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Kamfas

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
kamfas
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na navigational instrument (en) Fassara
Amfani navigation (en) Fassara, bearing (en) Fassara, orientation (en) Fassara da Q16710285 Fassara
Tarihin maudu'i history of the compass (en) Fassara
compass with a slit at cover and looking hole
Kamfas na soja na zamani, tare da haɗa na'urar gani don daidaitawa
Magwajin kusurwa

Kamfas shi ne na'urar da ke nuna kwatancen kwatancen da aka yi amfani da su don kewayawa da daidaita yanayin ƙasa. Yawanci yana ƙunshi allura mai maganadisu ko wani abu, kamar katin kampas ko furen kampas, wanda zai iya daidaita kansa da Magnetic arewa . Ana iya amfani da wasu hanyoyin, gami da gyroscopes, magnetometers, da masu karɓar GPS .

Kwamfuta sau da yawa suna nuna kusurwoyi a cikin digiri: arewa yayi dai-dai da 0 °, kuma kusurwoyi suna karuwa a agogo, don haka gabas shine 90 °, kudu shine 180 °, yamma kuma 270 °. Waɗannan lambobin suna ba da damar kamfas ɗin don nuna azimuths ko bearings waɗanda galibi ana bayyana su a cikin digiri. Idan an san bambancin gida tsakanin Magnetic arewa da arewa ta gaskiya, to, alƙiblar maganaɗisu ita ma tana ba da shugabanci na gaskiya arewa.

Daga cikin manyan abubuwan ƙirƙire-kirkire guda hudu, daular Song ta kasar Sin ta fara kera kamfas din a matsayin na'urar duba tun farkon daular Han ta kasar Sin (tun c. 206 BC), [1] daga baya kuma daular Song ta kasar Sin ta karbe shi don kewayawa. Karni na 11. [2] [3] Farkon amfani da kamfas da aka rubuta a Yammacin Turai da duniyar Musulunci ya faru ne a shekara ta 1190. [4]

Magnetic kamfas[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamfas na soja da aka yi amfani da shi a lokacin yakin duniya na daya

Kamfas ɗin maganaɗisu shine nau'in kamfas ɗin da aka fi sani. Yana aiki a matsayin mai nuni zuwa " Magnetic arewa ", ma'aunin maganaɗisu na gida, saboda allura mai maganadisu a zuciyarta tana daidaita kanta da sassan da ke kwance na filin maganadisu na duniya . Filin maganadisu yana yin juzu'i akan allura, yana jan ƙarshen Arewa ko sandar allurar kusan zuwa ga duniyar maganadisu ta Arewa, kuma yana jan ɗayan zuwa igiyar maganadisu ta Kudu ta Duniya. [5] Ana ɗora allurar a kan madaidaicin juzu'i, a cikin mafi kyawun kompas ɗin juzu'i, don haka yana iya juyawa cikin sauƙi. Lokacin da kamfas ɗin ya kasance a matakin matakin, allurar tana juyawa har sai bayan ƴan daƙiƙa don ƙyale jijiyoyi su mutu, ta zauna cikin daidaitawarta.

A kewayawa, kwatance akan taswirori yawanci ana bayyana su tare da la'akari da yanki ko arewa na gaskiya, alƙiblar zuwa Yankin Arewa Pole, jujjuyawar axis na Duniya. Dangane da inda kamfas ɗin yake saman duniya kusurwar tsakanin arewa ta gaskiya da arewa mai maganadisu, wanda ake kira raguwar maganadisu na iya bambanta ko'ina tare da wurin yanki. Ana ba da raguwar maganadisu na gida akan yawancin taswirori, don ba da damar taswirar ta daidaita tare da kamfas mai layi ɗaya zuwa arewa na gaskiya. Wuraren sandunan maganaɗisu na duniya suna canzawa sannu a hankali tare da lokaci, wanda ake magana da shi azaman bambancin duniya na geomagnetic . Tasirin wannan yana nufin taswira tare da sabbin bayanan raguwa yakamata a yi amfani da su. Wasu compass na maganadisu sun haɗa da hanyoyin da za a biya da hannu don raguwar maganadisu, ta yadda kamfas ɗin ya nuna kwatance na gaskiya.

