Microsoft Windows

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Wikidata.svgMicrosoft Windows
operating system (en) Fassara, proprietary software (en) Fassara da computing platform (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Farawa 20 Nuwamba, 1985
Suna saboda window (en) Fassara
Mabiyi MS-DOS (en) Fassara
Ranar wallafa 20 Nuwamba, 1985
Inspired by (en) Fassara Linux (en) Fassara
Developer (en) Fassara Microsoft
Package management system (en) Fassara Windows Installer (en) Fassara da Microsoft Store (en) Fassara
Programming language (en) Fassara C (en) Fassara, C++ (en) Fassara da assembly language (en) Fassara
Software version identifier (en) Fassara 10.0.20215.1000, 10.0.19041.508, 10.0.17133, 10.0.17134.112, 10.0.17134.228, 10.0.17763.316, 10.0.18343.1, 10.0.18841.1000, 10.0.18362.30 da 10.0.18865.1000
Shafin yanar gizo microsoft.com…, microsoft.com…, microsoft.com… da microsoft.com…
Official blog (en) Fassara https://blogs.windows.com/
Copyright license (en) Fassara proprietary license (en) Fassara
Copyright status (en) Fassara copyrighted (en) Fassara
Tarihin maudu'i Microsoft Windows version history (en) Fassara
Update method (en) Fassara Windows Update (en) Fassara
comfita windows
Tabarin micro

Microsoft Windows, wanda aka fi sani da Windows, rukuni ne na iyalai masu tsarin sarrafa hoto, wadanda duk Microsoft ke haɓaka kuma suna tallata su. Kowane iyali suna biyan takamaiman sashin masana'antar sarrafa kwamfuta. Iyalan Microsoft Windows masu aiki sun haɗa da Windows NT da Windows IoT; waɗannan na iya haɗawa da ƙananan iyalai, (misali Windows Server ko Windows Embedded Compact) (Windows CE). Iyalan Microsoft Windows da suka lalace sun haɗa da Windows 9x, Windows Mobile, da Windows Phone.

Microsoft ya gabatar da yanayin aiki mai suna Windows a ranar 20 ga Nuwamba, 1985, a matsayin harsashin tsarin aiki na hoto don MS-DOS a matsayin martani ga karuwar sha’awar abubuwan da ke amfani da masu zane (GUIs). Microsoft Windows ya mamaye kasuwar komputa ta duniya tare da sama da kashi 90% na kasuwar, ya wuce Mac OS, wanda aka gabatar dashi a shekarar 1984, yayin da Microsoft a shekarar 2020 ya rasa ikonsa na kasuwar tsarin sarrafa kayan masarufi, tare da Windows har zuwa 30%, ƙasa da kashi 31% na wayoyin hannu na Apple kawai (65% na tsarin aiki na tebur kawai, watau "PCs" da Apple na kashi 28% na tebur) a cikin kasuwannin gidansa, Amurka, da 32% a duniya (77% na tebur. ), inda Android ta Google ke kaiwa.

Apple ya zo ya ga Windows a matsayin zalunci mara kyau game da ƙirƙirar su a cikin ci gaban GUI kamar yadda aka aiwatar akan samfuran irin su Lisa da Macintosh (daga ƙarshe suka yanke hukunci a gaban kotu cikin yardar Microsoft a cikin 1993). A PC, Windows har yanzu ita ce mafi mashahurin tsarin aiki a duk ƙasashe. Kota yaya madai, a cikin shekara ta 2014, Microsoft ya yarda da rasa yawancin kasuwar tsarin aiki ga Android, saboda yawan ci gaban da aka samu na tallace-tallace na wayoyin hannu na Android. A cikin 2014, yawan na'urorin Windows da aka sayar bai kai 25% na na na'urorin Android da aka sayar ba. Wannan kwatancen, amma, bazai dace da komai ba, kamar yadda tsarin aiki biyu ke amfani da dandamali daban-daban bisa al'ada. Har yanzu, lambobi don amfani da sabar Windows (waɗanda suke daidai da masu fafatawa) suna nuna kashi ɗaya bisa uku na kasuwa, kwatankwacin wannan don amfanin mai amfani.

Ya zuwa Oktoba 2020, sabon fitowar Windows na PC, kwamfutar hannu da na'urorin da aka saka sune Windows 10, sigar 20H2. Sabbin sabo na kwamfutocin uwar garken shine Windows Server, iri na 20H2. Wani nau'in Windows na musamman kuma yana gudana akan Xbox One da Xbox Series X / S wasan bidiyo bidiyo.

Nasaba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ta Hanyar Tallatawa

Microsoft, mai haɓaka Windows, ya yi rajistar alamun kasuwanci da yawa, kowane ɗayansu yana nuna dangi na tsarin aiki na Windows wanda ke niyya ga wani yanki na masana'antar sarrafa kwamfuta. Ya zuwa na 2014, ana haɓaka ci gaban dangin Windows masu zuwa:

  • Windows NT: An fara ne a matsayin dangi na tsarin aiki tare da Windows NT 3.1, tsarin aiki ne na kwamfutocin sabar da wuraren aiki. Yanzu ya ƙunshi ƙananan rukunin tsarin aiki guda uku waɗanda aka saki kusan a lokaci ɗaya kuma suna raba kwaya ɗaya:
    • Windows: Tsarin aiki don manyan kwamfutoci na sirri, kwamfutar hannu da wayowin komai da ruwan ka. Sabuwar sigar ita ce Windows 10. Babban mai gasa na wannan dangin shine macOS ta Apple don kwamfutoci na sirri da Android na na'urorin hannu (cf ribar amfani da tsarin aiki share Rabon kasuwa ta fann
    • Windows Server: Tsarin aiki don kwamfutocin sabar. Sabuwar sigar ita ce Windows Server 2019. Ba kamar ɗan'uwansa abokin harka ba, ya ɗauki tsari mai ƙarfi na suna. Babban gasa na wannan dangin shine Linux. (cf rabon amfani da tsarin aiki share Rabon kasuwa ta fanni)
    • Windows PE: Wani nau'I ne mai sauki na dan uwansa na Windows, wanda ake nufin yayi aiki azaman tsarin aiki kai tsaye, wanda ake amfani dashi don girka Windows akan kwamfutoci masu karafa (musamman kan kwamfutoci da yawa a lokaci daya), dawo da abubuwa ko kuma shirya matsala. Sabuwar sigar ita ce Windows PE 10.
  • Windows IoT (wanda aka saka a cikin Windows a baya): A farko, Microsoft ya samar da Windows CE a matsayin babban tsarin aiki ga duk na’urar da ke da iyakantattun kayan aiki da za a kira ta da cikakkiyar kwamfuta. Daga ƙarshe, duk da haka, Windows CE aka sake mata suna zuwa Windows Embedded Compact kuma aka dunƙule shi a ƙarƙashin alamar kasuwanci ta Windows Compact wacce kuma ta ƙunshi Masana'antu ta Windows, Mai Kwarewa ta Windows, Daidaitaccen Takardar Windows, da Takaddun hannu na Windows, da Windows Embedded Automotive.

Wannan Jerin masu zuwa ba a cigaba da haɓaka dangin Windows din su ba:

  • Windows 9x: Tsarin aiki ne wanda yayi niyya ga kasuwar masu amfani. An dakatar da shi saboda aikin suboptimal.
  • Windows Mobile: Wanda ya gabace shi zuwa Windows Phone, ya kasance tsarin aikin wayar hannu ne. Farkon abin da ake kira Pocket PC 2000; na uku, Windows Mobile 2003 ita ce ta farko wacce ta fara amfani da alamar kasuwanci ta Windows Mobile. Sigar ta karshe ita ce Windows Mobile 6.5.
  • Windows Phone: Tsarin aiki ne kawai wanda aka siyar dashi ga masana'antun wayoyi. Farkon sigar ita ce Windows Phone 7, sai Windows Phone 8, da Windows Phone 8.1. Windows 10 Mobile ce ta yi nasara da shi, yanzu kuma an daina shi.

Tarihin Siga[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmar Windows gabaɗaya tana bayyana kowane ɗayan ɗayan juyani na samfuran tsarin aikin Microsoft. Wadannan samfuran an rarraba su gaba daya kamar haka:

Sigogin farko

Tarihin Windows ya faro ne daga shekarar 1981 lokacin da kamfanin Microsoft ya fara aiki a wani shiri da ake kira "Interface Manager". An sanar da shi a watan Nuwamba 1983 (bayan Apple Lisa, amma kafin Macintosh) da sunan "Windows", amma Windows 1.0 ba a sake ta ba har sai Nuwamba Nuwamba 1985. Windows 1.0 ya kasance yana gogayya da tsarin aikin Apple, amma ya sami ɗan farin jini. Windows 1.0 ba cikakken tsarin aiki bane; maimakon haka, ya faɗaɗa MS-DOS. Bawo na Windows 1.0 shiri ne da aka sani da MS-DOS Executive. Bangarorin sun hada da Kalkaleta, Kalanda, Katin waya, Mai Kallon allo, agogo, Kwamitin Kulawa, Kundin rubutu, Fenti, Reversi, Terminal da Rubuta Windows 1.0 baya bada izinin windows iri-iri. Madadin haka duk tagogin an faranta su. Kawai akwatunan tattaunawa na zamani zasu iya bayyana akan wasu windows. Microsoft an siyar dashi azaman ɗakunan karatu na Ci gaban Windows tare da yanayin haɓaka C, waɗanda suka haɗa da samfuran windows da yawa.

Windows 2.0 an fito da shi ne a watan Disamba na 1987, kuma ya shahara fiye da wanda ya gabace shi. Yana nuna abubuwa da yawa da haɓakawa ga mai amfani da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Windows 2.03 ya canza OS daga windows windows zuwa windows windows masu juye. Sakamakon wannan canjin ya haifar da Apple Computer ya shigar da kara a kan Microsoft yana zargin keta hakkin mallaka na Apple. Windows 2.0 kuma ya gabatar da gajerun hanyoyin maɓallin keɓaɓɓu na zamani kuma yana iya yin amfani da faɗaɗa ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya.

Windows 2.1 an sake shi a siga iri biyu: Windows / 286 da Windows / 386. Windows / 386 yana amfani da yanayin 8086 na Intel 80386 na kamala don yawaitar shirye-shiryen DOS da yawa da samfurin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar ƙwaƙwalwa don kwaikwayon faɗaɗa ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ta amfani da wadataccen ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Windows / 286, duk da sunansa, yana gudana ne akan masu sarrafa Intel 8086 da Intel 80286. Yana gudana a cikin yanayi na ainihi amma yana iya amfani da yankin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya mai girma.

Toari da cikakkun abubuwan Windows-fakitoci, akwai nau'ikan lokacin gudu kawai waɗanda aka shigo da su tare da farkon software na Windows daga wasu kamfanoni kuma sun ba da damar gudanar da software ta Windows a kan MS-DOS kuma ba tare da cikakken tsarin fasalin Windows ba.

Siffofin farko na Windows galibi ana ɗaukarsu a matsayin bawo ne na hoto, galibi saboda sun yi aiki a saman MS-DOS kuma suna amfani da shi don sabis ɗin tsarin fayil. Koyaya, har ma da farkon juzu'in Windows tuni sun ɗauki yawancin ayyukan tsarin aiki na yau da kullun; musamman, samun tsarin fayil dinsu wanda za'a iya aiwatar dasu da kuma samar da nasu direbobin na'urar (mai ƙidayar lokaci, zane-zane, firintar, linzamin kwamfuta, madannin rubutu da sauti). Ba kamar MS-DOS ba, Windows ta ba masu amfani damar aiwatar da aikace-aikacen zane da yawa a lokaci guda, ta hanyar haɗa kai da yawa. Windows ta aiwatar da cikakken bayani, yanki-bangare, makircin ƙwaƙwalwar kama-da-gidanka na software, wanda ke ba shi damar gudanar da aikace-aikacen da suka fi girma fiye da ƙwaƙwalwar da ake da su: sassan ɓangarori da albarkatu ana musanya su kuma a jefar da su lokacin da ƙwaƙwalwar ta yi karanci; sassan bayanai sun shiga cikin ƙwaƙwalwa lokacin da aikace-aikacen da aka ba su suka daina sarrafa sarrafawa.

