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Kogin Birim

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Kogin Birim
General information
Height above mean sea level (en) Fassara 103 m
Labarin ƙasa
Map
Tsarin Daidaiton Labarin Kasa 5°58′33″N 1°13′12″W / 5.9758°N 1.22°W / 5.9758; -1.22
Wuri Yankin Gabashi (Ghana)
Kasa Ghana
Territory Ghana
River mouth (en) Fassara Kogin Pra (Ghana)
Kogin Pra da manyan birane, gami da Birim

Kogin Birim yana daya daga cikin manyan kogunan Kogin Pra a Ghana kuma mafi muhimmancin yankin da ake samar da lu'u-lu'u, yana ratsa mafi yawan fadin yankin Gabas. Kogin yana hawa a gabashin Dutsen Atewa, yana gudana arewa ta tsakanin ratar tsakanin wannan zangon da yankin Kwahu Plateau, sa'annan yayi tafiya kusan kudu maso yamma har sai ya haɗu da Pra. Ya kuma ba da sunansa ga dutsen Birimian, wanda ke samar da mafi yawan zinare a yankin. Ghana ce ta biyu mafi girma a duniya wajen samar da gwal a Afirka.[1]

Ilimin kasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kogin Birim yana cikin yankin Garkuwan Manya na yankin Afirka ta Yamma, wanda wasu kyawawan duwatsun Birimian na farkon Proterozoic suka mamaye shi. Wadannan duwatsun sun bayyana sun samo asali ne daga tsakiyar tsaunukan tsaunuka, wanda ya samar da wani kwari wanda ya yi karo da shi kuma ya hau kan garkuwar Man garken Craton na Afirka ta Yamma kuma an matse shi don samar da jerin ninki gaba daya da ke tafiya a arewa maso gabas.[2] Duwatsun Birimiyan sun hada da tsarin Akwatian, wanda aka sanyawa sunan garin Akwatia a cikin kwarin Birim, wanda ya samar da sama da carat 100,000,000 (Kilogiram 20,000) na lu'ulu'u.[3] Mafi yawan lu'u-lu'u ana samun su a cikin duwatsu na Harzburgitic kuma ga alama sun yi lu'ulu'u a yanayin zafin yanayi wanda ba a saba gani ba da matsi a zurfin lithosphere.[4]

Muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kogin ya hau a cikin gundumar Kibi ko Akim na yankin gabashin Ghana, a Yankin Atewa, wanda ya tashi zuwa 780m. wananan yankunan da ke kewaye da su sun kai kusan 180-200m sama da matakin teku. Mafi yawan zangon Atewa yana dajin gandun daji, tare da manyan yankuna na gandun daji na farko dauke da tsire-tsire masu yawa, dabbobi da kwari duk da ci gaba da farautar katako. Akwai shafuka da yawa da ba a bincika su ba. Yankin Kibi yana da ruwan sama 1500-2000mm kowace shekara.[5]

Kogin Birim yana cikin yankin ruwa na kusa da kusurwa na Ghana. Akwai lokutan ruwa guda biyu, daya daga Mayu zuwa Yuni da na biyu daga Satumba zuwa Oktoba. A lokacin bushewar, yanayin zafi ya kusa 26°C a watan Agusta da 30°C a cikin Maris. Yanayin dangi shine 70% - 80% cikin shekara.[6] A wani lokacin da akwai gandun daji mai zafi mai yawa, an share manyan yankuna don noma. Yankin gandun dajin na Ghana ya sauka daga hekta miliyan 8.2 a kusan hekta 1900 zuwa 1.6 a shekara ta 2000, kuma yana ci gaba da raguwa saboda bukatar fitar da kayayyaki da kayayyakin gini da karuwar mutane ke yi. Ana gabatar da gonakin da aka sarrafa kuma yana iya taimakawa wajen juya raguwar.[7]

