Ma'adinai

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Ma'adinai - m yi kama halitta jiki, wanda tsohon ko a cikin crystalline jihar. Ma'adanai ne wani ɓangare daga dutsen (dutsen-forming ma'adanai), ores, meteorites.

Da kalmar da ake amfani da designate da ma'adinai ma'adinai mutum jinsunan da kuma iri-iri. Ma'adinai a matsayin ma'adinai jinsuna - na halitta sinadaran fili da ciwon wani sinadaran abun da ke ciki da kuma crystalline tsarin. Idan bambance-bambance a sinadaran abun da ke ciki a tsarin ainihi ba manya-manyan, da launi, ko wasu morphological fasali rarrabe ma'adinai iri - irin su dutsen crystal, amethyst, citrine, chalcedony ne irin ma'adini. Ma'adinai mutane - ma'adinai jiki, tsakanin wanda babu wani dubawa, irin su lu'ulu'u ne da hatsi.

Kimiyya ke hulda da nazarin ma'adanai, mineralogy. Nazarin ma'adinai jinsunan phylogeny tsunduma ma'adanai da kuma kayyade mineralogy.

Tun lokacin da aka 1950s, da gaskiyar da bude sabuwar ma'adinai da sunan amince da Hukumar on New ma'adanai da kuma Ma'adinai Islam na kasa da kasa Mineralogical Association (MMA). An yanzu kafa fiye da 6,000 ma'adinai jinsin da kuma a kowace shekara da Hukumar riƙe da dama, sabon, amma 100 - 150 ma'adanai ne tartsatsi.

  • Ma'adanai dauke kamar yadda wasu halitta abubuwa, waxanda suke da ruwa a karkashin al'ada yanayi (msl, 'yan qasar Mercury wanda ya zo da wata crystalline jihar a wani ƙananan zafin jiki). Ruwa, ya yi akasin haka, don ma'adanai ba la'akari, idan akai la'akari da shi a matsayin wani ruwa (narke) ma'adinai kankara.
  • Wasu ma'adanai suke a cikin amorphous jihar da kuma ba shi da wani crystalline tsarin. Wannan ya shafi yafi zuwa t. Ake kira. metamict ma'adanai da ciwon waje nau'i na lu'ulu'u ne, amma su ne a cikin wani amorphous, glassy jihar saboda da hallaka na asali crystal raga a ƙarƙashin rinjayar da wuya radiation cikin nasu abun da ke ciki na rediyoaktif abubuwa (U, Th, da sauransu.). Bambanta yavnokristallicheskie ma'adanai, amorphous - metakolloidy (misali, opal, Lechatelierite et al.) Kuma metamict ma'adanai da ciwon waje nau'i na lu'ulu'u ne, amma su ne amorphous, glassy jihar.

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