Kamfas ɗin da ba na maganadisu ba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai wasu hanyoyin samun arewa fiye da amfani da maganadisu, kuma daga mahangar kewayawa jimillar hanyoyi guda bakwai masu yuwuwa akwai (inda maganadisu ɗaya ce daga cikin bakwai). Na'urori masu auna firikwensin guda biyu waɗanda ke amfani da biyu daga cikin sauran ƙa'idodi shida galibi ana kiran su kompas, watau gyrocompass da GPS-compass.

Gyrocompass[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gyrocompass yayi kama da gyroscope . Kamfas ɗin da ba na maganaɗisu ba ne wanda ke gano gaskiya ta arewa ta hanyar amfani da dabaran mai sauri (mai ƙarfin lantarki) da ƙarfin juzu'i don yin amfani da jujjuyawar Duniya. Ana amfani da gyrocompasses sosai akan jiragen ruwa . Suna da manyan fa'idodi guda biyu akan kamfas ɗin maganaɗisu su ne kamar haka:

  • sun sami arewa na gaskiya, watau, alkiblar jujjuyawar duniya, sabanin arewa mai maganadisu ,
  • Karfe na ferromagnetic (ciki har da baƙin ƙarfe, ƙarfe, cobalt, nickel, da sauran allurai daban-daban) ba su shafe su a cikin tarkacen jirgin ruwa. (Babu kompas da ƙarfe mara ƙarfe ba ya shafa, kodayake kompas ɗin maganadisu zai shafi kowane irin wayoyi tare da wutar lantarki da ke wucewa ta cikin su. )

Manya-manyan jiragen ruwa yawanci suna dogara ne akan gyrocompass, suna amfani da kamfas ɗin maganadisu kawai azaman madadin. Ƙarawa, ana amfani da kwamfutoci masu jujjuyawar lantarki akan ƙananan tasoshin. Duk da haka, Magnetic compasses har yanzu ana amfani da su sosai saboda suna iya zama ƙanana, suna amfani da fasaha mai sauƙi mai dogara, suna da arha mai sauƙi, sau da yawa sauƙin amfani fiye da GPS, suna buƙatar samar da makamashi, kuma ba kamar GPS ba, abubuwa ba su shafar su, misali bishiyoyi, wanda zai iya toshe karɓar siginar lantarki.

Ana amfani da masu karɓar GPS azaman compasses[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masu karɓar GPS ta amfani da eriya biyu ko fiye da aka ɗora su daban tare da haɗa bayanai tare da naúrar motsi marar aiki (IMU) yanzu za su iya cimma 0.02° a daidaitattun kantuna kuma suna da lokutan farawa cikin daƙiƙa maimakon sa'o'i don tsarin gyrocompass. Na'urorin suna tantance daidaitattun matsayi (latitudes, longitudes da tsayi) na eriya a Duniya, daga inda za'a iya ƙididdige kwatancen kwatance. An kera su da farko don aikace-aikacen jiragen ruwa da na jiragen sama, kuma suna iya gano farar jirgi da nadi. Ƙananan masu karɓar GPS mai ɗaukar hoto tare da eriya ɗaya kawai na iya ƙayyade kwatance idan ana motsa su, koda kuwa a cikin tafiyar tafiya kawai. Ta hanyar tantance matsayinta daidai a duniya a wasu lokutan dakika kadan tsakani, na'urar zata iya lissafin saurinta da kuma ainihin abin da ya faru (dangane da arewa na gaskiya ) na alkiblarta. Yawancin lokaci, yana da kyau a auna alkiblar da abin hawa ke tafiya a zahiri, maimakon hanyarsa, watau hanyar da hancinsa yake nunawa. Waɗannan kwatance na iya bambanta idan akwai iskar gilla ko igiyar ruwa.