Ruwan kogin yana dauke da matakan kayan daki da na streptococci, galibi na asalin mutane amma a wasu lokuta saboda gurbatarwar da ake yi daga dabbobin, wanda ke sanya rashin hadari a sha ba tare da magani ba.[8] A ƙasa Akwatia kogin yana riƙe da babban matakin sikari daga ayyukan hakar ma'adinai.[9]

Galamsey[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kogin Birim ya lalace sakamakon ayyukan hakar ma'adanai ba bisa ka'ida ba.[10][11] 'Yan kungiyar Galamsey da wasu kungiyoyi sun nemi gwamnati da ta dauki mataki a kan masu hakar ma'adanai ba bisa ka'ida ba da kare kogin.[12] An kafa rukuni wanda ya kunshi mutane 62 don taimakawa wajen kare kogin.[13]

Arzikin ma'adanai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kogin Birim yana da wadataccen ma'adinai kuma ya kasance tushen zinariya tun ƙarni da yawa, asalin sunan Ghana: Gold Coast. Hakanan babban tushe ne na lu'ulu'u.

Zinare[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Maƙerin zinariya daga taskar sarki Ashanti Kofi Kolkalli

Ruwan tsakuwa na kogin Birim na rike da zinare wanda aka dade ana ciro shi ta hanyar kwanon rufi ko hakar ma'adinai, wanda ake amfani da shi wajen yin kwalliya da kuma cinikin Sahara tun kafin Turawa su gano Gold Coast.[14] Farawa a ƙarshen karni na 19, kamfanonin hakar zinare na Biritaniya suka fara aiwatar da ayyukan hakar ma'adinai da na yau da kullun, suna haɓaka ma'adanai masu zurfin ɓoyo a ƙasar Ashanti. Bayan samun 'yanci a 1957 gwamnati ta mayar da masana'antar hakar zinare. Tare da rashin wadataccen saka hannun jari, ma'adanai sun lalace kuma riba ya faɗi. Koyaya, bayan sanya hannun jari a cikin 1992 sabbin masu mallakar sunyi allurar jari, galibi cikin ma'adinan bel na Ashanti, gano sabbin ajiya na duniya. Belt Ashanti yanzu tana da tarin kyautar zinare sama da ogin 125,000,000 na zinare.[15]

Lu'ulu'u[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ghana ta samar da lu'u-lu'u daga tsakuwa tun daga shekarun 1920, galibi ƙirar masana'antu. A farkon shekarun 1990 gwamnati ta ba da sanarwar shirye-shiryen mayar da ayyukanta na haƙar lu'u-lu'u amma ba ta sami masu siya ba. Gwamnati har yanzu tana da Ghana Consolidated Diamonds, tun daga 2005 zuwa yanzu ita ce kaɗai mai kera kayan cinikin lu'u-lu'u.[16] Ghana Consolidated Diamonds suna amfani da tsiri da hanyar ma'adinai a ma'adinan su na Akwatia, ta amfani da layukan Manitowoc. Shuka tsohuwa ce kuma tsohuwa ce, ana samun ta kashi 38% kawai na lokaci kuma ana samarwa a ƙarƙashin ƙarfin. Gwamnati na neman mai saka hannun jari don ya mallaki ma'adanan.[17]

A cikin 1989 gwamnatin Ghana ta kafa Kamfanin Tallace-tallace na Kamfanin Ma'adanai masu daraja (PMMC) don inganta kananan ma'adanan zinare da lu'u-lu'u da siye da siyar da kayan. Kimanin kashi 70% na lu'u-lu'u an fitar da su daga ƙasar kafin ƙirƙirar PMMC. A cikin watanni goma sha shida na fara aiki, PMMC ta sayi karat 382,423 (kilogiram 76.4846) da lu'ulu'u 20,365 na zinare kuma ta sayar da karat 230,000 (kilogiram 46) na lu'u lu'u na dalar Amurka miliyan 8. Koyaya, saboda korafin da aka yi game da sayar da ɗanɗano mai daraja, gwamnati a cikin Maris Maris 1992 ta ba da umarnin gudanar da bincike kan ayyukan hukumar jihar kuma ta dakatar da manajan darakta.[16]

