Maureen Raymo

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Maureen Raymo
Climate Crisis and Response, Maureen Raymo, 7m16s.jpg
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Los Angeles, 27 Disamba 1959 (62 shekaru)
ƙasa Tarayyar Amurka
Karatu
Makaranta Jami'ar Brown 1982)
Columbia University (en) Fassara 1989)
Sana'a
Sana'a university teacher (en) Fassara, geologist (en) Fassara da climatologist (en) Fassara
Employers Columbia University (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Mamba National Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara

Maureen E. "Mo" Raymo (an haife ta a shekara ta 1959 a birnin Los Angeles)[1] ita 'yar Amurka ce ƙwararren masanin burbushin halittu kuma masanin ilimin yanayin ruwa. Ita ce Co-kafa Dean na Columbia Climate School,[2] Daraktan Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory na Jami'ar Columbia, G. Unger Vetlesen Farfesa na Duniya & Kimiyyar Muhalli, da kuma Darakta na Lamont-Doherty Core Repository a Lamont- Doherty Earth Observatory na Jami'ar Columbia.[3] Ita ce mace ta farko masanin kimiyyar yanayi kuma mace ta farko da ta jagoranci cibiyar.[4]

Raymo ta yi aikin majigaba akan shekarun ƙanƙara, yanayin yanayin yanayin ƙasa, da yanayin, yin nazari da nazari game da sanyaya duniya da ɗumamawa da sauye-sauye a cikin shekarun kankara. Ayyukanta sun ƙunshi mahimman ra'ayoyi a cikin binciken binciken burbushin halittu wanda ya haɗa da hasashe mai ɗaukaka yanayin yanayi, "matsalar shekaru 41,000", Paradox na matakin teku na Pliocene, da Lisiecki-Raymo δ18O tari.[5][6][7][8]

Daga cikin kyaututtuka da karramawa, Raymo ta zama mace ta farko da ta samu lambar yabo ta Wollaston a fannin ilmin kasa, wacce aka ba ta tsawon shekaru 183 a lokacin a shekarar 2014. An bayyana ta a nadin nata a matsayin ". daya daga cikin manyan mutane da suka yi tasiri a cikin shekaru 30 da suka wuce".[9]

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Raymo ta halarci Jami'ar Brown, inda ta sami Sc.B. Geology a 1982. Daga nan ta halarci Jami'ar Columbia, inda ta sami M.A. a Geology a 1985, ta M.Phil. a Geology a 1988, da kuma Ph.D. Geology a 1989.[1]

Bincike[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An san Raymo don haɓakawa (tare da William Ruddiman da Philip Froelich) Uplift-Weathering Hypothesis. Bisa ga wannan hasashe, haɓakar tectonic daga wurare kamar tudun Tibet ya ba da gudummawa ga sanyaya saman. A cikin matakan samar da kewayon tsaunuka, a saman akwai ma'adanai da yawa waɗanda za su iya yin mu'amala ta hanyar sinadarai da carbon dioxide. A yayin aiwatar da yanayin yanayin sinadarai, ana samun cirewar iska ta CO2 daga sararin samaniya, sakamakon haka yanayin zafi a ƙasa yana raguwa. Ita da abokan aikinta da farko sun ba da shawarar cewa auna ma'auni na isotopes na strontium (Sr) a cikin ruwan teku mai zurfi zai iya tabbatar da Hasashen Haskaka-Weathering amma nan da nan suka gane cewa akwai shubuha a tushen Sr zuwa teku. Sama da shekaru ashirin bayan haka, ana ci gaba da muhawara da nazari akan hasashen.[10][11][12]

Sake gina shekaru miliyan 5 da suka gabata na tarihin yanayi, bisa tushen isotope na iskar oxygen a cikin zurfin ruwa mai zurfi (yin aiki a matsayin wakili don jimillar dusar ƙanƙara ta duniya), wanda ya dace da ƙirar tilasta orbital (Lisiecki da Raymo 2005)[13] kuma zuwa ma'aunin zafin jiki da aka samo daga ruwan ƙanƙara na Vostok yana bin Petit et al. (1999).[12]

Har ila yau, Raymo sananne ne don aikinta na tsaka-tsaki, musamman ta yin amfani da palaeoceanography don ƙarin fahimtar yanayin zafi na thermohaline da hawan kankara a kan Pleistocene da Pliocene da kuma yadda suke danganta ga canje-canje a cikin tilasta orbital da yanayin yanayi na Milankovitch.[14] Raymo, tare da abokin aikinta Lorraine Lisiecki, sun ba da gudummawa mai mahimmanci ga kimiyyar palaeoclimate da rarrabuwa ta hanyar bincike na isotope oxygen na foraminifera daga samfurin ma'aunin ruwan teku mai zurfi ciki har da buga shekara miliyan 5 da aka yi amfani da su sosai LR04 benthic foraminifera barga oxygen isotope rikodin rikodin.[15]

