Yaƙin Duniya na I
Yakin Duniya na I da turanci World War I (ana kintse sunan WWI ko WW1), kuma ana kiran ta da First World War da turanci wato Yakin Duniya na Farko kuma Great War wato Babban Yaki, wata Yakin Duniya ce da yafaro daga nahiyar Turai wanda aka fara tun daga 28 July 1914 har zuwa 11 November 1918. Wanda ayanzu ake dangatan shi da suna "the war to end all wars" wato Yakin da zai tsaida Yakoki'', ya kai ga hada fiye da miliyan 70 million na ma'aikatan soja, da miliyan 60 na Turawa, wanda yasa yazama daya daga cikin babban yaki a tarihi. daya daga cikin yakin da aka rasa rayuka da dama a tarihi, an kiyasta kusan mutane miliyan 9 Mayaka aka rasa da miliyan 7 na fararen hula wadanda suka mutu sanadiyar yakin, wanda ya haifar da kisan kiyashi da kuma cutar 1918 influenza pandemic da kuma rasa rayukan Mutane miliyan 50 zuwa 100 a duniya baki daya.
A 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, wani Bosnian Serb Dan kasar Yugoslavia, ya kashe wanda shine magajin Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand a Sarajevo, hakan ya haifar da July Crisis. akan mayar da martani, a 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Wanda amsar da kasar Serbia ta bayar bai gamsar da Austriya ba, yasa suka shiga yaki tsakanin su.
Hadakar kawance ya fadada rikicin akan wani dan tattaunawa tsakanin mutum biyu a Balkans zuwa ga babban rikici da ya game yawancin nahiyar Turai. A July 1914, great powers dake Turai sun rabu zuwa hadaka daban-daban: akwai Triple Entente—wanda ta hada da France, Russia da Britain aciki— da kuma Triple Alliance na Germany, Austria-Hungary da kuma Italy (wanda Triple Alliance sun kasance masu kariya ne, sun bar kasar Italiya ta fita daga yakin a shekara ta 1914). Rasha ta kasa abunda yakama ce ta na kare Serbia da, bayan Austria-Hungary shelled the babban birnin Serbiya Belgrade a 28th, an yarda da hadaka. Babban hadakar da Rasha tayi ta bayyana shi ne a yammacin 30 July; a 31st, Austria-Hungary da Germany suma suka yi haka, sai ita kuma Germany ta nema Rasha data rushe hadakarta acikin awanni goma sha biyu (12 hours). batan Russia taki bi, sai Germany ta kaddamar da yaki a farkon (1) watan Augusta domin taimakon Austria-Hungary, a tareda Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th; sai kasar Faransa ta umurce cikakkiyar hadaka domin taimakawa Russia a 2 August.
Dabarun kasar Jamus na gabza yaki akan Faransa da Rasha shine ta tattara sojoji a yamma wadanda zasu yi galaba akan France cikin makonni hudu, sannan kuma ta aika da sojojin Gabas dan gabzawa da Rasha kafin ta gama shiryawa; this wanan dabarar ce akasa was suna Schlieffen Plan. A 2 ga watan August, Germany ta nemi hanya da zata rika wucewa ta kasar Belgium, itace muhimmin samun nasara akan Faransa. bayan kin hakan, sai domin Jamus ta farwa kasar Belgium da safiyar 3 Augusta kuma suka kaddamar da yaki a Faransa a wannan rana; the Belgian government invoked the 1839 Treaty of London and in compliance with its obligations under this, Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August. On 12 August, Britain and France also declared war on Austria-Hungary; on the 23rd, Japan sided with the Entente, seizing German possessions in China and the Pacific. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each powers' colonial empires as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe. The Entente and its allies would eventually become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary, Germany and their allies would become known as the Central Powers.
The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917 (the Eastern Front, by contrast, was marked by much greater exchanges of territory). In 1915, Italy joined the Allied Powers and opened a front in the Alps. The Kingdom of Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and the Kingdom of Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans. The United States initially remained neutral, though it was an important supplier of war material to the Allies. However, after the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, and the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U.S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but ultimately the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops.
Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, and Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918. The 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive. This offensive was initially successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated, signing the Armistice of Mudros. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, and the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918.
World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural, economic, and social climate of the world. The war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous revolutions and uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, France, the United States, and Italy) imposed their terms on the defeated powers in a series of treaties agreed at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, the most well known being the German peace treaty—the Treaty of Versailles. Ultimately, as a result of the war the Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman, and Russian Empires ceased to exist, with numerous new states created from their remains. However, despite the conclusive Allied victory (and the creation of the League of Nations during the Peace Conference, intended to prevent future wars), a Second World War would follow just over twenty years later.
Anazarci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
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