Launceston, Tasmania

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Launceston, Tasmania
Launceston (en)


Suna saboda Launceston (en) Fassara
Wuri
Map
 41°26′40″S 147°08′16″E / 41.4444°S 147.1378°E / -41.4444; 147.1378
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaAsturaliya
State of Australia (en) FassaraTasmania (en) Fassara
Local government area of Tasmania (en) FassaraCity of Launceston (en) Fassara
Babban birnin
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 106,153 (2011)
• Yawan mutane 1,116.23 mazaunan/km²
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 95.1 km²
Altitude (en) Fassara 0 m
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1806
Tsarin Siyasa
• Gwamna Albert Van Zetten (en) Fassara (2007)
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Lambar aika saƙo 7250
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
Wasu abun

Yanar gizo launceston.tas.gov.au…

Launceston birni ne a arewacin Tasmania[1], Ostiraliya, a wurin haɗuwar kogin Arewacin Esk da Kudancin Esk inda suka zama Kogin Tamar (kanamaluka). Ya zuwa 2021, yankin birni na Launceston yana da yawan mutane 90,953. Launceston ita ce birni na biyu mafi yawan jama'a a Tasmania bayan babban birnin jihar, Hobart .Ya zuwa 2020, Launceston ita ce birni na 18 mafi girma a Ostiraliya. Launceston ita ce birni na biyar mafi girma a cikin gida kuma birni na tara mafi girma a Australia. An dauki Launceston a matsayin birni mafi kyau na yanki, kuma yana daya daga cikin shahararrun biranen yanki da suka koma Australia daga 2020 zuwa 2021. An ba Launceston suna Birnin Australiya na Shekara a shekarar 2022.

Suka zauna a watan Maris na shekara ta 1806, Launceston yana daya daga cikin tsofaffin biranen Ostiraliya kuma yana da gine-ginen tarihi da yawa. Kamar wurare da yawa a Ostiraliya, an sanya masa suna ne bayan wani gari a Ƙasar Ingila - a wannan yanayi, Launceston, Cornwall . Launceston kuma yana da amfani na farko na anesthetic a Kudancin Hemisphere, shi ne birni na farko na Australiya da ke da magudanar ruwa, kuma shi ne birnin Australiya na farko da za a kunna ta hanyar hydroelectricity. Birnin yana da yanayin teku tare da yanayi huɗu daban-daban kuma yana da zafi sosai fiye da kudancin tsibirin a lokacin rani. Karamar hukuma ta raba tsakanin Birnin Launceston, Meander Valley da West Tamar Councils.[2][3]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsakiyar Charles Street, c.  1917

Wesleyan Chapel Mission-Premises, Launceston, Van-Diemen's Island (shafi na 66, Yuni 1855) Mazauna farko na yankin Launceston sun kasance yawancin 'Yan asalin Tasmania da aka yi imanin sun kasance wani ɓangare na kabilar Midlands ta Arewa.

fararen masu bincike farko ba su isa ba har zuwa 1798, lokacin da aka aika George Bass da Matthew Flinders don bincika yiwuwar cewa akwai matsala tsakanin Australia da Van Diemen's Land (yanzu Tasmania). Da farko sun sauka a Port Dalrymple (bakin Kogin Tamar), kilomita 40 (25 mi) zuwa arewa maso yammacin Launceston .

Matsayin mulkin mallaka farko a yankin ya samo asali ne daga 1804, lokacin da kwamandan garuruwan mulkin mallaka. Laftanar Col. William Paterson, da mutanensa sun kafa sansani a shafin yanar gizon George Town na yanzu. Bayan 'yan makonni, an tura ƙauyen a fadin kogi zuwa garin York, kuma bayan shekara guda an tura shi zuwa matsayinsa na ƙarshe inda Launceston ke tsaye.

farko, an kira ƙauyen Patersonia; duk da haka, Paterson daga baya ya canza sunan zuwa Launceston don girmama Gwamnan New South Wales Kyaftin Philip Gidley King, wanda aka haife shi a Launcestón, Cornwall. Sunan har yanzu yana nan a cikin ƙaramin ƙauyen Patersonia mai nisan kilomita 18 (11 mi) arewa maso yammacin Launceston. Paterson da kansa ya kuma yi aiki a matsayin Lieutenant-Governor na arewacin Van Diemen's Land daga 1804 zuwa 1808.

