Microsoft

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Microsoft Corporation kamfani ne na fasahar fasahohi na Amurka da hedkwata a Redmond, Washington. Yana haɓaka, ƙera, lasisi, tallafi, da siyar da software na komputa, kayan masarufi na lantarki, kwamfutoci na sirri, da sabis masu alaƙa. Abubuwan sanannun kayan aikinta sune layin Microsoft Windows na tsarin aiki, da Microsoft Office suite, da Internet Explorer da Edge masu bincike na yanar gizo. Manyan kayan aikin ta sune kayan wasan bidiyo na Xbox da kuma Microsoft Surface jeri na kwamfutocin sirri na fuska. Microsoft ya kasance na 21 a cikin jerin sunayen shekarar 2020 na kididdigan hasashe dari biyar (500) na manyan kamfanonin Amurka ta hanyar kudaden shiga gaba daya; Ana ɗaukarsa ɗayan manyan Kamfanoni biyar a cikin masana'antar fasahar fasahar Amurka, tare da Google, Apple, Amazon, da Facebook.

Microsoft (kalmar ita ce tashar komputa na "microcomputer software") wanda Bill Gates da Paul Allen suka kafa a ranar 4 ga Afrilu, 1975, don haɓaka da sayar da masu fassarar BASIC don Altair 8800. Ya tashi ya mamaye tsarin komputa na sirri. kasuwa tare da MS-DOS a tsakiyar 1980s, sannan Microsoft Windows ke biye da shi. Kyautar farko da kamfanin ya gabatar a shekarar 1986 (IPO), da kuma hauhawar farashin kason ta, ya samar da attajirai biliyan uku da masu kudi kimanin 12,000 tsakanin ma'aikatan Microsoft. Tun daga shekarun 1990s, ya ƙara haɓaka daga kasuwar tsarin aiki kuma ya sami sayayya na kamfanoni da yawa, mafi girman su shine samun LinkedIn na dala biliyan 26.2 a cikin watan Disambar 2016, wanda suka biyo baya da sayen Skype Technologies na dala biliyan 8.5 a cikin Mayu 2011.

Ya zuwa shekarar 2015, Microsoft shine ke kan gaba a kasuwa a cikin tsarin kasuwancin tsarin komputa na IBM PC da kuma ofishin kayan komputa na kayan komputa, kodayake ya rasa akasarin kasuwar tsarin aiki ga Android. Hakanan kamfanin yana samar da wasu nau'ikan sauran mabukaci da software na kayan komputa na tebur, kwamfyutocin kwamfyutoci, tabs, kayan aiki, da sabobin, gami da binciken Intanet (tare da Bing), kasuwar sabis na dijital (ta hanyar MSN), gaskiyar lamari (HoloLens), lissafin girgije (Azure), da cigaban software (Visual Studio).

Steve Ballmer ya maye gurbin Gates a matsayin Shugaba a 2000, daga baya ya yi tunanin dabarun "na'urori da aiyuka." Wannan ya bayyana ne tare da kamfanin Microsoft da ke samun Danger Inc a shekarar 2008, ya shiga kasuwar kera kwamfutoci kai tsaye a karon farko a watan Yunin 2012 tare da ƙaddamar da layin Microsoft Surface na kwamfutocin kwamfutar hannu, daga baya kuma suka samar da Microsoft Mobile ta hanyar sayen na'urorin Nokia. da kuma rarraba ayyuka. Tunda Satya Nadella ta hau kujerar Shugaba a shekarar 2014, kamfanin ya sake komawa kan kayan masarufi kuma ya mai da hankali ga aikin sarrafa kwamfuta, matakin da ya taimaka hannun jarin kamfanin ya kai matsayin mafi girma tun Disambar 1999.

Tun da fari Apple ya kwace shi a cikin 2010, a cikin 2018 Microsoft ya sake dawo da matsayinsa na kamfanin da ya fi kowane dan kasuwa ciniki a duniya. A watan Afrilu na shekarar 2019, Microsoft ya kai darajar kasuwar dala tiriliyan, ya zama kamfanin jama'a na uku na Amurka da aka kiyasta kimanin dala biliyan 1 bayan Apple da Amazon. Ya zuwa na 2020, Microsoft yana da ƙimar daraja ta uku mafi girma a duniya.

TARIHI[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shekarar 1972 Zuwa 1985: Kirkira

Abokan ƙuruciya Bill Gates da Paul Allen sun nemi yin kasuwanci ta amfani da ƙwarewarsu a cikin shirye-shiryen kwamfuta. A cikin 1972, sun kafa Traf-O-Data, wanda ya sayar da komputa mai ƙwarewa don yin waƙa da kuma nazarin bayanan zirga-zirgar motoci. Gates ya yi karatu a Jami'ar Harvard yayin da Allen ya ci gaba da karatun digiri a kimiyyar kwamfuta a Jami'ar Jihar Washington, kodayake daga baya ya bar aiki a Honeywell. Fitowar fitowar Watan Lantarki ta Janairu 1975 ta Micro Instrumentation da Telemetry Systems's (MITS) Altair 8800 microcomputer, wanda ya sa Allen ya ba da shawarar cewa za su iya shirya mai fassarar BASIC don na'urar. Gates ya kira MITS ya yi da'awar cewa yana da mai fassara, kuma MITS ta nemi a yi zanga-zangar. Allen ya yi aiki a kan na'urar kwaikwayo ta Altair yayin da Gates ya haɓaka mai fassara, kuma ya yi aiki ba tare da ɓata lokaci ba lokacin da suka nuna shi ga MITS a watan Maris na 1975 a Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS ta yarda ta rarraba shi, ta tallata shi a matsayin Altair BASIC. Gates da Allen sun kafa Microsoft a ranar 4 ga Afrilu, 1975, tare da Gates a matsayin Shugaba, kuma Allen ya ba da shawarar sunan "Micro-Soft" , takaice don karamar komputa software. A watan Agusta 1977, kamfanin ya kulla yarjejeniya tare da ASCII Magazine a Japan, wanda ya haifar da ofishin farko na kasa da kasa na ASCII Microsoft. Microsoft ya dauke hedkwatarsa ​​zuwa Bellevue, Washington a watan Janairun 1979.