Windows 3.x

Windows 3.0, wanda aka fitar a cikin 1990, ya inganta ƙirar, galibi saboda ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da direbobi masu amfani da na'urori masu kamala (VxDs) waɗanda ke ba Windows damar raba na'urori masu sabani tsakanin aikace-aikacen DOS masu ɗawainiya da yawa. , wanda ke basu damar isa ga megabytes na ƙwaƙwalwa da yawa ba tare da wajibcin shiga cikin tsarin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya na kamala ba. Suna gudana cikin filin adireshi ɗaya, inda ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar ta ba da matakin kariya. Windows 3.0 kuma ya nuna ingantattun abubuwa ga mai amfani. Microsoft ya sake rubuta ayyuka masu mahimmanci daga C cikin haɗuwa. Windows 3.0 shine farkon Microsoft Windows version don cin nasarar cinikin kasuwanci, yana siyar da kwafi miliyan 2 a cikin watanni shida na farko.

Windows 3.1, wanda aka samar dashi gaba ɗaya a ranar 1 ga Maris, 1992, ya nuna fasalin fuska. A watan Agusta na 1993, Windows don Workgroups, sigar ta musamman tare da haɗin hanyoyin sadarwar aboki-da-tsara da lambar sigar 3.11, aka fitar. An sayar tare da Windows 3.1. Goyon bayan Windows 3.1 ya ƙare a ranar 31 ga Disamba, 2001.

Windows 3.2, an fitar da shi a 1994, sigar da aka sabunta ce ta Sinanci ta Windows 3.1. Wasaukakawa ya iyakance ga wannan sigar harshen, saboda ya daidaita kawai batutuwan da suka shafi tsarin rubutu mai rikitarwa na harshen Sinanci. Windows 3.2 gabaɗaya an siyar da shi ta masana'antun komputa tare da nau'in diski goma na MS-DOS wanda kuma ke da Saukakkiyar haruffan Sinanci a cikin kayan aiki na asali da wasu abubuwan amfani da aka fassara.

Windows 9x

Saki na gaba mai mahimmanci na Windows, Windows 95, an sake shi a ranar 24 ga Agusta, 1995. Yayin da yake saura da tushen MS-DOS, Windows 95 ya gabatar da tallafi don aikace-aikacen 32-bit na asali, toshe da kunna kayan aiki, kayan aiki da yawa, dogon lokaci sunayen fayiloli har zuwa haruffa 255, kuma ya samar da ƙarin kwanciyar hankali akan magabata. Windows 95 kuma ta gabatar da sake fasali, mai amfani da daidaitaccen mai amfani, yana maye gurbin Manajan Shirye-shiryen da ya gabata tare da menu na Farawa, allon aiki, da harsashin Windows Explorer. Windows 95 babbar nasara ce ta kasuwanci ga Microsoft; Ina Fried na CNET ya ce "a lokacin da aka cire Windows 95 daga kasuwa a 2001, ya zama abin daidaitawa a kan kwamfutocin kwamfutoci a duniya." kowannensu ya yi daidai da fakitin sabis. OSR na farko na Windows 95 shi ne kuma nau’in Windows na farko da aka hada shi da mai binciken gidan yanar sadarwar Microsoft, Internet Explorer. Babban tallafi na Windows 95 ya ƙare a ranar 31 ga Disamba, 2000, kuma ya ƙara tallafi ga Windows 95 ya ƙare a ranar 31 ga Disamba, 2001.

Windows 95 an bi shi tare da fitowar Windows 98 a ranar 25 ga Yuni, 1998, wanda ya gabatar da Windows Driver Model, goyon baya ga kebul hadaddun na'urori, goyon baya ga ACPI, hibernation, da kuma goyon baya ga Multi-saka idanu jeri. Windows 98 ta hada da hadewa da Internet Explorer 4 ta hanyar Desktop mai aiki da sauran bangarorin na Windows Desktop Update (jerin abubuwan habbaka wa shelar Explorer wadanda suma aka samar da su ga Windows 95). A watan Mayu 1999, Microsoft ya fitar da Windows 98 na Biyu na Windows, wanda aka sabunta na Windows 98. Windows 98 SE ya kara Internet Explorer 5.0 da Windows Media Player 6.2 a tsakanin sauran abubuwan haɓakawa. Babban tallafi na Windows 98 ya ƙare a ranar 30 ga Yuni, 2002, kuma ya ƙara tallafi ga Windows 98 ya ƙare a ranar 11 ga Yulin, 2006.

A ranar 14 ga Satumbar, 2000, Microsoft ya fitar da Windows Me (Millennium Edition), wanda ya kasance na karshe na DOS na Windows. Windows Me ta haɗu da haɓakar ƙirar gani ta gani daga takwararta ta Windows NT na Windows 2000, tana da lokutan saurin sauri fiye da sifofin da suka gabata (wanda duk da haka, yana buƙatar cire ikon samun damar ainihin yanayin DOS yanayi, cire daidaituwa tare da wasu tsofaffin shirye-shirye), ya fadada aikin multimedia (gami da Windows Media Player 7, Windows Movie Maker, da Windows Image Acquisition tsarin don dawo da hotuna daga sikanan kyamarori da kyamarori na dijital), ƙarin abubuwan amfani na tsarin kamar Tsarin Tsaron Fayil da Tsarin Sakewa, da kayan aikin sadarwar gida da aka sabunta. Koyaya, Windows Me ya fuskanci zargi saboda saurin sa da rashin kwanciyar hankali, tare da lamuran daidaito na kayan aiki da cire ainihin yanayin DOS tallafi. PC World sunyi la'akari da Windows Me a matsayin ɗayan mafi munin tsarin aiki da Microsoft ya taɓa fitarwa, kuma mafi ƙarancin kayan fasaha na zamani kowane lokaci.

