Kalmar Mace

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Wikidata.svgKalmar Mace
nau'in jinsi
Symbol venus.svg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na eukaryote (en) Fassara da organism (en) Fassara
Bangare na sexual reproduction (en) Fassara
Hannun riga da male organism (en) Fassara
Alamar gumakan Roman Venus ana yawan amfani dashi don wakiltar jinsin mata. Hakanan yana tsaye ga duniyar Venus kuma alama ce ta alchemical don jan ƙarfe.

Mace (alama ce: ♀), wadda ta kasan ce jinsin kwayar halitta, ko kuma ace wani sashi na kwayar halitta, wacce ke samar da kwayar halittar da ba ta hannu ba (kwayayen kwai). Haramtawa yanayin rashin lafiya, mafi yawan dabbobi masu shayarwa, gami da mutane mata, suna da ch chromosomes guda biyu. Halayen mata sun banbanta tsakanin jinsuna daban-daban tare da wasu nau'in dake dauke da cikakkun siffofin halayyar mata, kamar kasancewar gagarar mammary . Babu wani guda kwayoyin inji bayan jima'i da bambance-bambance a cikin jinsuna daban da kuma zama na biyu mata da maza alama sun samo asali mahara sau da kansa a cikin daban-daban juyin dangoginsu .

Kalmar mace dai ta fito ne daga Latin femella, sifar mace, ma'ana " mace "; [1] bashi da alaƙa da kalmar namiji . [2] [3] Mace kuma za a iya amfani da su koma zuwa jinsi .

Bayyana halaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mãtan nuna ova, da ya fi girma gametes a heterogamous haifuwa tsarin, yayin da karami da kuma yawanci motile gamete, da spermatozoon, an samar da namiji . [4] Mace ba za ta iya hayayyafa ta hanyar jima'i ba tare da samun damar saduwar namiji ba, kuma akasin haka, amma a wasu jinsunan mata na iya hayayyafa da kansu ta hanyar da ba daidai ba, misali ta hanyar parthenogenesis . [5]

Babu wani guda kwayoyin inji bayan jima'i da bambance-bambance a cikin jinsuna daban da kuma zama na biyu mata da maza alama sun samo asali mahara sau da kansa a cikin daban-daban juyin dangoginsu . [6] Hanyoyin haifuwa na jima'i sun hada da:

  • Jinsi iri-iri tare da nau'i biyu ko fiye da na ma'aurata tare da gametes na kamannin tsari da halaye (amma daban-daban a matakin kwayoyin),
  • Anisogamous jinsuna tare da gametes na namiji da mace,
  • Jinsunan Oogamous, wadanda suka hada da mutane, a inda mace gamete ta fi namiji girma kuma bata da ikon motsawa . Oogamy wani nau'i ne na lalata mata . Akwai wata hujja cewa wannan ƙirar ta haifar da ƙuntatawa na zahiri akan hanyoyin da gametes biyu ke haɗuwa kamar yadda ake buƙata don haifuwa ta jima'i .

Baya ga tabbataccen bambanci a cikin nau'in gamete da aka samar, bambance-bambance tsakanin maza da mata a cikin jinsi ɗaya koyaushe ba za'a iya yin hasashen ta banbancin wani ba. Batun bai takaita ga dabbobi ba; ƙwayoyin ƙwai suna samarwa ne ta hanyar chytrids, diatoms, molds na ruwa da tsire-tsire na ƙasa, da sauransu. A ƙasar shuke-shuke, mace da namiji designate ba kawai egg- da maniyyi-samar da kwayoyin da kuma Tsarin, amma kuma Tsarin daga cikin sporophytes cewa ba Yunƙurin ga namiji da mace shuke-shuke .[Ana bukatan hujja]

Mammalian mace[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hoton balagaggen mace ɗan adam, tare da namiji baligi don kwatantawa. Lura cewa duk samfuran guda biyu sun yiwa gashin jikinsu bangare; misali yankuna masu tsabtace-shaven.

Hali mai rarrabe na ajin Mammalia shine kasancewar mammary gland . Kwayoyin mammary sune gyarar gumi da ke samar da madara, wanda ake amfani da shi don ciyar da matasa na wani lokaci bayan haihuwa. Dabbobi masu shayarwa ne kawai ke samar da madara . Mammary gland shine mafi bayyane a cikin mutane, saboda jikin ɗan adam yana adana kayan mai mai yawa kusa da nono, wanda ke haifar da shahararrun nono . Kwayoyin mammary suna cikin dukkan dabbobi masu shayarwa, kodayake ba safai maza daga cikin jinsin ke amfani da su ba.

Yawancin mata masu shayarwa suna da kwafi biyu na X chromosome sabanin maza waɗanda ke da X guda ɗaya da ƙaramin Y chromosome ; wasu dabbobi masu shayarwa, kamar su platypus, suna da hadewa daban-daban. [7] [8] Don rama bambancin girma, ɗayan chromosomes na mata ba shi da aiki a cikin kowace kwayar halittar dabbobi masu shayarwa yayin da X ɗin da aka samu daga mahaifinsa yake aiki a marsupials. A cikin tsuntsaye da wasu dabbobi masu rarrafe, akasin haka, mace ce wacce take da karfin jiki kuma tana ɗauke da kwayar Z da W yayin da namiji yake ɗaukar chromosomes biyu na Z. Hakanan yanayin Intersex zai iya haifar da wasu haɗuwa, kamar XO ko XXX a cikin dabbobi masu shayarwa, waɗanda har yanzu ana ɗaukarsu a matsayin mata matuƙar ba su ƙunshi Y chromosome ba, sai dai takamaiman yanayin maye gurbi a cikin jinsin mutanen XY yayin da a cikin mahaifar Koyaya, waɗannan yanayi yakan haifar da rashin ƙarfi.[Ana bukatan hujja]