Microsoft ya shiga kasuwancin tsarin aiki (OS) a cikin 1980 tare da nasa iri na Unix da ake kira Xenix, amma MS-DOS ne ya ƙarfafa ikon kamfanin. IBM ya ba da kwangila ga Microsoft a watan Nuwamba 1980 don samar da sigar CP / M OS da za a yi amfani da ita a cikin Kwamfutar Kwamfuta ta IBM (IBM PC). Don wannan yarjejeniyar, Microsoft ta sayi clone / CP mai suna 86-DOS daga Seattle Computer Products wanda ta sanya alama a matsayin MS-DOS, kodayake IBM ya sake suna zuwa IBM PC DOS. Microsoft ya ci gaba da mallakar mallakar MS-DOS biyo bayan fitowar IBM PC a watan Agusta 1981. IBM ya mallaki IBM PC BIOS, don haka dole ne wasu kamfanoni su juya injiniyan domin kayan da ba na IBM ba su yi aiki tare kamar IBM PC, amma ba irin wannan ƙuntatawa da ake amfani da shi ga tsarin aiki. A ƙarshe Microsoft ya zama babban mai sayar da tsarin sarrafa PC. Kamfanin ya faɗaɗa zuwa cikin sababbin kasuwanni tare da fitowar Mouse na Microsoft a cikin 1983, da kuma tare da sashen buga littattafai mai suna Microsoft Press. Paul Allen ya yi murabus daga kamfanin Microsoft a shekarar 1983 bayan ya kamu da cutar Hodgkin. Allen ya yi ikirarin a cikin Idea Man: Memoir ta Co-kafa Microsoft cewa Gates ya so ya narkar da kasonsa a kamfanin lokacin da aka gano shi da cutar Hodgkin saboda bai yi tunanin cewa yana aiki tuƙuru ba. Daga baya Allen ya saka hannun jari a cikin ƙananan fannoni na fasaha, ƙungiyoyin wasanni, rukunin ƙasa na kasuwanci, ƙarancin jijiyoyin jiki, jirgin sararin samaniya, da ƙari.

Shekarar 1985 Zuwa 1994: Windows and Office

Microsoft ya saki Microsoft Windows a ranar 20 ga Nuwamba, 1985, a matsayin ƙarin hoto na MS-DOS, duk da cewa sun fara haɓaka OS / 2 tare da IBM a watan Agusta da ya gabata. Microsoft ya dauke hedkwatarsa ​​daga Bellevue zuwa Redmond, Washington, a ranar 26 ga Fabrairu, 1986, kuma ya fito fili a ranar 13 ga Maris, tare da sakamakon karuwar hajojin da aka kiyasta masu biliyan hudu da masu kudi miliyan 12,000 daga ma'aikatan Microsoft. Microsoft ya saki sigar OS / 2 ga asalin masana'antun kayan aiki (OEMs) a ranar 2 ga Afrilu, 1987. A shekarar 1990, Hukumar Kasuwanci ta Tarayya ta binciki Microsoft kan yiwuwar hada baki saboda kawance da kamfanin na IBM, wanda hakan ya nuna farkon fara rikici tsakanin gwamnati da gwamnati sama da shekaru goma. A halin yanzu, kamfanin yana kan aikin Microsoft Windows NT, wanda ya dogara sosai akan kwafinsu na lambar OS / 2. An shigo dashi ne a ranar 21 ga Yuli, 1993, tare da sabon kwaya mai daidaitaccen tsari da 32-bit Win32 aikace-aikacen shirye-shiryen (API), yana mai sauƙin shigo da kaya daga Windows 16-bit (tushen MS-DOS). Microsoft ya sanar da IBM na Windows NT, kuma haɗin OS / 2 ya lalace

A shekarar 1990, Microsoft sun gabatar da Microsoft Office suite wadanda suka hada aikace-aikace daban daban kamar su Microsoft Word da Microsoft Excel. A ranar 22 ga watan Mayu, Microsoft ta ƙaddamar da Windows 3.0, tare da fasalta ingantattun ƙirar mai amfani da ingantaccen yanayin kariya ga mai sarrafa Intel 386 , kuma duka Office da Windows sun zama masu rinjaye a yankunansu.

A ranar 27 ga Yulin, 1994, Sashen Adalci na Ma'aikatar Shari'a ya gabatar da wata sanarwa game da tasirin gasar wanda ya ce: "farawa daga 1988, har zuwa 15 ga Yulin 1994, Microsoft ya jawo yawancin OEMs don aiwatar da lasisin adawa da gasa 'ga kowane mai sarrafawa.' lasisin sarrafa-inji, OEM na biyan Microsoft kudin masarauta ga kowace kwamfutar da ta sayar dauke da wani karamin microprocessor, ko OEM ta sayar da kwamfutar da tsarin aiki na Microsoft ko kuma wanda ba na Microsoft ba. Ana amfani da samfurin Microsoft a matsayin fansa, ko haraji, akan amfani da OEM na PC mai aiki da tsarin aiki.Tun da 1988, amfani da Microsoft na kowane lasisin sarrafawa ya ƙaru.

Shekarar 1995 Zuwa 2007: Foray into the Web, Windows 95, Windows XP, and Xbox

Bayan bayanan Bill Gates na "bayanan Tidal Wave na Intanet" a ranar 26 ga Mayu, 1995, Microsoft ya fara sake fasalin abubuwan da yake bayarwa da fadada layin samfuransa zuwa sadarwar kwamfuta da Gidan yanar gizo na Duniya. Tare da wasu ƙananan keɓe na sababbin kamfanoni, kamar Netscape, Microsoft shine kawai babban kuma kamfani da aka kafa wanda ya yi aiki da sauri don zama ɓangare na Yanar Gizon Duniya kusan tun daga farawa. Sauran kamfanoni kamar Borland, WordPerfect, Novell, IBM da Lotus, kasancewar sun yi jinkiri sosai don daidaitawa da sabon yanayin, zai ba Microsoft ikon mamaye kasuwa. Kamfanin ya saki Windows 95 a ranar 24 ga watan Agusta, 1995, wanda ke nuna abubuwan da za a iya amfani da su, aikin sabon mai amfani tare da maɓallin farawa na sabon labari, da daidaituwa 32-bit; kwatankwacin NT, ta samar da Win32 API. [42] [43]: 20 Windows 95 sun kasance a haɗe tare da sabis ɗin kan layi na MSN, wanda da farko aka yi niyya ya zama mai gasa da Intanet, [masu shakku - tattauna] da (don OEMs ) Internet Explorer, mai binciken gidan yanar gizo. Ba a haɗa Internet Explorer da akwatunan Windows Windows na kiri-kiri ba, saboda an buga kwalaye ɗin kafin ƙungiyar ta gama aikin gidan yanar gizon, kuma a maimakon haka aka sanya ta cikin Windows 95 Plus! fakiti. Wanda ya sami tallafi daga wani kamfen na talla mai girma da kuma abin da jaridar The New York Times ta kira "gabatarwa, mafi haushi, gabatarwar kayan kwamfuta a tarihin masana'antar," Windows 95 da sauri ya zama mai nasara. Branching zuwa sababbin kasuwanni a cikin 1996, kamfanin Microsoft da General Electric's NBC sun kirkiro sabon tashar tashar labarai ta 24/7, MSNBC. Microsoft ya kirkiro Windows CE 1.0, sabon OS da aka tsara don na'urori tare da ƙananan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da sauran ƙuntatawa, kamar mataimakan dijital na sirri. A watan Oktoba 1997, Ma'aikatar Shari'a ta gabatar da kara a Kotun Gundumar Tarayya, tana mai cewa Microsoft ta karya yarjejeniyar da aka sanya wa hannu a 1994 kuma ta nemi kotun da ta dakatar da hada Internet Explorer da Windows.