Windows NT

A watan Nuwamba 1988, sabuwar ƙungiyar haɓaka tsakanin Microsoft (wacce ta haɗa da tsoffin masu haɓaka Digital Equipment Corporation Dave Cutler da Mark Lucovsky) sun fara aiki a kan sabon juzu'i na IBM da kuma tsarin OS / 2 na Microsoft da ake kira "NT OS / 2". NT OS / 2 an yi niyya don zama amintacce, tsarin aiki mai amfani da yawa tare da daidaiton POSIX da kuma mai daidaitaccen sassa, portararar kernel tare da yawaita tallafi da tallafi ga gine-ginen masarrafai masu yawa. Koyaya, bayan nasarar sakin Windows 3.0, ƙungiyar cigaban NT ta yanke shawarar sake aiwatar da aikin don amfani da ƙaramin tashar 32-bit na Windows API da aka sani da Win32 maimakon na OS / 2. Win32 ya kasance yana da irin wannan tsari na Windows APIs (yana barin aikace-aikacen Windows da ake da su a sauƙaƙe zuwa dandamali), amma kuma ya goyi bayan ƙarfin kernel na NT da yake. Bayan amincewar da ma'aikatan Microsoft suka yi, ci gaba ya ci gaba a kan abin da ke yanzu Windows NT, farkon sigar 32-bit na Windows. Koyaya, IBM ya ƙi amincewa da canje-canjen, kuma daga ƙarshe yaci gaba da haɓaka OS / 2 da kansa.

Windows NT shine farkon tsarin aikin Windows wanda ya dogara da kwayar cuta. An tsara kernel ɗin a matsayin microkernel wanda aka gyara, wanda tasirin Mach microkernel wanda Richard Rashid ya haɓaka a Jami'ar Carnegie Mellon, amma ba tare da cika duk ƙa'idodin microkernel mai tsabta ba.

Sakin farko na tsarin aiki da aka samu, Windows NT 3.1 (mai suna don haɗa shi da Windows 3.1) an sake shi a cikin Yuli 1993, tare da sigar don ayyukan ayyukan tebur da sabobin. Windows NT 3.5 an sake shi a watan Satumbar 1994, yana mai da hankali kan ci gaban aiki da tallafi ga Netll's NetWare, sannan Windows NT 3.51 ya biyo baya a watan Mayu 1995, wanda ya haɗa da ƙarin haɓakawa da tallafi ga gine-ginen PowerPC. Windows NT 4.0 an sake shi a watan Yunin 1996, yana gabatar da tsarin sake fasalin Windows 95 zuwa jerin NT. A ranar 17 ga Fabrairu, 2000, Microsoft ya saki Windows 2000, wanda ya gaji NT 4.0. An saka sunan Windows NT a wannan lokacin don sanya babban hankali akan alamar Windows.

Windows XP

Babban fasalin na gaba na Windows NT, Windows XP, an sake shi a ranar 25 ga Oktoba, 2001. Gabatarwar Windows XP na da nufin daidaita jerin Windows 9x na masu amfani da kayayyaki tare da gine-ginen da Windows NT ta gabatar, canjin da Microsoft ya yi alƙawarin samarwa mafi kyau aiwatarwa akan magabata na tushen DOS. Windows XP kuma za ta gabatar da keɓance mai amfani wanda aka sake tsara shi (gami da sabunta menu na farko da kuma "mai daidaitaccen aiki" Windows Explorer), ingantaccen hanyoyin watsa labarai da fasalolin hanyoyin sadarwa, Internet Explorer 6, haɗewa da ayyukan Microsoft na .NET Fasfo, hanyoyin don taimakawa samar da daidaito software da aka tsara don sifofin Windows da suka gabata, da aikin Taimako na Nesa.

A kasuwa, Windows XP yanzu an siyar dashi cikin manyan bugu biyu: "Home" bugu an yi niyya ne ga masu amfani, yayin da aka buga "ƙwararru" ɗin zuwa muhallin kasuwanci da masu amfani da wutar lantarki, kuma ya haɗa da ƙarin tsaro da hanyoyin sadarwa. Gida da Kwararru daga baya sun kasance tare da bugun "Media Center" (an tsara shi don PCs na wasan kwaikwayo na gida, tare da girmamawa kan goyan bayan kunna DVD, katunan tuner na TV, aikin DVR, da sarrafawar nesa), da bugun "Tablet PC" (wanda aka tsara don na'urori masu hannu da ke saduwa da bayanai dalla-dalla game da kwamfutar hannu, tare da tallafi don shigar da alƙalamin alƙalami da ƙarin aikace-aikacen da aka kunna alkalami). Babban tallafi na Windows XP ya ƙare a ranar 14 ga Afrilu, 2009. supportarin tallafi ya ƙare a ranar 8 ga Afrilu, 2014.

Bayan Windows 2000, Microsoft suma sun canza jadawalin fitowar ta don tsarin aikin sabar; abokin aikin uwar garken Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, an sake shi a watan Afrilun 2003. An bi shi a watan Disamba na 2005, ta Windows Server 2003 R2.

Windows Vista

Bayan wani aikin ci gaba mai tsawo, an sake Windows Vista a ranar 30 ga Nuwamba, 2006, don lasisin juz'i da 30 ga Janairu, 2007, don masu amfani. Ya ƙunshi sabbin abubuwa da yawa, daga kwasfa da aka sake fasaltawa da ƙirar mai amfani zuwa manyan canje-canje na fasaha, tare da mai da hankali kan siffofin tsaro. An samo shi a cikin wasu bugu daban-daban, kuma ya sha fuskantar wasu zargi, kamar faduwar aikin, ƙara lokacin buɗa, sukar sabon UAC, da tsaurara yarjejeniyar lasisi. An saki takwarar uwar garken Vista, Windows Server 2008 a farkon 2008.

