Kisan kai

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Kisan kai shine da gangan ya yi sanadin mutuwar kansa.[1] Cututtukan tunani-ciki har da baƙin ciki, cuta mai bipolar, Autism, schizophrenia, rikicewar ɗabi'a, rikicewar tashin hankali, da shaye-shaye-ciki har da barasa da kuma amfani da benzodiazepines-sune abubuwan haɗari.[2][3][4][5] Wasu masu kashe kansu ayyuka ne masu ban sha'awa saboda damuwa, kamar daga matsalolin kuɗi, matsalolin dangantaka kamar rabuwa, ko zalunci.[2][6][7] Wadanda suka yi yunkurin kashe kansu a baya suna cikin haɗari mafi girma don yunƙurin nan gaba.[2] Ƙoƙarin rigakafin kashe kansa mai inganci ya haɗa da iyakance damar yin amfani da hanyoyin kashe kansa—kamar bindigogi, ƙwayoyi, da guba; magance matsalolin tunani da rashin amfani da abu; rahotannin kafofin watsa labaru a hankali game da kashe kansa; da inganta yanayin tattalin arziki.[2][8] Duk da cewa layukan tarzoma sun zama ruwan dare, ba a yi nazari sosai ba.[9][10]

Hanyar kashe kansa da aka fi amfani da ita ta bambanta tsakanin ƙasashe, kuma tana da alaƙa da samun ingantattun hanyoyi.[11] Hanyoyin da ake amfani da su na kashe kansa sun haɗa da rataye, gubar magungunan kashe qwari, da bindigogi.[2][12] Kisan kai ya yi sanadiyar mutuwar mutane 828,000 a duniya a shekarar 2015, adadin da ya karu daga 712,000 da suka mutu a shekarar 1990.[13][14] Wannan ya sa kashe kansa ya zama na 10 da ke haddasa mace-mace a duniya.[3][15]

Kusan 1.5% na mutane suna mutuwa ta hanyar kashe kansu.[16] A cikin shekarar da ta gabata, kusan kashi 12 cikin 100,000 ne.[15] Yawan kashe kashe kansa gabaɗaya ya fi girma a tsakanin maza fiye da na mata, wanda ya ninka sau 1.5 a ƙasashe masu tasowa zuwa sau 3.5 a cikin ƙasashen da suka ci gaba.[17] Kisan kai ya fi zama ruwan dare a tsakanin wadanda suka haura shekaru 70; duk da haka, a wasu ƙasashe, masu shekaru tsakanin 15 zuwa 30 suna cikin haɗari mafi girma.[17] Turai ce ta fi kowace yanki yawan kashe kai a cikin 2015.[18] Akwai kimanin mutane miliyan 10 zuwa 20 na yunkurin kashe kansu a duk shekara.[19] Ƙoƙarin kashe kansa na marasa mutuwa na iya haifar da rauni da naƙasa na dogon lokaci.[20] A kasashen yammacin duniya, yunkurin ya zama ruwan dare tsakanin matasa da kuma tsakanin mata.[20]

Ra'ayi game da kashe kansa ya sami tasiri ga jigogi masu fa'ida kamar addini, girmamawa, da ma'anar rayuwa.[21][22] Addinai na Ibrahim a al'ada suna ɗaukar kashe kansa a matsayin laifi ga Allah, saboda imani da tsarkakar rayuwa.[23] A lokacin samurai a kasar Japan, an mutunta wani nau'in kashe kansa da ake kira seppuku (harakiri) a matsayin hanyar yin kasawa ko kuma wani nau'i na zanga-zanga.[24] Sati, al'adar da Rajan Biritaniya ta haramta, ta yi tsammanin bazawarar Indiya za ta kashe kanta a gobarar jana'izar mijinta, da son rai ko kuma ta fuskanci matsin lamba daga danginta da al'ummarta.[25] Kisan kai da yunƙurin kashe kansa, yayin da a baya ba bisa ka'ida ba, ba ya wanzu a yawancin ƙasashen yamma.[26] Ya kasance laifin aikata laifi a wasu ƙasashe.[27] A cikin karni na 20 da 21, an yi amfani da kunar bakin wake a lokuta da ba kasafai ba a matsayin wani nau'i na zanga-zangar, kuma ana amfani da kamikaze da kunar bakin wake a matsayin dabarar soja ko ta'addanci.[28]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary (28th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2006. ISBN 978-0-7817-3390-8.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "Suicide Fact sheet N°398". WHO. April 2016. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Hawton K, van Heeringen K (April 2009). "Suicide". Lancet. 373 (9672): 1372–81. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60372-X. PMID 19376453. S2CID 208790312.
  4. Dodds TJ (March 2017). "Prescribed Benzodiazepines and Suicide Risk: A Review of the Literature". The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. 19 (2). doi:10.4088/PCC.16r02037. PMID 28257172.
  5. Richa S, Fahed M, Khoury E, Mishara B (2014). "Suicide in autism spectrum disorders". Archives of Suicide Research. 18 (4): 327–39. doi:10.1080/13811118.2013.824834. PMID 24713024. S2CID 25741716.
  6. Bottino SM, Bottino CM, Regina CG, Correia AV, Ribeiro WS (March 2015). "Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review". Cadernos de Saude Publica. 31 (3): 463–75. doi:10.1590/0102-311x00036114. PMID 25859714.
  7. "Suicide rates rising across the U.S. | CDC Online Newsroom | CDC". www.cdc.gov (in Turanci). 11 April 2019. Retrieved 19 September 2019. Relationship problems or loss, substance misuse; physical health problems; and job, money, legal or housing stress often contributed to risk for suicide.
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  10. Zalsman G, Hawton K, Wasserman D, van Heeringen K, Arensman E, Sarchiapone M, et al. (July 2016). "Suicide prevention strategies revisited: 10-year systematic review". The Lancet. Psychiatry. 3 (7): 646–59. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30030-X. PMID 27289303. Other approaches that need further investigation include gatekeeper training, education of physicians, and internet and helpline support.
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  13. Wang H, Naghavi M, Allen C, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Carter A, et al. (GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators) (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.
  14. Naghavi M, Wang H, Lozano R, Davis A, Liang X, Zhou M, et al. (GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators) (January 2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442.
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