A ranar 13 ga Janairun 2000, Bill Gates ya mika mukamin Shugaba ga Steve Ballmer, wani tsohon abokin kwalejin Gates kuma ma'aikacin kamfanin tun 1980, yayin kirkirar sabon matsayi ga kansa a matsayin Babban Masanin Gini. Kamfanoni daban-daban ciki har da Microsoft sun kirkiro edungiyar Amintaccen Kayan Kayan Komfuta a cikin watan Oktoba na 1999 don (a tsakanin sauran abubuwa) haɓaka tsaro da kare kayan ilimi ta hanyar gano canje-canje a cikin kayan aiki da software. Masu sukar lamiri sun yi tir da kawancen a matsayin wata hanya ta aiwatar da takaitawa kan yadda masu amfani da software suke amfani da su, da kuma yadda kwamfutoci ke nuna hali, kuma a matsayin wani nau'i na kula da hakkin dijital: misali yanayin da ba a amintar da kwamfuta kawai ga mai ita ba, har ma ta sami tsaro a kan mai ita ma. A ranar 3 ga Afrilu, 2000, an zartar da hukunci game da shari'ar Amurka da Microsoft Corp., yana kiran kamfanin da "cin zali mai cin zali." Daga baya Microsoft ya sasanta da Ma'aikatar Shari'a ta Amurka a 2004. A ranar 25 ga Oktoba, 2001, Microsoft ya fitar da Windows XP, yana haɗa kan layi da NT na OS a ƙarƙashin NT codebase. Kamfanin ya fitar da Xbox daga baya a waccan shekarar, ya shiga kasuwar wasan bidiyo game console wanda Sony da Nintendo suka mamaye. A watan Maris na 2004 Tarayyar Turai ta kawo karar cin amana a kan kamfanin, tana mai cewa ta yi amfani da ikonta na Windows OS, wanda ya haifar da hukuncin € 497 miliyan (dala miliyan 613) kuma ta bukaci Microsoft da ta samar da sabbin nau'ikan Windows XP ba tare da Windows Media Player ba : Windows XP Home Edition N da Windows XP Kwararren N. A cikin Nuwamba Nuwamba 2005, an fitar da kayan wasan bidiyo na kamfani na biyu, Xbox 360. Akwai nau'i biyu, fasali na asali don $ 299.99 da kuma tsarin maficici na $ 399.99.

Ya cigaba da gabatar da kayan aiki bayan Xbox akai-akai a cikin kasuwancin sa, Microsoft a cikin 2006 ya saki jerin Zune na 'yan wasan kafofin watsa labaru na dijital, magaji na dandamali na software na baya Portable Media Center. Wadannan sun faɗaɗa kan alƙawarin kayan aikin da suka gabata daga Microsoft bayan asalin Asirin Microsoft ɗin a cikin 1983; kamar na 2007 kamfanin ya sayar da mafi kyawun kebul keyboard (Natural Ergonomic Keyboard 4000), linzamin kwamfuta (IntelliMouse), da kuma kyamaran gidan yanar gizo na tebur (LifeCam) a Amurka. A waccan shekarar kamfanin ya kuma ƙaddamar da Surface "tebur na dijital", daga baya aka sake masa suna PixelSense.

Shekarar 2007 Zuwa 2011: Microsoft Azure, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Microsoft Stores

An sake shi a watan Janairun 2007, na gaba na Windows, Vista, ya mai da hankali ne kan fasalulluka, tsaro da kuma sabon tsarin amfani da mai amfani da aka yi wa lakabi da Aero. Microsoft Office 2007, wanda aka fitar a lokaci guda, ya nuna fasalin mai amfani da "Ribbon" wanda ya kasance babban rashi ne daga magabata. Abubuwan da ke da alaƙa da tallace-tallace na kayayyakin duka sun taimaka wajen samar da riba a cikin 2007. Kungiyar Tarayyar Turai ta sake sanya tarar of 899 miliyan (dala biliyan 1.4) saboda rashin bin Microsoft game da hukuncin da ya yanke a watan Maris na 2004 a ranar 27 ga Fabrairu, 2008, yana mai cewa kamfanin ya tuhumi abokan hamayyarsa da farashin da bai dace ba don muhimman bayanai game da rukunin aiki da kuma sabobin bayanansu. Microsoft ya bayyana cewa yana bin ka’idoji kuma “wadannan fines an yi su ne kan batutuwan da suka gabata da aka warware”. 2007 kuma ya ga ƙirƙirar cibiyoyi da yawa a Microsoft, yana bin matakan kamfanonin sabar kamar Sun da IBM.