Dabbobi masu shayarwa mãtã kai live matasa, tare da banda monotreme mãtã, wanda sa qwai. [9] Wasu nau'ikan halittun da ba dabbobi masu shayarwa ba, kamar su guppies, suna da siffofin haihuwa kamar yadda suke; da wasu wadanda ba dabbobi masu shayarwa ba, kamar su sharks, wadanda kwayayensu ke kyankyashe a cikin jikinsu, su ma suna da haihuwar samari masu rai.[Ana bukatan hujja]

Etymology da amfani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

"fæmnan," tsohuwar kalmar Ingilishi don 'mace'

Kalmar mace ta fito ne daga Latin femella, sifar mace, ma'ana " mace "; ba shi da alaƙa da kalmar namiji, amma a ƙarshen karni na 14 an canza rubutun a Turanci don yin daidai da na namiji . [2] [3] Mace na iya koma zuwa ga ko dai jinsi ko jinsi [10] [11] ko siffar masu haɗawa . [12] [13]

Alamar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Alamar ♀ ( Unicode : U + 2640 Alt codes : Alt + 12), da'ira tare da ƙaramar gicciye a ƙasa, ana amfani da ita don wakiltar mata. Joseph Justus Scaliger ya taɓa yin hasashen cewa alamar tana da alaƙa da Venus, allahiya ta kyakkyawa saboda tana kama da madubin tagulla tare da abin hannu, amma masana na zamani suna ganin cewa abin son zuciya ne, kuma mafi ingancin ra'ayi shi ne cewa alamomin mata da na miji sun samo asali ne daga ƙuntatawa a cikin rubutun Girka na sunayen Girkawa na duniyoyin Thouros (Mars) da Phosphoros (Venus). [14]

Yin jima'i[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jima'i na wata kwayar halitta na iya ƙayyade ta dalilai da yawa. Waɗannan na iya zama na asali ne ko na muhalli, ko kuma canzawa ta yanayi yayin rayuwar wata kwayar halitta. Kodayake yawancin jinsin suna da jinsi biyu ne (mace ko namiji), dabbobin hermaphroditic suna da gabobin haihuwa na mata da na maza.[Ana bukatan hujja]

Jima'i na mafi yawan dabbobi masu shayarwa, gami da mutane, ana danganta su ne ta hanyar tsarin ƙayyade jima'i na XY inda maza ke da X da Y (akasin X da X) chromosomes na jima'i. A yayin haihuwa, namiji yana bayar da gudummawar ko dai maniyyin X ko na M, yayin da mace ke bayar da gudummawar kwan kwai. Maniyyin AY da kwai na X suna haifar da namiji, yayin da kwayar X da kwayar X ke samar da mace. Tsarin ZW game da jima'i, inda maza suke da ZZ (akasin ZW) chromosomes na jima'i, ana samunsu a cikin tsuntsaye, dabbobi masu rarrafe da wasu kwari da sauran kwayoyin. Members na Hymenoptera, kamar tururuwa da ƙudan zuma, an ƙaddara da haplodiploidy, inda mafi maza ne haploid da mãtã, kuma wasu bakararre maza ne diploid .[Ana bukatan hujja]

Kudurin muhalli[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kananan wasu jinsunan suna zama cikin jinsi ɗaya ko ɗayan dangane da yanayin mahalli na gida, misali zafin jikin ƙwai da yawa yana shafar jima'i na can ƙabilar. Sauran nau'ikan (kamar goby ) na iya canzawa, a matsayin manya, daga jinsi ɗaya zuwa wancan dangane da yanayin haihuwa na cikin gida (kamar taƙaitaccen karancin maza).

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Bangaren mata
  • Mata
  • Ciki
  • Jinsi
  • Yarinya
  • Uwargida
  • Mace
  • Womyn

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary - fēmella, ae, f. dim. femina Retrieved 2019-11-24
  2. 2.0 2.1 Online Etymology Dictionary - Female (n.) Retrieved 2019-11-24
  3. 3.0 3.1 Donald M. Ayers, English Words from Latin and Greek Elements, second edition (1986, University of Arizona Press), p. 113
  4. David E. Sadava, H. Craig Heller, William K. Purves, Life: The Science of Biology (2008), p. 899
  5. Franz Engelmann, G. A. Kerkut, The Physiology of Insect Reproduction (2015), p. 29
  6. Christopher Alan Anderson, "The Metaphysics of Sex ...in a Changing World!"
  7. Adrian T. Sumner, Chromosomes: Organization and Function (2008), pp. 97-98
  8. Benjamin A. Pierce, Genetics: A Conceptual Approach (2012), p. 73
  9. Terry Vaughan, James Ryan, Nicholas Czaplewski, Mammalogy (2011), pp. 391, 412
  10. Laura Palazzani, Gender in Philosophy and Law (2012), page v
  11. L. Gordon, "On difference", in Genders (1991), p. 95
  12. J. Richard Johnson, How to Build Electronic Equipment (1962), p. 167: "To minimize confusion, the connector portions with projecting prongs are referred to as the 'male' portion, and the sockets as the 'female' portion."
  13. Richard Ferncase, Film and Video Lighting Terms and Concepts (2013), p. 96: "female[:] Refers to a socket type connector, which must receive a male connector"
  14. G D Schott, Sex, drugs, and rock and roll: Sex symbols ancient and modern: their origins and iconography on the pedigree, BMJ 2005;331:1509-1510 (24 December), doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7531.1509