Windows 7

A ranar 22 ga Yuli, 2009, Windows 7 da Windows Server 2008 R2 an sake su a matsayin RTM (saki ga masana'antu) yayin da na farko aka sake shi ga jama'a watanni 3 bayan haka a ranar 22 ga Oktoba, 2009. Ba kamar wanda ya gabace ta ba, Windows Vista, wacce ta gabatar da babban yawan sababbin abubuwa, Windows 7 an yi niyya don zama mai mayar da hankali, haɓaka haɓaka zuwa layin Windows, tare da manufar dacewa da aikace-aikace da kayan aikin da Windows Vista ta riga ta dace da su. Windows 7 tana da tallafi na taɓawa da yawa, Windows shell da aka sake zanawa tare da ɗawainiyar ɗawainiya, tsarin sadarwar gida da ake kira HomeGroup, da haɓaka aikin.

Windows 8 da 8.1

Windows 8, magajin Windows 7, an sake shi gaba ɗaya a ranar 26 ga Oktoba, 2012. An sami sauye-sauye masu yawa a kan Windows 8, gami da gabatar da ƙirar mai amfani da ke kewaye da harshen ƙirar Metro na Microsoft tare da ingantawa don na'urori masu tushen taɓawa azaman Allunan da all-in-one PCs. Waɗannan canje-canje sun haɗa da Allon farawa, wanda ke amfani da manyan tiles waɗanda suka fi dacewa don hulɗar taɓawa da ba da izinin nuni na ci gaba da sabunta bayanai, da sabon kundin aikace-aikace waɗanda aka tsara da farko don amfani akan na'urori masu taɓa taɓawa. Sabuwar sigar ta Windows ta bukaci mafi ƙarancin ƙuduri na 1024 × 768 pixels, yadda ya kamata ta yadda bai dace da netbooks ba tare da fuska 800 × 600 pixel.

Sauran canje-canjen sun haɗa da haɓaka haɗin kai tare da ayyukan girgije da sauran dandamali na kan layi (kamar cibiyoyin sadarwar jama'a da ayyukan Microsoft na OneDrive (tsohon SkyDrive) da sabis na Xbox Live), sabis ɗin Windows Store don rarraba software, da sabon nau'in da aka sani da Windows RT don amfani dashi na'urorin da ke amfani da gine-ginen ARM. Sabuntawa ga Windows 8, wanda ake kira Windows 8.1, an sake shi a ranar 17 ga Oktoba, 2013, kuma ya haɗa da fasali irin su sabon girman tayal live, zurfafa hadewar OneDrive, da sauran gyare-gyare da yawa. Windows 8 da Windows 8.1 sun sha fuskantar wasu zargi, kamar cire menu na Farawa.

Windows 10

A ranar 30 ga Satumba, 2014, Microsoft ya sanar da Windows 10 a matsayin magajin Windows 8.1. An sake shi a ranar 29 ga Yulin, 2015, kuma yana magance gazawa a cikin tsarin mai amfani wanda aka fara gabatarwa tare da Windows 8. Canje-canje a kan PC sun haɗa da dawowar Fara Menu, tsarin tebur na kama-da-wane, da kuma ikon gudanar da ayyukan Windows Store a cikin windows akan tebur maimakon a yanayin cikakken allo. Windows 10 an ce za a iya sabunta shi daga kwararrun Windows 7 tare da na’urorin SP1, Windows 8.1 da Windows Phone 8.1 daga cikin Get Windows 10 Application (na Windows 7, Windows 8.1) ko Windows Update (Windows 7).

A watan Fabrairun 2017, Microsoft ya ba da sanarwar ƙaura daga matattarar lambar asalin Windows daga Perforce zuwa Git. Wannan hijirar ta hada da fayiloli daban miliyan 3.5 a cikin ma'ajiyar gigabyte 300. A watan Mayu 2017, kashi 90 cikin 100 na ƙungiyar injiniyoyinta suna amfani da Git, a game da aikata 8500 da Windows 1760 da suke ginawa kowace rana.

Bada Taimako akan Harsuna Daban-Daban

An gina tallafi na yare da dama cikin Windows tun daga Windows 3.0. Za'a iya canza yare don maɓallan keyboard da kuma kewayawa ta hanyar Yankin Yanki da Kwamitin Kula da Harshe. Aka sanya dukkan bangarorin tallafi na harsuna masu shigowa, kamar masu Editan Hanyar shigarwa, ana shigar dasu kai tsaye yayin shigar Windows (a cikin Windows XP da kuma a baya, fayilolin harsunan Asiya ta Gabas, kamar Sinanci, da rubutun dama-zuwa-hagu, kamar larabci, na iya buƙata da za a shigar daban, kuma daga abin da aka ce Control Panel). Hakanan za'a iya shigar da IME na ɓangare na uku idan mai amfani yana jin cewa wanda aka bayar ɗin bai isa ba don buƙatun su.

Harsunan tsaka-tsakin yanayi don tsarin aiki kyauta ne don zazzagewa, amma wasu yaruka suna iyakance ga wasu kwafin Windows. Rukunin Hadaddiyar Harshe (LIPs) ana iya sake rarraba su kuma ana iya zazzage su daga Cibiyar Zazzagewa ta Microsoft kuma a girka su don kowane ɗab'in Windows (XP ko daga baya) - suna fassara mafi yawa, amma ba duka ba, na keɓaɓɓiyar Windows ɗin, kuma suna buƙatar wani yare harshe ( - yaren da Windows aka shigo dashi dashi da farko). Ana amfani da wannan don yawancin harsuna a cikin kasuwanni masu tasowa. Cikakken Harsunan Harshe, wanda ke fassara cikakken tsarin aiki, ana samun su ne kawai don takamaiman bugu na Windows (Ultimate da Ciniki bugu na Windows Vista da 7, da duk bugun Windows 8, 8.1 da RT ban da Harshe Guda). Ba su buƙatar takamaiman harshe tushe, kuma ana amfani da su don ƙarin mashahuri harsuna kamar Faransanci ko Sinanci. Waɗannan harsunan ba za a iya zazzage su ta Cibiyar Zazzagewa ba, amma ana iya samun su azaman zaɓaɓɓuka na zaɓi ta hanyar sabis ɗin Updateaukaka Windows (ban da Windows 8).