Gates ya yi ritaya daga matsayinsa na Babban Shugaban Software Architect a ranar 27 ga Yuni, 2008, shawarar da aka sanar a watan Yunin 2006, yayin da yake riƙe da wasu mukamai da suka shafi kamfanin ban da kasancewa mai ba da shawara ga kamfanin kan muhimman ayyuka. Samfurin Sabis na Sabure, shigowar kamfanin cikin kasuwar lissafin girgije ta Windows, wanda aka ƙaddamar a ranar 27 ga Oktoba, 2008. A ranar 12 ga Fabrairu, 2009, Microsoft ya sanar da aniyarsa ta buɗe jerin shagunan shagunan sayar da kayayyaki na Microsoft, kuma a ranar 22 ga Oktoba, 2009, Shagon Microsoft na farko da aka buɗe a Scottsdale, Arizona; a wannan ranar an fitar da Windows 7 a hukumance ga jama'a. Windows 7 ta fi mai da hankali kan gyaran Vista tare da sauƙin amfani da fasali da haɓaka aikin, maimakon sake aikin Windows mai yawa.

Yayin da masana'antar kera wayoyin zamani ta bunkasa a karshen shekarun 2000, kamfanin Microsoft ya yi ta kokarin ci gaba da kasancewa tare da abokan hamayyarsa wajen samar da tsarin zamani na wayoyin zamani, inda ya koma bayan kamfanin Apple da Google da ke tallafawa Amurka a Amurka. A sakamakon haka, a cikin 2010 Microsoft ta sake fasalin babban aikin babbar wayoyin salula, Windows Mobile, ya maye gurbin shi da sabon Windows Phone OS wanda aka fitar a watan Oktoba na shekarar. Ya yi amfani da sabon yare mai amfani da keɓaɓɓen mai amfani, wanda aka sanya wa suna "Metro", wanda ya yi amfani da fitattun sifofi masu sauƙi, rubutu da zane-zane, tare da amfani da ma'anar ƙarancin aiki. Microsoft ya aiwatar da sabuwar dabara ga masana'antar software, yana samar da daidaitaccen kwarewar mai amfani a duk wayoyin zamani ta amfani da Windows Phone OS. Ya fara kawance da Nokia a shekarar 2011 kuma Microsoft ya yi aiki kafada da kafada da kamfanin don bunkasa Windows Phone, amma ya kasance abokan aiki tare da Windows Mobile OEM HTC na dogon lokaci. Microsoft memba ne na kafuwar Open Networking Foundation da aka fara a ranar 23 ga Maris, 2011. Abokan kafuwar sun hada da Google, HP Networking, Yahoo !, Verizon Communications, Deutsche Telekom da wasu kamfanoni 17. Wannan kungiya mai zaman kanta tana mai da hankali ne kan samar da tallafi ga wani aikin samar da girgije da ake kira Sadarwar Sadarwar Sadarwa. An ƙaddamar da shirin ne don saurin haɓaka ta hanyar sauye-sauyen software cikin hanyoyin sadarwar sadarwa, hanyoyin sadarwa mara waya, cibiyoyin bayanai da sauran wuraren sadarwar.

Shekarar 2011 Zuwa 2014: Windows 8/8.1, Xbox One, Outlook.com, and Surface devices

Bayan fitowar Windows Phone, Microsoft ya gudanar da sake yin kwaskwarima ga kayan aikinsa a hankali a cikin shekarar 2011 da 2012, tare da tambarin kamfanin, kayayyaki, aiyuka da gidajen yanar sadarwar da ke dauke da ka'idoji da dabarun yaren Metro. Microsoft ya gabatar da Windows 8, wani tsarin aiki wanda aka tsara shi domin baiwa kwamfutoci masu zaman kansu da kwamfutocin kwamfutar hannu iko, a Taipei a watan Yunin 2011. An saki samfoti na masu tasowa a ranar 13 ga Satumba, wanda aka maye gurbinsa da samfurin samfura a ranar 29 ga Fabrairu, 2012, kuma aka sake shi ga jama'a a cikin Mayu. An gabatar da saman ne a ranar 18 ga watan Yuni, ya zama kwamfuta ta farko a tarihin kamfanin da kamfanin Microsoft ya kera kayan aikinta. A ranar 25 ga Yuni, Microsoft ya biya dalar Amurka biliyan 1.2 don sayen gidan yanar sadarwar Yammer. A ranar 31 ga Yuli, sun ƙaddamar da sabis ɗin gidan yanar gizo na Outlook.com don yin gogayya da Gmail. A ranar 4 ga Satumba, 2012, Microsoft ya saki Windows Server 2012.

A watan Yulin 2012, Microsoft ya sayar da kaso 50% na kamfanin MSNBC, wanda ya yi aiki tare da hadin gwiwar kamfanin NBC tun daga 1996. A ranar 1 ga Oktoba, Microsoft ya sanar da aniyarsa ta ƙaddamar da aikin labarai, wani ɓangare na sabon salon MSN, tare da Windows 8 a cikin watan. A ranar 26 ga Oktoba, 2012, Microsoft ya ƙaddamar da Windows 8 da Microsoft Surface. Bayan kwana uku, aka ƙaddamar da Windows Phone 8. Don jimre dammar karuwar bukatar kayayyaki da aiyuka, Microsoft ta bude wasu "shagunan hutu" a fadin Amurka don taimakawa yawan "Shagon bulo-da-turmi" na Shagunan Microsoft da aka bude a 2012. A ranar 29 ga Maris, 2013, Microsoft suka ƙaddamar da Patent Tracker.

A watan Agusta na 2012, Ofishin 'yan sanda na Birnin New York ya sanar da haɗin gwiwa tare da Microsoft don ci gaban Tsarin wayar da kan jama'a wanda ake amfani da shi don sa ido kan' yan sanda a cikin New York City.

Kinect, na'urar shigar da motsi ne wanda Microsoft ta kirkira kuma aka tsara ta a matsayin mai kula da wasan bidiyo, wanda aka fara gabatarwa a watan Nuwamba na shekara ta 2010, an inganta shi don fitowar 2013 na Xbox One bidiyo game console. An bayyana ikon Kinect a cikin Mayu 2013: kyamarar 1080p mai faɗi, tana aiki a cikin duhu saboda firikwensin firikwensin, ikon sarrafawa na ƙarshe da sabuwar software, ikon rarrabewa tsakanin ƙungiyoyi masu kyau (kamar motsi babban yatsa), da kuma tantance yawan bugun zuciyar mai amfani ta hanyar duban fuskokinsu. Microsoft ya gabatar da takaddar neman izinin mallaka a cikin 2011 wanda ke nuna cewa kamfanin na iya amfani da tsarin kyamarar Kinect don lura da halayyar masu kallon talabijin a matsayin wani bangare na shirin don sa kwarewar kallon ta zama mai cudanya. A ranar 19 ga Yulin, 2013, hannun jarin Microsoft ya sha wahala mafi girma a rana daya tun shekara ta 2000, bayan rahotonta na kwata ya nuna damuwa tsakanin masu saka hannun jari game da rashin nunin Windows 8 da kwamfutar ta Surface. Microsoft ya yi asara fiye da dalar Amurka biliyan 32.

