Littafi

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Entry in abbreviations table (en) Fassara кн.

Littafi ko jam'i Littattafai ya hada da duk wani abu da za'a iya ajiye bayanai a rubuce ko hotuna, wanda ya ƙunshi shafuka da dama, wanda aka yishi daga (fallen takarda, fata, ganye ko makamantansu) wanda aka haɗesu a waje guda kuma aka rufe da bango.[1]

Littafi shi ne matsakaici don yin rikodin bayanai ta hanyar rubutu ko hotuna, yawanci ya ƙunshi shafuka da yawa (wanda aka yi da papyrus, fakiti, vellum, ko takarda) an haɗa su tare da kariya ta murfin. Kalmar fasaha don wannan tsarin jiki shine codex (jam'i, codeces). A cikin tarihin tallafin jiki na hannun hannu don tsawaita rubuce-rubucen ƙira ko rikodi, codex ya maye gurbin wanda ya gabace shi, gungura. Tabba ɗaya a cikin codex ganye ne kuma kowane gefen ganye shafi ne. A matsayin wani abu na hankali, littafi misali tsari ne mai tsayi wanda zai ɗauki lokaci mai yawa don tsarawa kuma har yanzu ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin saka hannun jari na lokaci don karantawa. A taƙaice, littafi sashe ne mai dogaro da kansa ko kuma wani ɓangare na abin da ya fi tsayi, amfanin da ke nuna cewa, a zamanin da, dole ne a rubuta dogayen ayyuka a kan naɗaɗɗen littattafai da yawa kuma kowane naɗaɗɗen ya kasance an gane shi da littafin da yake ɗauke da shi. Kowane bangare na Aristotle's Physics ana kiransa littafi. A ma’anar da ba ta da iyaka, littafi shi ne abin da aka tsara shi gabaɗaya wanda irin waɗannan sassan, ko ana kiran su littattafai ko surori ko sassa, sassa ne. Abin da ke cikin hankali a cikin littafi na zahiri bai kamata ya zama abin halitta ba, ko ma a kira shi littafi. Littattafai na iya ƙunsar zane kawai, zane-zane ko hotuna, wasanin gwada ilimi ko yanke tsana. A cikin littafi na zahiri, ana iya barin shafuffukan babu komai ko kuma za su iya nuna jerin layukan da za su goyi bayan shigarwar, kamar a cikin littafin asusu, littafin alƙawari, littafin rubutu, littafin rubutu, diary ko sketchbook. Wasu littafan zahiri an yi su da shafuna masu kauri kuma masu ƙarfi don tallafawa wasu abubuwa na zahiri, kamar littafin rubutu ko kundin hoto. Ana iya rarraba littattafai ta hanyar lantarki azaman ebooks da sauran nau'ikan.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Lokacin da aka ƙirƙiri tsarin rubuce-rubuce a zamanin da, an yi amfani da abubuwa iri-iri, kamar dutse, yumbu, bawon itace, zanen ƙarfe, da ƙasusuwa, don rubutu; Wadannan ana nazarin su a cikin epigraphy.

Rabe raben littattafai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Littattafai sun rabu zuwa gida biyu ne wato Littafin Almara da kuma Wanda ba na almaraba.

Littafin Almara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sune littattafai na kagaggun labarai, amma abinda bai faru da gaske ba,,. Kawai dai marubucin ne yake kirkirar wani maudu'i kuma ya rubuta labari a kansa. Misalin irin wannan shine Gandun Dabbobi.

Wanda ba na almara ba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sune littattafan da aka rubuta su bisa ga abin da ya faru a gaske, kamar littafin tarihi, littafin koyon girki, littafin yan makaranta.

Hotuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. IEILS, p. 41