Harshen kewayawa na aikace-aikacen da aka sanya ba ya canzawa ta canje-canje a cikin harshen haɗin Windows. Samuwar harsuna ya dogara da masu haɓaka aikace-aikacen da kansu.

Windows 8 da Windows Server 2012 suna gabatar da sabon Kwamitin Gudanar da Harshe inda za a iya sauya canje-canje da yarukan shigarwa lokaci guda, kuma za a iya sauke fakitin harshe, ba tare da la'akari da nau'insa ba daga wani wuri na tsakiya. Aikace-aikacen Saitunan PC a cikin Windows 8.1 da Windows Server 2012 R2 suma sun haɗa da shafi na saitunan takwara don wannan. Canza harshen haɗin yanar gizo kuma yana canza yaren kayan aikin Windows Store da aka sanya ajalinsu (kamar Mail, Maps da News) da wasu takamaiman ƙa'idodin masarrafar Microsoft (kamar Remote Desktop). Limituntatawa na sama don fakitin harshe duk da haka suna aiki, sai dai ana iya sanya cikakkun fakitin harshe don kowane bugu ban da Harshe Guda, wanda ke tallata kasuwanni masu tasowa.

Tallafin Dandamali

Windows NT ya haɗa da tallafi don dandamali daban-daban kafin kwamfutar sirri ta x86 ta zama mafi iko a cikin duniyar ƙwararru. Windows NT 4.0 da kuma magabata sun goyi bayan PowerPC, DEC Alpha da MIPS R4000. (Kodayake wasu waannan dandamali suna aiwatar da sarrafa 64-bit, tsarin aiki ya dauke su kamar 32-bit.) Koyaya, Windows 2000, magajin Windows NT 4.0, ya sauke tallafi ga dukkan dandamali ban da ƙarni na uku x86 (wanda aka sani da IA-32 ) ko sabo-sabo a yanayin 32-bit. Layin abokin harka na dangin Windows NT har yanzu yana gudana akan IA-32, kodayake layin Windows Server ya daina tallafawa wannan dandamali tare da sakin Windows Server 2008 R2.

Tare da gabatar da gine-ginen Intel Itanium (IA-64), Microsoft ya fitar da sababbin nau'ikan Windows don tallafawa shi. Sigar Itanium na Windows XP da Windows Server 2003 an sake su a lokaci guda tare da takwarorinsu na al'ada x86. Windows XP 64-Bit Edition, wanda aka fitar a 2005, shine tsarin Windows abokin ciniki na ƙarshe don tallafawa Itanium. Layin Server na Windows yana ci gaba da tallafawa wannan dandalin har zuwa Windows Server 2012; Windows Server 2008 R2 shine tsarin aiki na Windows na ƙarshe don tallafawa gine-ginen Itanium.

A ranar 25 ga Afrilu, 2005, Microsoft ya fitar da Windows XP Professional x64 Edition da Windows Server 2003 x64 Editions don tallafawa x86-64 (ko kuma kawai x64), tsara ta takwas na gine-ginen x86. Windows Vista ita ce farkon kwastomomin Windows NT da za a sake a lokaci guda a cikin bugun IA-32 da x64. x64 har yanzu ana tallafawa.

Bugun Windows 8 da aka sani da Windows RT an kirkireshi ne musamman don kwamfutoci masu tsarin ARM kuma yayin da har yanzu ana amfani da ARM don wayoyin hannu na Windows tare da Windows 10, kwamfutar hannu tare da Windows RT ba za a sabunta su ba. Farawa daga Windows 10 Fall Creators Sabuntawa kuma daga baya ya haɗa da goyan baya ga PCs tare da tsarin AM.

Windows CE

Winaows tsarin CE (bisa huku fi a da aka sani da Windows Embedded Compact), sigar Windows ce wacce ke aiki a kan ƙananan kwamfutoci, kamar tsarin kewaya tauraron dan adam da wasu wayoyin hannu. Windows Embedded Compact ya dogara ne da kwayarsa wacce aka keɓe, wanda aka yiwa lakabi da Windows CE kernel. Microsoft ta ba da lasisin Windows CE ga OEM da masu kera na'urar. OEMs da masu yin na'urori na iya canzawa da ƙirƙirar hanyoyin musayar masu amfani da gogewa, yayin da Windows CE ke ba da tushen fasaha don yin hakan.

An yi amfani da Windows CE a cikin Dreamcast tare da Sega na kansa OS na kayan aikin. Windows CE ita ce ginshikin da Windows Mobile ya samu daga gare ta. Magajinsa, Windows Phone 7, ya dogara ne akan abubuwan da aka gina daga Windows CE 6.0 R3 da Windows CE 7.0. Windows Phone 8 duk da haka, yana dogara ne akan NT-kwaya ɗaya kamar Windows 8.

Windows Embedded Compact ba za a rikita shi da Windows XP aka saka ba ko kuma Windows NT 4.0 aka saka ba, sigar da aka yi amfani da ita ta Windows dangane da kwayar Windows NT.