Dangane da kasuwancin PC da suka balaga, a watan Yulin 2013, Microsoft ya sanar da cewa zai sake tsara kasuwancin zuwa sabbin bangarorin kasuwanci hudu, watau Operating System, Apps, Cloud, and Devices. Dukkanin bangarorin da suka gabata za a narkar da su zuwa sabbin bangarori ba tare da rage ma'aikata ba. A ranar 3 ga Satumbar, 2013, Microsoft ya amince ya sayi sashin wayar Nokia akan dala biliyan 7, bayan Amy Hood da ya dauki matsayin CFO.

Shekarar 2014 Zuwa 2020: Windows 10, Microsoft Edge, HoloLens

A ranar 4 ga Fabrairu, 2014, Steve Ballmer ya sauka daga shugabancin Microsoft kuma Satya Nadella, wanda ya taba jagorantar kamfanin Microsoft da Cloud da Microsoft ya gaje shi. A wannan rana, John W. Thompson ya hau kujerar shugaba, a madadin Bill Gates, wanda ya ci gaba da shiga a matsayin mai ba da shawara kan fasaha. Thompson ya zama shugaba na biyu a tarihin Microsoft. A ranar 25 ga Afrilu, 2014, Microsoft suka sayi Na'urori da Sabis na Nokia akan dala biliyan 7.2. Wannan sabon reshen ya koma kamfanin Microsoft Mobile Oy. A ranar 15 ga Satumba, 2014, Microsoft suka sayi kamfanin bunkasa wasan bidiyo na Mojang, wanda aka fi sani da Minecraft, kan dala biliyan 2.5. A ranar 8 ga Yuni, 2017, Microsoft sun sayi Hexadite, wani kamfanin tsaro na Isra'ila, kan dala miliyan 100.

A ranar 21 ga Janairu, 2015, kamfanin Microsoft ya sanar da fitowar allon fara huldarsu na farko, watau Microsoft Surface Hub. A ranar 29 ga watan Yulin 2015, an fitar da Windows 10, tare da dan uwansa na uwar garken, Windows Server 2016, wanda aka fitar a watan Satumbar 2016. A cikin Q1 2015, Microsoft shine na uku a jerin masu kera wayoyin hannu, yana sayar da raka'a miliyan 33 (7.2% na duka). Duk da yake mafi rinjaye (aƙalla 75%) daga cikinsu ba sa gudanar da kowace irin Windows Phone - waɗancan wayoyin ba a rarraba su a matsayin wayoyin hannu na Gartner ba - a daidai lokacin da aka ƙera wayoyin hannu na Windows miliyan 8 (2.5% na dukkan wayoyin hannu) ta dukkan masana'antun (amma galibi na Microsoft ne). Rabon Microsoft a kasuwar wayoyi ta Amurka a watan Janairun 2016 ya kasance 2.7%. A lokacin bazara na shekarar 2015 kamfanin ya yi asarar dala biliyan 7.6 dangane da kasuwancin wayar salula, inda ya kori ma’aikata 7,800.

A ranar 1 ga Maris, 2016, Microsoft ya sanar da hadewar sassan PC da Xbox, tare da Phil Spencer ya sanar da cewa manhajojin Universal Windows Platform (UWP) za su zama abubuwan da Microsoft za ta mayar da hankali a kansu a nan gaba. A ranar 24 ga Janairu, 2017, Microsoft sun nuna Intune don Ilimi a taron fasahar ilimi na BETT 2017 a London. Intune don Ilimi sabon aikace-aikace ne na girgije da kuma kula da kayan aiki na bangaren ilimi. A watan Mayun 2016, kamfanin ya sanar da cewa ya kori ma'aikata 1,850, kuma ya dauki nakasa da sake tsarin dala miliyan 950. A watan Yunin 2016, Microsoft ya sanar da wani aiki mai suna Microsoft Azure Information Kariya. Yana nufin taimakawa kamfanoni su kare bayanan su yayin da suke tafiya tsakanin sabobin da na'urori. A watan Nuwamba 2016, Microsoft ya shiga cikin Linux Foundation a matsayin memba na Platinum yayin Microsoft's Connect (); taron masu tasowa a New York. Kudin kowane memba na Platinum shine $ 500,000 a shekara. Wasu manazarta sun dauki wannan abin da ba za a iya tsammani ba shekaru goma da suka gabata, duk da haka, kamar yadda a shekarar 2001 lokacin Shugaba Steve Ballmer ya kira Linux da "cutar kansa". Microsoft ya shirya ƙaddamar da samfoti na Intune don Ilimi "a cikin makonni masu zuwa", tare da samun wadatar gabaɗaya wanda aka tsara a lokacin bazara na 2017, wanda aka saye shi kan $ 30 a kowace na'ura, ko kuma ta hanyar lasisin yarjejeniya.

