only a small handful are shorter. In this sense — in the sense of the favored canonical shape of morphemes — Chinese is indeed monosyllabic." doi:10.2307/409788JSTOR 409788