Xbox OS

Xbox OS suna ne mara izini wanda aka baiwa nau'ikan Windows wanda yake aiki akan Xbox One. Yana da ƙarin takamaiman aiwatarwa tare da girmamawa akan ƙwarewa (ta amfani da Hyper-V) saboda yana da tsarin aiki guda uku waɗanda suke gudana lokaci ɗaya, wanda ya ƙunshi ainihin tsarin aiki, na biyu wanda aka aiwatar dashi don wasanni da kuma yanayi mai kama da Windows don aikace-aikace. Microsoft na sabunta OS One na OS kowane wata, kuma ana iya zazzage wadannan sabuntawa daga sabis na Xbox Live zuwa Xbox kuma a sanya a gaba, ko ta amfani da hotunan dawo da wajen layi da aka zazzage ta PC Core na tushen Windows 10 ya maye gurbin na Windows 8 a cikin wannan sabuntawa, kuma wani lokacin ana kiran sabon tsarin da "Windows 10 akan Xbox One" ko "OneCore". Tsarin Xbox One kuma yana ba da damar daidaitawa ta baya tare da Xbox 360, kuma tsarin Xbox 360 ya kasance yana dacewa da ainihin Xbox. aikin Xbox

Tsarin Kula da Siga[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 2017 Microsoft ya sanar da cewa zai fara amfani da Git, tsarin sarrafa sigar buɗe ido wanda Linus Torvalds ya kirkira. Microsoft a baya ta yi amfani da tsarin sarrafa sigar mallakar ta da ake kira "Source Depot". Microsoft ya fara haɗa Git a cikin Server Foundation Server a cikin 2013, amma Windows ya ci gaba da dogaro da Source Depot. Saboda babban tarihinsa, na tsawon shekaru masu yawa, lambar Windows code ba ta dace sosai da yanayin rashin ci gaban Linux wanda asalin Git aka ƙirƙire shi don sarrafawa. Kowace ma'ajiyar Git tana dauke da cikakken tarihin duk fayilolin, wanda ya tabbatar da rashin aiki ga masu haɓaka Windows saboda rufe wurin ajiyar yana ɗaukar awanni. Microsoft na ta aiki a kan wani sabon aiki da ake kira Virtual File System for Git (VFSForGit) don magance wadannan matsalolin.

Tsaro[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An tsara sifofin masu amfani da Windows da farko don sauƙin-amfani akan PC mai amfani ɗaya ba tare da haɗin hanyar sadarwa ba, kuma ba su da abubuwan tsaro da aka gina tun daga farko. Koyaya, Windows NT da magadanta an tsara su ne don tsaro (gami da kan hanyar sadarwa) da kuma PC masu amfani da yawa, amma ba a farko aka tsara su da tsaron Intanet ba kamar yadda yake, tunda, lokacin da aka fara haɓaka a farkon 1990s, amfani da Intanet bai cika yawa ba.

Waɗannan maganganun ƙirar sun haɗu tare da kurakuran shirye-shirye (misali ambaliyar ambaliyar ruwa) da kuma shaharar Windows yana nufin cewa manufa ce ta tsutsa mai kwakwalwa da marubutan ƙwayoyin cuta. A watan Yunin 2005, Bruce Schneier mai kula da Tsaron Yanar Gizo ya bayyana cewa ya ga sabbin ƙwayoyin cuta da tsutsotsi sama da 1,000 a cikin watanni shida da suka gabata. A cikin 2005, Kaspersky Lab ya samo kusan munanan shirye-shirye 11,000 - ƙwayoyin cuta, Trojan, ƙofofin baya, da ayyukan da aka rubuta don Windows.

Microsoft na fitar da facin tsaro ta hanyar Sabunta Windows Update kamar sau daya a wata (galibi Talata ta biyu ga wata), kodayake ana samun muhimman bayanai a gajerun tazara idan hakan ya zama dole. A cikin nau'ikan Windows bayan da ya haɗa da Windows 2000 SP3 da Windows XP, ana iya saukar da sabuntawa ta atomatik da shigar idan mai amfani ya zaɓi yin hakan. Sakamakon haka, Sabunta 2 na Windows XP, da kuma Sabis na Sabunta 1 don Windows Server 2003, masu amfani sun girke shi da sauri fiye da yadda zai iya kasancewa.

Duk da yake jerin Windows 9x sun ba da zaɓi na samun bayanan martaba don masu amfani da yawa, ba su da masaniyar damar samun dama, kuma ba su ba da izinin isa garesu ba; don haka ba gaskiya bane tsarin aiki mai amfani da yawa. Kari akan haka, sun aiwatar da kariya ne kawai ta bangaren kwakwalwa. Haka kuma an soki su da yawa saboda rashin tsaro.

Tsarin Windows NT na tsarin aiki, akasin haka, masu amfani ne da gaske, kuma suna aiwatar da cikakken ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Koyaya, yawancin fa'idodi kasancewar kasancewar tsarin aiki mai amfani da yawa na gaskiya an rushe shi ta hanyar gaskiyar cewa, kafin Windows Vista, asusun mai amfani na farko wanda aka ƙirƙira yayin aikin saitin shine asusun mai gudanarwa, wanda kuma shine tsoffin sababbin asusu . Kodayake Windows XP ba ta da iyakantattun asusu, amma yawancin masu amfani da gida ba su canza zuwa nau'in asusu tare da ƙananan haƙƙoƙi ba - wani ɓangare saboda yawan shirye-shiryen da ba su buƙatar haƙƙin mai gudanarwa ba - kuma don haka yawancin masu amfani da gida suna gudana a matsayin mai gudanarwa koyaushe.

Windows Vista tana canza wannan ta hanyar gabatar da tsarin daukaka dama mai suna Control Account Account User. Lokacin shiga kamar matsakaiciyar mai amfani, ana ƙirƙirar logon kuma ana sanya alama ta ƙunshe da gata kawai. Ta wannan hanyar, sabon zaman logon bashi da ikon yin canje-canje wanda zai iya shafar ɗaukacin tsarin. Lokacin shiga azaman mai amfani a cikin ƙungiyar Masu Gudanarwa, ana sanya alamun alama guda biyu daban. Alamar farko ta ƙunshi duk gatan da galibi ake bayarwa ga mai gudanarwa, na biyu kuma an ƙuntata alama daidai da abin da mai amfani zai karɓa. Aikace-aikacen mai amfani, gami da kwasfa na Windows, ana farawa tare da takamaiman alama, wanda ke haifar da ragin yanayi na gata koda a ƙarƙashin asusun Gudanarwa. Lokacin da aikace-aikace ya buƙaci babbar dama ko "Gudu azaman mai gudanarwa", UAC zai faɗi don tabbatarwa kuma, idan aka ba da izini (gami da takaddun mai gudanarwa idan asusun da yake neman ɗaukaka ba memba ne na rukunin masu gudanarwa ba), fara aiwatar da amfani alamar da ba ta takaita ba.