Launceston yake yanzu ya kasance a baya ya kasance mazaunin Aboriginal Tasmanian Letteremairrener. Kasar Letteremairrener ta ƙunshi mafi yawan yankin Tamar Valley. A cikin 1804, rahotanni daga masu tafiya na farko na Turai sun bayyana sansanonin Letteremairrener da yawa, wanda ya kunshi har zuwa gidaje goma da ke ko'ina cikin Kogin Tamar. Shaidar archaeological mai zurfi ta nuna cewa ana iya amfani da shi da kuma amfani da tafkin Tamar daga akalla shekaru 7,000 da suka gabata, kodayake ana iya amfani dashi har zuwa shekaru 35,000 da suka gabata. The Letteremairrener, a matsayin mafarauta-mai tarawa na yanayi, sun kwashe watanni na hunturu kusa da George Town da watanni na rani suna zaune a Ben Lomond, kafin su koma bakin kogin Tamar don lokacin tumaki. Campbell Macknight ya nuna farkon hulɗa na mulkin mallaka tare da mutanen Letteremairrener a matsayin cakuda tsoro, son sani da tashin hankali. Bayan gamuwa da yawa da ƙungiyoyin Letteremairrener suka haifar a cikin 1806, mai yiwuwa ne a matsayin fansa ga masu mulkin mallaka da ke shiga da farauta a ƙasarsu ba tare da izini ba, Kanar William Patterson, wanda ke kula da sabon ƙauyen a Launceston, ya jagoranci jerin rikice-rikice waɗanda masu mulkin mallaki suka ci gaba har zuwa 1831. Wadannan rikice-rikicen sun kara tsanantawa daga 1827 har zuwa 1831 a lokacin Black War, tare da tafiye-tafiye na kisan kare dangi da ke faruwa a cikin ƙasar Letteremairrener da yankunan makwabta.

shekara ta 1827, yawan mutanen Launceston ya hau zuwa 2,000 kuma garin ya zama cibiyar fitarwa, galibi ga masana'antar kiwo ta arewacin mulkin mallaka. Ƙananan otal-otal da wuraren giya sun fara fitowa a cikin shekarun 1820 kafin a gina manyan otal-otal-otal a cikin shekarun 1830. Sau da yawa ana kafa kungiyoyin wasanni, kungiyoyin siyasa, majami'u da makarantu a cikin waɗannan otal-otal; duk da haka, sun kuma shirya wasan kwaikwayo, bukukuwan kiɗa da karatu, har sai an gina gidajen wasan kwaikwayo.

Jir ruwa daga Launceston sun ɗauki ƙungiyoyin masu rufewa zuwa tsibirin Bass Strait a farkon karni na 19. Sun kuma dauki masu kamun kifi zuwa gabar tekun Victoria a cikin shekarun 1820 da 1830 inda suka kafa tashoshin kifi na wucin gadi. Wasu daga cikin wadannan al'ummomin wucin gadi, kamar wadanda ke Portland Bay da Port Fairy, sune masu gabatarwa na dindindin na waɗancan wurare. Bincike daga Launceston sun shiga cikin Gidauniyar Melbourne.

George Arthur, wanda ya roki Sarauniya Victoria a cikin 1847 yayin da yake tare da wasu 'yan asalin Tasmanian a Tsibirin Flinders, ya zauna shekaru da yawa a Launceston a matsayin daya daga cikin yara da yawa marasa gida, kafin George Augustus Robinson ya kama shi wanda ya tura shi makarantar marayu ta Boys a Hobart a cikin 1832.

Sabbin shahararrun wasannin kungiya kamar wasan kurket da kwallon kafa sun kasa ci gaba a Launceston kafin yawan jama'a ya karu sosai. Wasanni da farko sun kasance nishaɗin matsakaicin matsayi, yayin da ma'aikata suka sami wahalar shiga bayan mako na aiki na kwanaki shida. Duk da haka, "bukatar kayan aiki" ya haifar da haɓakawa na Ƙungiyar Cricket ta Arewacin Tasmania (NTCA Ground) tsakanin sauran wuraren wasanni a cikin shekarun 1860. Ba da daɗewa ba, Tasmania ta buga Victoria a wasan ƙwallon ƙafa na farko na Australia a NTCA Ground a 1851.

gano Tin a Dutsen Bischoff a cikin 1871 a arewa maso yammacin Tasmania, yana fara bunkasa ma'adanai. An fara hakar zinariya kimanin kilomita 50 (31 mi) daga Beaconsfield a cikin 1877. A cikin shekaru ashirin da suka biyo baya Launceston ya girma daga ƙaramin gari zuwa cibiyar birni. A shekara ta 1889, Launceston ita ce birni na biyu a Tasmania da aka ayyana a matsayin birni, bayan babban birnin jihar Hobart. A ƙarshen 1880s wani ƙaramin lokaci da ake kira Launceston Literary ya ƙunshi labaru da kuma abubuwan tunawa na kwanakin farko na yankin. An rarraba littafin ne daga wani shago a arewacin garin, kuma yayin da aka manta da shi a yau, a lokacin an dauke shi da mashahuri, idan a wasu lokuta yana da rikici.

Rubuce-rubuce[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]