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Kingston, Jamaica

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Kingston, Jamaica
Kingston (en)


Kirari «A city which hath foundations»
Suna saboda Kingston upon Thames (en) Fassara
Wuri
Map
 17°58′17″N 76°47′35″W / 17.9714°N 76.7931°W / 17.9714; -76.7931
Commonwealth realm (en) FassaraJamaika
County of Jamaica (en) FassaraSurrey County (en) Fassara
Babban birnin
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 580,000 (2009)
• Yawan mutane 1,208.33 mazaunan/km²
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 480,000,000 m²
Wuri a ina ko kusa da wace teku Caribbean Sea (en) Fassara
Altitude (en) Fassara 9 m
Sun raba iyaka da
Portmore (en) Fassara
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1692
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
Wasu abun

Yanar gizo ksac.gov.jm

Kingston babban birni ne kuma birni mafi girma na kasar Jamaica, yana kan gabar kudu maso gabashin tsibirin kasar. Yana fuskantar tashar jiragen ruwa wanda Palisadoes ke kare shi, dogon sand spit wanda ya haɗu da garin Port Royal da filin jirgin sama na Norman Manley zuwa sauran tsibirai. A cikin Amurka, Kingston shine birni mafi girma da ake magana da yaren Ingilishi a cikin Caribbean.[1]

Ƙungiyoyin ƙananan hukumomin Kingston da Saint Andrew sun haɗu da Dokar Kingston da St. Andrew Corporation na 1923, don kafa Kingston da St. Andrew Corporation (KSAC). Greater Kingston, ko "Yankin Kamfanoni" yana nufin waɗancan yankunan ƙarƙashin KSAC; duk da haka, ba wai kawai yana nufin Kingston Parish ba, wanda kawai ya ƙunshi tsohon cikin gari da Port Royal.[2] Kingston Parish yana da yawan jama'a 89,057, kuma St. Andrew Parish yana da yawan jama'a 573,369 a shekara ta 2011,[3] Kingston Saint Andrew kawai yana da iyaka da gabas, yamma da arewa. Iyakar yanki don Ikklesiya ta Kingston ta ƙunshi al'ummomin masu zuwa: Tivoli Gardens, Denham Town, Rae Town, Gidajen Kingston, National Heroes Park, Bournemouth Gardens, Gardens Norman, Rennock Lodge, Springfield da Port Royal, tare da sassan Rollington Town, Franklyn Town, da Allman Town.[4][5]

Garin na da iyaka da nisan Miles shida zuwa yamma, Dutsen Stony zuwa arewa, Papine zuwa arewa maso gabas, da Harbour View zuwa gabas, waɗanda al'ummomi ne a cikin birane da kewayen Saint Andrew. Al'ummomin karkara na St. Andrew kamar Gordon Town, Bankin Mavis, Lawrence Tavern, Mt. Airy, da Bull Bay ba za a bayyana su a cikin birnin Kingston ba.[6]

Gundumomi biyu sun ƙunshi tsakiyar yankin Kingston: Downtown mai tarihi da New Kingston. Dukansu Filin Jirgin Sama na Norman Manley ne ke ba da su sannan kuma ta ƙarami kuma da farko Tinson Pen Aerodrome.[7]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abubuwan da ke faruwa a Kingston bayan gobarar 1882.
Taswirar Kingston, 1897

An kafa Kingston a watan Yuli 22, 1692, jim kadan bayan girgizar kasa ta 1692 da ta lalata Port Royal a 1692; Asalin sashen na birnin wanda ke a kasan filayen Liguanea an kirkire shi ne don tsugunar da wadanda suka tsira daga wannan girgizar kasa[8]

Kafin girgizar ƙasa, ayyukan Kingston na noma ne kawai[9]. Wadanda suka tsira daga girgizar kasar sun kafa sansani a bakin tekun. Kimanin mutane dubu biyu ne suka mutu sakamakon cututtukan da suka shafi sauro. Da farko mutanen sun zauna a sansanin tanti akan Kanar Barry's Hog Crawle. Garin bai fara girma ba sai bayan da aka ci gaba da lalata Port Royal da gobara a 1703. Mai binciken John Goffe ya zana wani tsari na garin bisa ga layin da ke iyaka da Arewa, Gabas, Yamma, da Titin Harbour. An tsara sabon tsarin grid na garin don sauƙaƙe kasuwanci, musamman tsarin manyan tituna mai tsawon ƙafa 66 (mita 20), wanda ke ba da damar zirga-zirga tsakanin tashar jiragen ruwa da gonaki a cikin ƙasa[10]. A shekara ta 1716, ya zama birni mafi girma kuma cibiyar kasuwanci ga Jamaica. Gwamnati ta siyar da filaye ga mutane tare da ka'idar cewa ba za su saya fiye da adadin filin da suka mallaka a Port Royal ba, sai dai a bakin teku. Sannu a hankali ’yan kasuwa masu hannu da shuni sun fara ƙaura daga kan sana’o’insu zuwa gonakin gona a arewacin filayen Liguanea.[11][12]