A cikin shekarun 1950 da 1960 yankin Akwatia na kwarin Birim ya samar da sama da carat 2,000,000 (kilogram 400) kowace shekara. Koyaya, duka kundin da ingancin suna raguwa. Kasar Ghana ta samar da kusan lu'ulu'u karat 800,000 (kilogiram 160) a 1995, kusan rabin sa daga Akwatia.[18] Abubuwan da ke akwai sun rufe yanki mai nisan kilomita 240 tare da Kogin Birim kuma an kiyasta ya ƙunshi carats 14,000,000 (Kilogiram 2,800) na tabbaci.[17] Kodayake adadin Akwatia ya kusan ƙarewa, an gano ƙarin ƙarin albarkatu a cikin keɓaɓɓun Kogin Birim na kusa, gami da sauya meta-lamproite wanda na iya wakiltar tushen lu'ulu'u na farko.[19]

Mafi yawan kayan lu'u-lu'u a cikin kwarin Birim yanzu masu hakar ma'adinai ne daga alluvial kuma a cikin wuraren adana lu'u-lu'u kusa da Akwatia. Akwai wasu shaidu cewa matakan samarwa daga waɗannan ƙananan ayyukan suna ƙaruwa.[20]

Bauxite[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jigon Atewa da ke saman ruwan kogin ya ƙunshi ɗakunan ajiya na bauxite tare da ƙananan abubuwan kaolin, waɗanda ƙungiyoyi kamar BHP Billiton ke kimantawa. Ko yaya, yawan kuɗaɗen bauxite gabaɗaya ba shi da inganci idan aka kwatanta da manyan ɗakunan ajiya na bauxite mafi girma a cikin Guinea kusa da su kuma suna cikin yankin da ke da lamuran muhalli, don haka da wuya a ci gaba.[5]

Noma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Noman mai a garin Jukwa, Ghana

Kasa mai ni'ima da yanayi mai dumi na kwarin Birim na tallafawa kayan abinci masu ƙima irin su rogo, doya, koko, masara, shinkafa da kayan lambu, da kuma amfanin gona mai tamani kamar citrus, abarba, pawpaw da cola. Yankin ya kuma samar da albarkatun gona na musamman irin su baki da barkono mai zaki, ginger, giyar cashew, roba da mangoro, wadanda ke samun matukar muhimmanci a matsayin kayayyakin da ake fitarwa zuwa kasashen waje.[6] Noman koko yana daya daga cikin mahimman hanyoyin samun kudin shiga, tare da busassun kayan da ake fitarwa zuwa kasashen waje don cigaba da sarrafa shi. Hakanan noman man dabino yana ƙaruwa, tare da amfani da abubuwan amfani da ake amfani da su don yin sabulu a gida. Bamboo wani muhimmin amfanin gona ne. Tsire-tsire mai sauri yana samar da abubuwa marasa tsada don gini da kuma yin kayan daki.[21]

Yawon shakatawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gwamnati na ƙoƙari na haɓaka ƙimar yawon buɗe ido na yankin. Gidauniyar Atewa Range tana karkashin kulawar Gidauniyar Okyeman, wacce ta takura wa mutane yin noma a yankin kuma a maimakon haka tana kokarin karfafa yawon bude ido.[22] Gundumar Birim ta Kudu tana da shimfidar wurare masu ban sha'awa, magudanan ruwa, wuraren tarihi da kuma gandun daji tara. Hukumar Bunkasa Yawon Bude Ido ta Ghana, tare da hadin gwiwar Majalisar Gundumar da Mahukuntan gargajiya sun kirkiro da Tsarin Kasuwanci don bunkasa "Babban Bishiyar" a cikin dajin Esen Epan da ke kusa da Akim Oda a matsayin wurin yawon bude ido, tare da hadin gwiwar kamfanoni masu zaman kansu. Wannan rukunin yanar gizon yana da babbar bishiya a Afirka ta Yamma mai mita 12 a kewayo kuma tsayinsa yakai mita 66.5. Aiki tare da Jami'ar Georgia, ana shirin inganta hanyoyin shiga, wuraren cin abinci da wuraren shakatawa, abubuwan tunawa da shaguna.[23]