Kamfas na GPS suna raba manyan fa'idodin gyrocompasses. Sun tabbatar da Arewa ta gaskiya, [6] sabanin Arewa Magnetic, kuma ba su shafe su da rugujewar filin maganadisu na Duniya. Bugu da ƙari, idan aka kwatanta da gyrocompasses, suna da rahusa sosai, suna aiki mafi kyau a yankunan polar, ba su da wahala a shawo kan girgizar injin, kuma ana iya fara farawa da sauri da sauri. Koyaya, sun dogara da aiki, da sadarwa tare da, tauraron dan adam GPS, waɗanda za a iya rushe su ta hanyar harin lantarki ko kuma sakamakon mummunar guguwar rana. Gyrocompasses suna ci gaba da amfani da su don dalilai na soji (musamman a cikin jiragen ruwa na karkashin ruwa, inda magnetic da GPS compasses ba su da amfani), amma an maye gurbinsu da kwamfutocin GPS, tare da madogaran maganadisu, a cikin mahallin farar hula.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hoton mutumin da ke riƙe da kamfas, daular Song
Samfurin kamfas na dutse daga daular Han

Kamfas na farko a zamanin daular Han na kasar Sin an yi su ne da dutsen lode, wani ma'adinin ƙarfe da aka yi da shi ta dabi'a. [7] Daga baya an yi kamfas da allurar ƙarfe, magnetized ta hanyar buga su da dutse mai tsayi, wanda ya bayyana a kasar Sin ta 1088 a lokacin daular Song, kamar yadda Shen Kuo ya bayyana. Busassun compass sun fara bayyana kusan a shekara ta 1300 a Turai ta Tsakiya da Duniyar Musulunci . An maye gurbin wannan a farkon karni na 20 ta hanyar kamfas mai cike da ruwa. [8]

Kamfas na zamani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mai sarrafa ruwa mai cike da ruwa ko kamfas mai kaifin baki tare da lanyard

Magnetic Kamfas[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamfas na zamani yawanci suna amfani da allura mai maganaɗisu ko bugun kira a cikin capsule gaba ɗaya cike da ruwa (man fitila, man ma'adinai, farin ruhohi, kerosene mai tsafta, ko barasa na ethyl sun zama ruwan dare). Yayin da tsofaffin ƙira suka haɗa da diaphragm na roba mai sassauƙa ko sararin sama a cikin capsule don ba da izinin canjin ƙarar da ke haifar da zafin jiki ko tsayi, wasu kwamfutocin ruwa na zamani suna amfani da ƙananan gidaje da/ko kayan capsule masu sassauƙa don cimma sakamako iri ɗaya. [9] Ruwan da ke cikin capsule yana aiki don dasa motsin allurar, yana rage lokacin oscillation da haɓaka kwanciyar hankali. Maɓalli masu mahimmanci akan kamfas, gami da ƙarshen ƙarshen allura galibi ana yiwa alama da phosphorescent, photoluminescent, ko kayan haske mai haske don ba da damar karanta komfas da dare ko cikin haske mara kyau. Kamar yadda komfas ɗin cika ruwa ba shi da ƙarfi a ƙarƙashin matsin lamba, yawancin kwamfutoci masu cika ruwa da yawa za su yi aiki daidai ƙarƙashin ruwa zuwa zurfin zurfi.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Li Shu-hua, p. 176
  2. Kreutz, p. 367
  3. Li Shu-hua, p. 182f.
  4. Kreutz, p. 370
  5. The magnetic lines of force in the Earth's field do not accurately follow great circles around the planet, passing exactly over the magnetic poles. Therefore the needle of a compass only approximately points to the magnetic poles.
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  8. Empty citation (help)
  9. Gear Review: Kasper & Richter Alpin Compass, OceanMountainSky.Com