Kuskuren ratsawa

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Kuskuren ratsawa
Gilashin magani ne na gama gari don kurakuraiKuskuren ratsawa
Gilashin magani ne na gama gari don kurakurai
Rabe-rabe da ma'adanai da waje
SymptomsGangarewar gani, hangen nesa biyu, ciwon kai, ciwon ido[1]
ComplicationsNakasar gani, amblyopia[2][3]
TypesKusa da hangen nesa, hangen nesa, astigmatism, presbyopia[1]
CausesTsawon ido, matsaloli tare da siffar cornea, tsufa na ruwan tabarau[1]
DiagnosisBinciken ido[1]
TreatmentGilashin ido, ruwan tabarau na tuntuɓar juna, aikin tiyata[1]
Frequency~1.5 billion[4]

Kuskuren ratsawa, wanda kuma aka sani da kuskuren refraction, shine matsala tare da mai da hankali kan haske daidai akan kwayar ido saboda siffar ido.[1] Mafi yawan nau'o'in kuskuren refractive sune kusa-hannu, hangen nesa, astigmatism, da presbyopia.[1] Kusa da hangen nesa yana haifar da abubuwa masu nisa su zama blush, hangen nesa da presbyopia yana haifar da abubuwan da ke kusa da su zama blur, kuma astigmatism yana sa abubuwa su bayyana a mike ko blur.[1] Sauran alamomin na iya haɗawa da hangen nesa biyu, ciwon kai, da ciwon ido.[1]

Kusa da hangen nesa yana faruwa ne saboda tsayin ƙwallon ido yana da tsayi sosai, hangen nesa ƙwallon ido gajere sosai, astigmatism cornea ɗin da ba daidai ba ne, da presbyopia tsufa na ruwan tabarau na ido wanda ba zai iya canza siffar sosai ba.[1] Wasu kurakurai masu rarrafe suna faruwa sau da yawa a tsakanin waɗanda abin ya shafa iyayensu.[1] Ana gano cutar ta hanyar duban ido.[1]

Ana gyara kurakurai masu rarrafe tare da gilashin ido, ruwan tabarau, ko tiyata.[1] Gilashin ido shine hanya mafi sauƙi kuma mafi aminci na gyarawa.[1] Tuntuɓi ruwan tabarau na iya samar da faffadar hangen nesa; duk da haka suna da alaƙa da haɗarin kamuwa da cuta.[1] Tiyata mai jujjuyawa tana canza siffar cornea har abada.[1]

An kiyasta adadin mutanen da ke da kurakurai a duniya ya kai biliyan ɗaya zuwa biyu.[4] Farashin ya bambanta tsakanin yankuna na duniya tare da kusan kashi 25% na Turawa da kashi 80% na Asiya da abin ya shafa.[4] Kusan-gani shine cuta mafi yawan gaske.[1] Farashin tsakanin manya yana tsakanin 15-49% yayin da adadin yara ke tsakanin 1.2-42%.[5] Hangen nesa ya fi shafar yara ƙanana da tsofaffi.[6][4] Presbyopia yana shafar yawancin mutanen da suka haura shekaru 35.[1] Adadin mutanen da ke da kurakurai da ba a gyara ba an kiyasta su miliyan 660 (10 a cikin 100 mutane) a cikin 2013.[7] Daga cikin waɗannan miliyan 9.5 sun kasance makafi saboda kuskuren ratsawa.[7] Yana daya daga cikin abubuwan da ke haifar da asarar hangen nesa tare da cataracts, macular degeneration, da rashin bitamin A.[8]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 "Facts About Refractive Errors". NEI. October 2010. Archived from the original on 28 July 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  2. "Care of the Patient with Amblyopia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  3. Dandona, R; Dandona, L (2001). "Refractive error blindness". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 79 (3): 237–43. PMC 2566380. PMID 11285669.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Denniston, Alastair; Murray, Philip (2018). Oxford Handbook of Ophthalmology (in Turanci) (4 ed.). OUP Oxford. p. 926. ISBN 9780198816751.
  5. Pan, CW; Ramamurthy, D; Saw, SM (January 2012). "Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for myopia". Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics. 32 (1): 3–16. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2011.00884.x. PMID 22150586.
  6. Castagno, VD; Fassa, AG; Carret, ML; Vilela, MA; Meucci, RD (23 December 2014). "Hyperopia: a meta-analysis of prevalence and a review of associated factors among school-aged children". BMC Ophthalmology. 14: 163. doi:10.1186/1471-2415-14-163. PMC 4391667. PMID 25539893.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Global Burden of Disease Study 2013, Collaborators (22 August 2015). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 386 (9995): 743–800. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(15)60692-4. PMC 4561509. PMID 26063472.
  8. Pan, CW; Dirani, M; Cheng, CY; Wong, TY; Saw, SM (March 2015). "The age-specific prevalence of myopia in Asia: a meta-analysis". Optometry and Vision Science. 92 (3): 258–66. doi:10.1097/opx.0000000000000516. PMID 25611765.