Takaddun bayanan da WikiLeaks ya wallafa, wanda aka sanya wa suna Vault 7 wanda aka kirkira tun daga 2013 zuwa 2016, sun yi bayani dalla-dalla game da damar da CIA ke da ita na yin aikin sanya ido ta hanyar lantarki da kuma yakin intanet, kamar ikon iya karya tsarin aiki kamar Microsoft Windows.

A watan Agusta 2019, masanan komputa sun ba da rahoton cewa yanayin raunin tsaro na BlueKeep, CVE-2019-0708, da ke iya shafar tsofaffin nau'ikan Microsoft Windows da ba a haɗu ba ta hanyar Protocol na Remote Desktop, wanda ke ba da damar yiwuwar aiwatar da lambar ta nesa, na iya yanzu ya haɗa da lahani masu alaƙa mai suna DejaBlue, yana shafar sababbin juzu'in Windows (ma’ana, Windows 7 da sauran sigar kwanan nan) haka nan. Bugu da kari, masana sun ba da rahoton raunin tsaro na Microsoft, CVE-2019-1162, dangane da lambar gado da ta shafi Microsoft CTF da ctfmon (ctfmon.exe), wanda ya shafi dukkan nau'ikan Windows daga tsoffin Windows XP zuwa nau'ikan Windows 10 na baya-bayan nan; facin da zai gyara aibin yanzu haka.

Izinin Fayil

Duk nau'ikan Windows daga Windows NT 3 sun dogara ne akan tsarin izini na tsarin fayil wanda ake kira da AGDLP (Lissafi, Duniya, Yankin Yanki, Izini) wanda ake amfani da izinin fayil a fayil / babban fayil a cikin 'ƙungiyar gida' wanda kuma ke da sauran 'kungiyoyin duniya' a matsayin membobi. Waɗannan ƙungiyoyin duniya suna riƙe da wasu rukuni ko masu amfani dangane da nau'ikan Windows da aka yi amfani da su. Wannan tsarin ya bambanta da sauran samfuran dillalai kamar su Linux da NetWare saboda rabon 'tsaye' izinin da ake amfani da shi kai tsaye zuwa fayil ɗin ko babban fayil ɗin. Koyaya ta amfani da wannan tsari na AGLP / AGDLP / AGUDLP yana ba da izinin yin amfani da ƙananan izinin izini kuma yana ba da damar sauye-sauye masu sauƙi ga rukunin asusun ba tare da sake shigar da izinin izini a kan fayiloli da manyan fayiloli ba.

Aiwatar da Madadin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Saboda shaharar tsarin aiki, an saki aikace-aikace da yawa wadanda ke da nufin samar da daidaito da aikace-aikacen Windows, ko dai a matsayin tsarin hada-hada ga wani tsarin aiki, ko kuma a matsayin wani tsari wanda zai iya gudanar da software da aka rubuta don Windows daga akwatin. Wadannan sun hada da:

  • Wine - kyauta da buɗe-tushen aiwatar da Windows API, yana ba mutum damar gudanar da aikace-aikacen Windows da yawa akan dandamali na tushen x86, gami da UNIX, Linux da macOS. Masu haɓaka ruwan inabi suna ambatonsa azaman "tsarin daidaitawa" kuma suna amfani da API na Windows don yin koyi da yanayin Windows.
    • CrossOver - fakitin ruwan inabi tare da takaddun lasisi. Masu haɓaka shi masu ba da gudummawa ne na yau da kullun ga Wine, kuma suna mai da hankali kan ruwan inabi da ke gudana aikace-aikacen tallafi bisa hukuma.
    • Cedega - kayan aiki na Wine na TransGaming Technologies, wanda aka tsara musamman don gudanar da wasannin Microsoft Windows akan Linux. Wani fasalin Cedega wanda aka sani da Cider yana ba da damar wasannin Windows suyi aiki akan macOS. Tunda aka baiwa lasisin ruwan inabi a karkashin LGPL, Cedega ya kasa gabatar da ingantattun abubuwan da aka yiwa Wine zuwa lambar mallakar su. Cedega ya daina aikinsa a watan Fabrairun 2011.
    • Darwine - tashar ruwan inabi don macOS da Darwin. Yana aiki da Wine mai gudana akan QEMU.
    • Linux Unified Kernel - saitin faci zuwa kernel na Linux yana barin yawancin fayilolin aiwatar da Windows a cikin Linux (ta amfani da Wine DLLs); da wasu direbobin Windows da za'a yi amfani dasu.
  • ReactOS - OS-budaddiyar hanya ce wacce take da niyyar gudanar da wannan software kamar Windows, wanda aka tsara tun farko don yin kwatankwacin Windows NT 4.0, a yanzu yana nufin daidaitawar Windows 7. Ya kasance a cikin matakan ci gaba tun daga 1996.
  • Linspire - LindowsOS na da, rabon Linux ne na kasuwanci wanda aka fara kirkireshi da nufin gudanar da babbar manhajar Windows. Canza sunan ta zuwa Linspire bayan Microsoft v. Lindows. An dakatar da aikin Xandros Desktop, wannan kuma daga baya an dakatar dashi.
  • Freedows OS - ƙoƙari ne na buɗe-tushen ƙirƙirar ɓoyayyen Windows don dandamali na x86, wanda aka yi niyyar saki a ƙarƙashin lasisin GNU na Jama'a. An fara shi a cikin 1996, ta Reece K. Sellin, ba a taɓa kammala aikin ba, yana zuwa matakin tattaunawar ƙira wanda ya ƙunshi wasu ra'ayoyi masu yawa har sai da aka dakatar da shi a 2002.