A cikin garin Akyem (Akim) Oda, babban birni na Gundumar Birim ta Kudu, abubuwan jan hankali sun haɗa da yawon buɗe ido don kallon ayyukan hakar ma'adanai, shagulgulan gargajiya waɗanda galibi sun haɗa da wasan kwaikwayo na ban mamaki da kasuwar waje mai cike da kayatarwa.[21] Hakanan abinci mai daɗi da ɗanɗano na gida yana iya zama muhimmin abun jan hankali.[24]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "AFRICA GEOLOGICALLY UNDER EXPOSED". Mining Review Africa. 2004. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
  2. André Pouclet; Siaka Doumbia; Max Vidal (March 2006). "Geodynamic setting of the Birimian volcanism in central Ivory Coast (western Africa) and its place in the Palaeoproterozoic evolution of the Man Shield". Societe Geologique de France. Retrieved 2009-03-17.
  3. "THE AKWATIA DIAMOND FIELD, GHANA, WEST AFRICA: SOURCE ROCKS". Geological Society of America. September 2003. Archived from the original on 2007-06-29. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  4. T. Stachel & Jeffrey W. Harris (1997-05-28). "Syngenetic inclusions in diamond from the Birim field (Ghana) – a deep peridotitic profile with a history of depletion and re-enrichment". Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. 127 (4): 336–352. doi:10.1007/s004100050284.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Goldenrae Evaluation For XTRA-GOLD RESOURCES CORP". SEC Info. 2007-03-26. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Eastern Region". Maks Publications & Media Services. Archived from the original on 2014-01-09. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  7. "Forest Plantation Development Workshop held at Oda". The Ghanaian Journal. 2008-10-30. Archived from the original on 2009-01-08. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
  8. Ampofo J.A. (1997-06-01). "A survey of microbial pollution of rural domestic water supply in Ghana". International Journal of Environmental Health Research. 7 (2): 121–130. doi:10.1080/09603129773913.
  9. Adu-Asare, R. Y. (2002-01-01). "Dangers of Diamond Mining in Ghana". GhanaHomePage. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  10. "Police arrest 22 in connection with violence at Asamnma".
  11. "Birim River Dying Slowly".
  12. "Restore rivers to original path before rains set in - Anti-galamsey NGO". www.myjoyonline.com. Archived from the original on 2019-05-18. Retrieved 2019-05-18.
  13. "Galamstop Taskforce to protect Birim River outdoored".
  14. Patrick J. Munson (1980). "Archaeology and the Prehistoric Origins of the Ghana Empire". Journal of African History. 21 (4): 457–466. doi:10.1017/S0021853700018685.
  15. "Ashanti Gold Belt". Volta Resources Inc. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  16. 16.0 16.1 La Verle Berry. "Ghana: Diamonds". U.S. Department of the Army. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  17. 17.0 17.1 "GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS". Minerals Commission of Ghana. Archived from the original on 2009-02-11. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  18. "World Diamond Production Increases In '95". Reed Elsevier Inc. 1996-01-10. Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  19. Kogel, Edited by Jessica Elzea (2006). Industrial minerals & rocks : commodities, markets, and uses. Littleton, Colo.: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. ISBN 978-0-87335-233-8.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  20. Omayra Bermúdez-Lugo (August 2007). "The Mineral Industry of Ghana" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  21. 21.0 21.1 "Old Town, Akim Oda". University of Georgia. Archived from the original on 2009-10-17. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
  22. "Eco - Fest Foundation at Atewa Range". Biodiversity Reporting Award. June 2001. Archived from the original on 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2009-03-20.
  23. "Upper West » Birim Central Municipal - Tourism Attractions". Maks Publications & Media Services. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  24. "Local food festival ends at Akyem". The Ghanaian Journal. 2007-04-10. Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2009-03-21.

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]