A watan Janairun 2018, Microsoft sun yiwa Windows 10 facin lissafin matsalolin CPU da suka shafi matsalar tsaro ta Intel ta Meltdown. Alamar ta haifar da maganganu tare da kayan aikin Microsoft Azure wanda ya dogara da tsarin Intel na CPU. Ranar 12 ga Janairu, Microsoft ya fitar da PowerShell Core 6.0 don tsarin aiki na macOS da Linux. A watan Fabrairun 2018, Microsoft sun kashe tallafi na sanarwa don na'urorin Windows Phone wanda ya kawo karshen sabuntawar firmware don katse na'urorin. A watan Maris na 2018, Microsoft ya tuno da Windows 10 S don canza shi zuwa yanayi don tsarin aiki na Windows maimakon keɓaɓɓen tsarin aiki na musamman. A watan Maris kamfanin ya kuma kafa jagororin da zai killace masu amfani da Office 365 daga amfani da maganganun batanci a cikin takardu masu zaman kansu. A watan Afrilu 2018, Microsoft ya fitar da lambar tushe don Manajan Fayil na Windows a ƙarƙashin lasisin MIT don bikin cika shekaru 20 na shirin. A watan Afrilu kamfanin ya kara bayyana yarda da rungumar hanyoyin bude ido ta hanyar sanar da Azure Sphere a matsayin abin da ya samu na tsarin aikin Linux. A watan Mayu 2018, Microsoft ya yi aiki tare da hukumomin leken asirin Amurka 17 don haɓaka samfuran sarrafa kwamfuta. An yi wa aikin laƙabi da "Gwamnatin Azure" kuma yana da alaƙa da shirin sa ido kan kayayyakin haɗin gwiwa na Hadin Gwiwa (JEDI). A ranar 4 ga Yuni, 2018, Microsoft a hukumance ta sanar da mallakar GitHub na dala biliyan 7.5, yarjejeniyar da aka rufe a ranar 26 ga Oktoba, 2018. A ranar 10 ga Yuli, 2018, Microsoft ya bayyana masarrafar Surface Go ga jama'a. Daga baya a cikin watan ya canza Teamsungiyoyin Microsoft zuwa kyauta. A watan Agusta 2018, Microsoft ya saki wasu ayyuka biyu da ake kira Microsoft AccountGuard da Defending Democracy. Hakanan ya fito da daidaituwar Snapdragon 850 don Windows 10 akan tsarin ARM.

A watan Agusta 2018, Toyota Tsusho ya fara haɗin gwiwa tare da Microsoft don ƙirƙirar kayan aikin noman kifi ta amfani da ɗakunan aikace-aikacen Microsoft Azure na Intanet na fasahohin Intanet (IoT) masu alaƙa da sarrafa ruwa. Wanda masu binciken daga jami'ar Kindai suka kirkireshi, hanyoyin amfani da famfunan amfani da hankali don kirga yawan kifin akan bel din mai daukar kaya, yin nazarin yawan kifin, da kuma gano tasirin ruwa daga bayanan da kifin yake bayarwa. Takamaiman shirye-shiryen komputa da aka yi amfani da su a cikin aikin sun faɗi a ƙarƙashin Ilmantarwa Na'urar Azure da kuma dandamali na Azure IoT Hub. A watan Satumban 2018, Microsoft ya daina Skype Classic. A ranar 10 ga Oktoba 10, 2018, Microsoft ya shiga cikin Networkungiyar Sadarwar Inirƙirar despiteirƙiri duk da riƙe lasisi sama da 60,000. A watan Nuwamba 2018, Microsoft ya amince ya samar da lasifikan Microsoft HoloLens na 100,000 ga sojojin Amurka domin "kara yawan mace-mace ta hanyar kara karfin ganowa, yanke shawara da kuma shiga gaban abokan gaba." A watan Nuwamba na 2018, Microsoft ya gabatar da Azure Multi- Gaskiyar hujja ga Microsoft Azure. A watan Disamba na 2018, Microsoft ya sanar da Project Mu, wanda aka buɗe tushen asalin Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) wanda aka yi amfani da shi a cikin samfuran Microsoft Surface da Hyper-V. Aikin na inganta ra'ayin Firmware a matsayin Sabis. A cikin wannan watan, Microsoft ya ba da sanarwar buɗe tushen aiwatar da Windows Forms da Gidauniyar Gabatar da Windows (WPF) wanda zai ba da damar ci gaba da motsa kamfanin zuwa ga sakin fitaccen tsarin tsarin da aka yi amfani da shi wajen haɓaka aikace-aikacen Windows desktop da software. Disamba kuma ya ga kamfanin ya dakatar da aikin Microsoft Edge don goyon bayan bayanan Chromium na masu binciken su.

20 ga Fabrairu, 2019 Microsoft Corp ya ce zai ba da sabis na tsaro na yanar gizo AccountGuard ga sababbin kasuwanni 12 a Turai ciki har da Jamus, Faransa da Spain, don rufe gibin tsaro da kare abokan ciniki a cikin sararin siyasa daga yin kutse. A watan Fabrairun 2019, ɗaruruwan ma'aikatan Microsoft sun yi zanga-zangar nuna rashin fa'ida game da yaƙin kamfanin na kwangilar dala miliyan 480 don haɓaka kanun labarai na zahiri don Sojojin Amurka

Shekarar 2020 Zuwa Yanzu: Sayayya, Xbox Series X / S

A ranar 26 ga Maris, 2020, Microsoft ya ba da sanarwar cewa yana sayen Kamfanin Sadarwa na kimanin dala biliyan 1.35.

Sakamakon yaduwar cutar COVID-19, Microsoft ya rufe duk wasu shagunan sayar da shi har abada saboda matsalolin kiwon lafiya.

A ranar 22 ga Yuli, 2020, Microsoft ya sanar da shirye-shirye don rufe sabis na Mixer, yana shirin tura abokan hulɗa zuwa Facebook Gaming.

A ranar 31 ga Yulin, 2020, an ba da rahoton cewa Microsoft na tattaunawa don mallakar TikTok bayan da Gwamnatin Trump ta ba da umarnin ByteDance ya ba da izinin mallakar aikace-aikacen ga Amurka A ranar 3 ga Agusta, 2020, bayan jita-jita kan yarjejeniyar, Donald Trump ya bayyana cewa Microsoft na iya siyan aikace-aikacen, duk da haka ya kamata a kammala shi a ranar 15 ga Satumbar, 2020 kuma Ma’aikatar Baitul malin Amurka ta karɓi wani kaso idan za ta je ta hanyar.

A ranar 5 ga Agusta, 2020, Microsoft ya dakatar da gwajin watsa shirye-shiryensa na xCloud don na'urorin iOS. A cewar Microsoft, makomar xCloud akan iOS ya kasance mara tabbas kuma mai yuwuwa daga hannun Microsoft. Apple ya sanya tsauraran matakai a kan "kwastomomin da ke nesa da ke nesa" wanda ke nufin ana ba da izinin aikace-aikace ne kawai zuwa na’urar karbar bakuncin mai amfani da ita ko kuma kayan wasan kwaikwayo na mai amfani.

A ranar 21 ga Satumba, 2020, Microsoft ya sanar da aniyarsa ta mallakar ZeniMax Media na kimanin dala biliyan 7.5, tare da yarjejeniyar da ake sa ran za a yi a rabin rabin shekarar kasafin kudi ta 2021. A ranar 9 ga Maris, 2021, sayayyar ta kammala kuma ZeniMax Media ya zama wani ɓangare na sashen Xbox Studio Studio na Microsoft.