Makarantar kyauta ta farko, Wolmers, an kafa ta ne a cikin 1729 kuma akwai gidan wasan kwaikwayo, na farko akan titin Harbour sannan ya koma 1774 zuwa Parade ta Arewa.[13] Dukansu har yanzu suna nan. A cikin 1755 gwamna, Sir Charles Knowles, ya yanke shawarar canja wurin ofisoshin gwamnati daga Garin Mutanen Espanya zuwa Kingston. Wasu sun yi tunanin zama wurin da bai dace da Majalisar ba a kusanci da karkatar da dabi'un Kingston, kuma gwamna na gaba ya soke dokar. Koyaya, a shekara ta 1780 yawan mutanen Kingston ya kai 11,000, kuma 'yan kasuwa sun fara fafutukar ganin an canja babban birnin daga Garin Mutanen Espanya, wanda a lokacin kasuwancin Kingston ya rufe shi.

Cocin St. Thomas, dake kan titin King, babbar hanya, an fara gina shi ne kafin 1699 amma an sake gina shi bayan girgizar kasa a 1907.

A ƙarshen karni na 18, birnin ya ƙunshi gine-ginen bulo fiye da 3,000. Tashar jiragen ruwa ta bunkasa kasuwanci, kuma ta taka rawa a yakin ruwa da dama na karni na 18. Kingston ya ɗauki ayyukan Garin Mutanen Espanya (babban birnin a lokacin). Waɗannan ayyuka sun haɗa da noma, kasuwanci, sarrafawa da babban tashar sufuri zuwa kuma daga Kingston da sauran sassan tsibirin[14].

A cikin 1788, Kingston yana da yawan jama'a 25,000, wanda shine kusan kashi goma na yawan jama'ar tsibirin. Ɗaya daga cikin kowane mutum huɗu da ke zaune a Kingston fari ne, kuma akwai ɗimbin jama'a masu 'yanci a can ma, ma'ana biyu cikin kowane mutum biyar da ke zaune a Kingston suna da 'yanci. Sauran kashi uku cikin biyar na mutanen Kingston sun kasance bayi ne na bakaken fata.

Gwamnati ta zartar da wani doka don canja wurin ofisoshin gwamnati zuwa Kingston daga Garin Mutanen Espanya, wanda ya faru a cikin 1872.[15] A cikin 1882, an yi wata babbar wuta a Kingston.[16] A cikin 1892, wutar lantarki ta fara zuwa Jamaica, lokacin da aka ba da ita ga wata masana'anta da ke samar da tururi mai ƙonewa a titin Gold Street a Kingston.[17]

A cikin 1907, mutane 800 sun mutu a wata girgizar ƙasa da aka fi sani da girgizar ƙasa ta Kingston ta 1907, ta lalata kusan dukkanin gine-ginen tarihi a kudancin Parade a cikin birnin. Hakan ya kasance lokacin da aka kafa dokar hana tsayin ƙafafu 60 (m18) a kan gine-ginen da ke tsakiyar birnin. An gina waɗannan gine-gine masu hawa uku da siminti mai ƙarfi. Gina titin King a cikin birni shine wuri na farko da ya karya wannan ka'idar ginin.[18]

A cikin shekarun 1930, tarzoma a duk tsibirin ya haifar da haɓaka ƙungiyoyin kwadago da jam’iyyun siyasa don wakiltar ma’aikata.[19] Garin ya zama gida ga harabar Mona na Jami'ar West Indies da aka kafa a 1948, tare da ɗaliban likitanci guda ashirin da hudu.