Kyauta da girmamawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Raymo ita 'yar'uwa ce ta Ƙungiyar Geophysical ta Amurka da Ƙungiyar Amirka don Ci gaban Kimiyya. A cikin 2016 an zabe ta mamba a Cibiyar Nazarin Kimiyya ta Kasa.[5] Raymo ta samu kyautuka daban-daban don aikinta na kimiyya, ciki har da zama a cikin 2014 mace ta farko da aka ba wa babbar lambar yabo ta Wollaston - lambar yabo mafi girma na kungiyar Geological Society of London.[9][16] A cikin 2014, ta sami lambar yabo ta Milutin Milankovic a taron shekara-shekara na Ƙungiyar Geosciences ta Tarayyar Turai don amfani da ilimin kimiyyar lissafi, ilimin geology da geophysics don magance manyan matsalolin ilmin lissafi.[17] A cikin 2019 ta sami lambar yabo ta Maurice Ewing ta Ƙungiyar Geophysical ta Amurka.[18]

A cikin 2002, mujallar Discover da aka kwatanta ta haɗa ta cikin jerin mata 50 mafi mahimmanci a kimiyya[6][19] da kuma a cikin zaɓenta na lambar yabo ta Wollaston, Farfesa James Scourse ya bayyana ta a matsayin "... ɗaya daga cikin manyan mutane kuma masu tasiri a karshe. Shekaru 30 ... Ta kasance muhimmiyar abin koyi ga mata masana kimiyya - za ku iya zuwa saman".[9]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 M.E. Raymo (July 2018). "Curriculum vitae" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-02-10.
  2. "Leadership of the Columbia Climate School".
  3. "Maureen Raymo". Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  4. Schwartz, John (2020-07-10). "She's an Authority on Earth's Past. Now, Her Focus Is the Planet's Future". The New York Times (in Turanci). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-07-12.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Ice & Sea-Level Scientist Maureen Raymo Elected to National Academy of Sciences". Columbia University. Center for Climate and Life. May 4, 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Fitzgerald, Brian (26 September 2003). "2003-04 Guggenheim fellowship winner, Maureen Raymo: studying 40 million years or climate change". B. U. Bridge. Boston University. VII (5).
  7. Gornitz, Vivien (2009). "Active mountain building and climate change". Encyclopedia of paleoclimatology and ancient environments. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. p. 855. ISBN 9781402045516. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  8. Gornitz, Vivien (2009). "Issues in middle Pliocene warming". Encyclopedia of paleoclimatology and ancient environments. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. pp. 567–568. ISBN 9781402045516. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 "Climate Scientist Is First Woman to Win Geology's Storied Wollaston Medal". Lamont -Doherty Earth Observatory. March 4, 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  10. "Theory on a Plateau And the Climate Gains". The New York Times. November 3, 1992. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  11. "Cracking the Ice Age". NOVA. September 30, 1997. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Petit, J. R.; Jouzel, J.; Raynaud, D.; Barkov, N. I.; Barnola, J. M.; Basile, I.; Bender, M.; Chappellaz, J.; Davis, J.; Delaygue, G.; Delmotte, M.; Kotlyakov, V. M.; Legrand, M.; Lipenkov, V.; Lorius, C.; Pépin, L.; Ritz, C.; Saltzman, E.; Stievenard, M. (1999). "Climate and Atmospheric History of the Past 420,000 years from the Vostok Ice Core, Antarctica". Nature. 399 (6735): 429–436. Bibcode:1999Natur.399..429P. doi:10.1038/20859. S2CID 204993577.
  13. Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Raymo, Maureen E. (January 2005). "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic d18O records" (PDF). Paleoceanography. 20 (1): PA1003. Bibcode:2005PalOc..20.1003L. doi:10.1029/2004PA001071. hdl:2027.42/149224.
  14. Raymo, M. E.; Huybers, P. (2008). "Unlocking the mysteries of the Ice Ages". Nature. 451 (7176): 284–285. Bibcode:2008Natur.451..284R. doi:10.1038/nature06589. PMID 18202644. S2CID 4360319.
  15. Lisiecki, Lorraine E.; Raymo, Maureen E. (March 2005). "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic D 18 O records" (PDF). Paleoceanography. 20 (1): n/a. Bibcode:2005PalOc..20.1003L. doi:10.1029/2004PA001071. hdl:2027.42/149224.
  16. "Wollaston Medal". The Geological Society of London. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  17. European Geosciences Union - Milutin Milankovic Medal 2014
  18. "Past Recipients". American Geophysical Union. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  19. Svitil, Kathy A. (November 1, 2002). "The 50 Most Important Women in Science". Discover. Retrieved 16 February 2018.