A ranar 22 ga Satumba, 2020, Microsoft ya sanar cewa yana da lasisi na musamman don amfani da OpenAI's GPT-3 janareta mai ilimin wucin gadi. Siffar da ta gabata ta GPT-3, ana kiranta GPT-2, ta sanya kanun labarai saboda “suna da matukar hadari don saki” kuma suna da dama da yawa, gami da tsara gidajen yanar gizo, rubuta magunguna, amsa tambayoyi da kuma rubutun alkalami.

A ranar 10 ga Nuwamba, 2020, Microsoft sun fitar da Xbox game X da kuma Xbox game S game wasan bidiyo bidiyo.

A watan Afrilu na 2021, Microsoft ya ce zai sayi Kamfanin Sadarwar Nuance kan tsabar kudi dala biliyan 16.

A cikin 2021, wani ɓangare saboda ƙarfi mai ƙarfi na kwata kwata da cutar COVID-19 ta haifar, ƙimar Microsoft ta kusan dala tiriliyan 2. Bukatan Karin ya faru ne saboda larurar aiki na nesa da ilimin nesa ya ingiza buƙatun sabis na lissafin girgije kuma ya haɓaka tallan wasan kamfanin.

Harkokin Kamfani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yan Kwamitin Gudanarwa

Kwamitin gudanarwa ne ke tafiyar da kamfanin wanda ya kunshi galibin kamfanonin waje, kamar yadda yake al'ada ga kamfanonin da ake fataucin jama'a. Membobin kwamitin gudanarwa har zuwa watan Yulin 2020 sune Satya Nadella, Reid Hoffman, Hugh Johnston, Teri List-Stoll, Sandi Peterson, Penny Pritzker, Charles Scharf, Arne Sorenson, John W. Stanton, John W. Thompson, Emma Walmsley da Jarumin Padmasree. Ana zaɓar membobin kwamitin kowace shekara a taron masu hannun jari na shekara-shekara ta amfani da tsarin jefa kuri'a mafi rinjaye. Akwai kwamitoci guda huɗu a cikin kwamitin waɗanda ke kula da takamaiman batutuwa. Wadannan kwamitocin sun hada da kwamitin binciken kudi, wanda ke kula da lamuran lissafi tare da kamfanin gami da binciken kudi da rahoto; kwamitin biyan diyya, wanda ya amince da biyan diyya ga shugaban kamfanin da sauran ma’aikatan kamfanin; da Kwamitin Gudanarwa da Nada Suna, wanda ke kula da lamuran kamfanoni daban-daban ciki har da nadin kwamitin; da Kwamitin Gudanarwa da Manufofin Jama'a, wanda ya hada da al'amuran doka / cin amana, tare da sirri, kasuwanci, lafiyar dijital, ilimin kere kere, da dorewar muhalli.

A ranar 13 ga Maris, 2020, Gates ya ba da sanarwar cewa zai bar kwamitin gudanarwa na Microsoft da Berkshire Hathaway domin ya mai da hankali kan kokarin sa na taimakon jama'a. A cewar Aaron Tilley na The Wall Street Journal wannan "alama ce mafi girma ta tashi daga dakina a cikin masana'antar fasaha tun bayan mutuwar abokin hamayya kuma mai kafa kamfanin Apple Inc. Steve Jobs."

Shugabannin Zartarwa

Bill Gates (1975-2000)

Steve Ballmer (2000–2014)

Satya Nadella (2014 – Zuwa Yau)

Harkan Kudade

Lokacin da Microsoft ya fito fili kuma ya ƙaddamar da baikon jama'a na farko (IPO) a 1986, farashin buɗe hannun jari ya kasance $ 21; bayan ranar ciniki, farashin ya rufe a $ 27.75. Ya zuwa watan Yulin 2010, tare da raba hannun jari tara na kamfanin, za a ninka kowane hannun jari na IPO da 288; idan mutum zai sayi IPO a yau, saboda rabe-raben da wasu dalilai, zaikai kimanin cent 9. Farashin hajojin sun kai kololuwa a shekarar 1999 a kusan $ 119 ($ 60.928, yana daidaita don tsaga). Kamfanin ya fara bayar da kason ne a ranar 16 ga Janairun 2003, wanda ya fara daga kashi takwas a kowane fanni na shekarar kasafin kudi sai kuma kaso goma sha shida a kowane kaso na shekara mai zuwa, yana sauyawa daga shekara zuwa kwata-kwata a shekara ta 2005 tare da kashi takwas a kashi daya kwata da kuma biyan kudi na musamman sau daya na dala uku a kowane fanni a zango na biyu na shekarar kasafin kudi. Kodayake kamfanin ya sami ƙarin ci gaba a cikin ƙarin biyan kuɗaɗe, amma farashin hannun jarin Microsoft ya kasance tsayayye tsawon shekaru.

Kamfanin Standard & Poor's da Moody's Investors Service duk sun baiwa kamfanin Microsoft kwatankwacin AAA, wanda aka kiyasta kadarorin sa sun kai dala biliyan 41 idan aka kwatanta da dala biliyan 8.5 kacal a cikin bashin da bashi da tsaro. Sakamakon haka, a cikin watan Fabrairun 2011 Microsoft ya fitar da wani kamfani wanda ya kai dala biliyan $ 2.25 tare da ragin bashi idan aka kwatanta shi da na gwamnati. A karo na farko a cikin shekaru 20 Apple Inc. ya zarce Microsoft a cikin Q1 2011 ribar da ribar duk wata saboda raguwar tallace-tallace na PC da ci gaba da babbar asara a Sashin Ayyukan Yanar gizo na Microsoft (wanda ke da injin bincikensa na Bing). Ribar Microsoft ta kai dala biliyan 5.2, yayin da Apple Inc ya samu ribar dala biliyan 6, kan kudaden da suka kai dala biliyan 14.5 da kuma dala biliyan 24.7. [156] Sashin Ayyukan Yanar gizo na Microsoft ya ci gaba da yin asara tun 2006 kuma a cikin Q1 2011 ya rasa dala miliyan 726. Wannan ya biyo bayan asarar dala biliyan 2.5 na shekarar 2010.