A cikin shekarun 1960, hankalin duniya na kiɗan reggae a wancan lokacin ya zo daidai da faɗaɗa da haɓaka kadada 95 (haɗin 38) na yankin tsakiyar birnin Kingston; A shekarun 1980, yawancin tsoffin gine-ginen da kamfanonin gine-gine suka ruguje, kuma an sake gina gaba dayan bakin ruwa tare da otal-otal, shaguna, ofisoshi, wuraren al'adu, da wuraren balaguro da na jigilar kaya. A cikin 1966, Kingston ita ce birni mai masaukin baki ga wasannin Commonwealth. [20]

A cikin babban zaɓe na 1980, an zaɓi gwamnatin jam'iyyar gurguzu ta mulkin demokraɗiyya (PNP), sannan gwamnatocin da suka biyo baya sun fi karkata ga kasuwa tare da mai da hankali kan yawon buɗe ido da dangantaka da Amurka, wanda ya nuna "hargitsi" da "m" zamanin, wanda Cuba da Amurka suka yi yaƙi don kula da al'adu a kan Jamaica.[21]

A cikin 1990s, laifuka sun karu a yankin kuma ana ba da rahoton tarzoma da yawa, ciki har da wanda ya faru a 1999 game da hauhawar farashin man fetur. A cikin 1999, gwamnatin Jamaica ta umurci dakarun soji da su yi sintiri a titunan Kingston a wani yunƙuri na magance munanan laifuka. A shekara ta 2001, sojojin sojoji da motoci masu sulke sun yi amfani da karfi don "maido da oda" a Kingston bayan "rikicin kwanaki uku ya yi sanadin mutuwar a kalla mutane 27"[22].

A cikin 2010, tashin hankalin Kingston, rikici mai dauke da makamai tsakanin sojojin Jamaica da na 'yan sanda a Kingston da kuma shawagi na miyagun ƙwayoyi, ya ja hankalin duniya.[23]Rikicin, wanda akasari ya faru a tsakanin 24-25 ga Mayu, ya kashe fararen hula akalla 73 tare da jikkata wasu akalla 35.[24] An kuma kashe sojoji hudu da ‘yan sanda[25].

Hotuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manzarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Five Things You Didn't Know About Kingston, Jamaica". Caribbean Journal (in Turanci). 2016-07-17. Retrieved 2022-06-21.Samfuri:Rs
  2. "Brief history of Kingston, Jamaica". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named population
  4. "Electoral Commission of Jamaica". Archived from the original on 5 January 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  5. "University of Texas, Perry–Castañeda Library Map Collection". Archived from the original on 2020-01-15. Retrieved 2023-02-19.
  6. "Map of Kingston Jamaica - Jamaica's Capital City". Jamaica Land We Love. Retrieved 2022-06-21.
  7. "Airports". www.visitjamaica.com (in Turanci). Retrieved 2022-06-21.
  8. Greene, Jack (2016). Settler Jamaica in the 1750s. University of Virginia Press. p. 153.
  9. Greene, Jack (2016). Settler Jamaica in the 1750s. University of Virginia Press. p. 153.
  10. Mann, Emily. "Kingston, Jamaica – a city born of 'wickedness' and disaster". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  11. Greene, Jack (2016). Settler Jamaica in the 1750s. University of Virginia Press. p. 153.
  12. Mann, Emily. "Kingston, Jamaica – a city born of 'wickedness' and disaster". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  13. “Wolmers's Boys School". wolmers.net. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  14. Christer Petley, White Fury (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018), p. 38.
  15. "Kingston | national capital, Jamaica".
  16. “1882". Jamaica's history - always something new to find out!. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  17. “Through the Years". www.jpsco.com. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  18. “1907 Kingston Earthquake | EKACDM". www.uwi.edu. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  19. “Labour rebellions of the 1930s in the British Caribbean region colonies - Richard Hart | libcom.org". libcom.org. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  20. “Kingston 1966 | Commonwealth Games Federation". thecgf.com. Retrieved 21 June2022.
  21. “The 1980s Historian | Memories of turbulent and volatile Jamaica". jamaica-gleaner.com. 15 November 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  22. “Jamaica profile - Timeline". BBC News. 10 January 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  23. Whittell, Giles (27 May 2010). "Jamaican leader denies link to Shower Posse gangsters". The Times. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  24. “Jamaica police put death toll at 73". The Gazette (Montreal). 27 May 2010. Archived from the original on 30 May 2010. Retrieved 27 May2010.
  25. Sheil, Ross; Davies, Caroline (26 May 2010). "Kingston residents trapped inside homes as Jamaican death toll rises". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2010.