A ranar 20 ga Yuli, 2012, Microsoft ya buga asararsa ta kwata-kwata, duk da samun ribar da ta samu a cikin kwata da shekarar kasafin kudi, tare da asarar dala miliyan 492 saboda wani gari da ke da alaƙa da kamfanin talla na aQuantive, wanda aka samu don dala biliyan 6.2 dawo cikin 2007. Ya zuwa watan Janairun 2014, kasuwancin kasuwar Microsoft ya tsaya a $ 314B, wanda ya zama kamfanin na 8 mafi girma a duniya ta hanyar kasuwancin kasuwa. A ranar 14 ga Nuwamba, 2014, Microsoft ya tsallake ExxonMobil don zama kamfani na biyu mafi daraja ta hanyar cinikin kasuwa, a bayan Apple Inc. kawai jimlar kasuwarta ta wuce $ 410B-tare da farashin hannun jari ya doke $ 50.04 a raba, mafi girma tun farkon 2000. A shekarar 2015, kamfanin dillancin labarai na Reuters ya ruwaito cewa kamfanin Microsoft Corp ya samu kudaden shiga a kasashen waje na dala biliyan 76.4 wanda kuma hukumar haraji ta cikin gida ba ta biya harajin ba. A karkashin dokar Amurka, hukumomi ba sa biyan harajin kudin shiga kan ribar kasashen waje har sai an kawo ribar cikin Amurka.

Shekara Haraji a kirgan

Miliyan US$

Riba

a kirgan Miliyan US$

Jimlan Kaddarori

a kirgan Miliyan US$

Ma'aikata
2005 39,788 12,254 70,815 61,000
2006 44,282 12,599 69,597 71,000
2007 51,122 14,065 63,171 79,000
2008 60,420 17,681 72,793 91,000
2009 58,437 14,569 77,888 93,000
2010 62,484 18,760 86,113 89,000
2011 69,943 23,150 108,704 90,000
2012 73,723 16,978 121,271 94,000
2013 77,849 21,863 142,431 99,000
2014 86,833 22,074 172,384 128,000
2015 93,580 12,193 174,472 118,000
2016 91,154 20,539 193,468 114,000
2017 96,571 25,489 250,312 124,000
2018 110,360 16,571 258,848 131,000
2019 125,843 39,240 286,556 144,106
2020 143,015 44,281 301,311 163,000

A watan Nuwamba 2018, kamfanin ya sami nasarar kwangilar soja ta dala miliyan 480 tare da gwamnatin Amurka don kawo gaskiyar abin kunne (AR) a cikin makamin sojojin Amurka. Yarjejeniyar ta shekaru biyu na iya haifar da umarnin bin umarnin sama da naúrar 100,000, a cewar takaddun da ke bayanin tsarin gabatarwar. Ofaya daga cikin layukan alamun kwangila don fasahar gaskiya da aka haɓaka da alama alama ce ta ikon ba da damar "yaƙe-yaƙe 25 ba tare da jini ba kafin yaƙin 1", yana ba da shawarar cewa ainihin horo game da yaƙi zai zama muhimmin al'amari na ƙarfin ƙarfin lasifikan kai na gaskiya.

Rassa

Microsoft kasuwancin duniya ne. Saboda haka, tana buƙatar rassa wanda ke cikin duk kasuwannin ƙasa da ta zaɓa don girbi. Misali ita ce Microsoft Canada, wacce ta kafa a shekarar 1985. Sauran ƙasashe suna da irin waɗannan abubuwan girke-girke, don ribatar rijiyar da aka samu har zuwa Redmond da kuma rarraba rarar ga masu hannun jarin MSFT.

Talla

A cikin 2004, Microsoft sun ba da izini ga kamfanonin bincike don yin karatu mai zaman kansa idan aka kwatanta jimlar kuɗin mallakar (TCO) na Windows Server 2003 zuwa Linux; Kamfanoni sun yanke hukuncin cewa kamfanoni sun samu sauki ga Windows fiye da Linux, saboda haka wadanda suke amfani da Windows zasu gudanar da aiki cikin sauri wanda hakan zai haifar da ragi ga kamfaninsu (watau karamin TCO). Wannan ya haifar da kalaman karatu masu alaƙa; wani binciken da Yankee Group ya kammala da cewa ingantawa daga wani nau'I na Windows Server zuwa wani yana da kaso kadan daga kudin sauyawa daga Windows Server zuwa Linux, kodayake kamfanonin da aka bincika sun lura da karuwar tsaro da amincin sabobin Linux da kuma damuwa game da kullewa cikin amfani da Microsoft kayayyakin. Wani binciken, wanda aka bude ta Open Open Development Labs, ya yi iƙirarin cewa nazarin Microsoft "bai dace ba kuma yana da gefe ɗaya" kuma bincikensu ya kammala cewa TCO na Linux ya ragu saboda masu gudanar da Linux suna sarrafa ƙarin sabobin a matsakaita da sauran dalilai.

Korar ma'aikata

A watan Yulin 2014, Microsoft ya sanar da shirin sallamar ma’aikata 18,000. Microsoft yayi aiki da mutane 127,104 ya zuwa 5 ga Yuni, 2014, wanda hakan ya sa aka samu ragin kashi 14 na ma’aikatan shi a matsayin Microsoft mafi girma da aka sallama. Wannan ya hada da masu sana'a da ma'aikata na 12,500. A baya can, kamfanin Microsoft ya kawar da ayyuka 5,800 a cikin shekarar 2009 daidai da Babban koma bayan tattalin arzikin 2008 - 2007. A watan Satumbar 2014, Microsoft ya kori mutane 2,100, gami da mutane 747 a yankin Seattle – Redmond, inda nan ne hedikwatar kamfanin yake. Korar ta zo ne a matsayin karo na biyu na sallamar wadanda aka sanar a baya. Wannan ya kawo adadin zuwa sama da 15,000 daga cikin 18,000 da ake tsammanin yankewa. A cikin Oktoba 2014, Microsoft ya bayyana cewa an kusan gama shi tare da kawar da ma'aikata 18,000, wanda shine mafi girman aikin da aka yi na sallamar aiki. A watan Yulin 2015, Microsoft ya sanar da sake yanke wasu aiki 7,800 a cikin wasu watanni masu zuwa. A watan Mayun 2016, Microsoft ya sanar da rage wasu ayyuka 1,850 galibi a bangaren wayar hannu ta Nokia. A sakamakon haka, kamfanin zai yi rikodin cajin nakasa da sake fasalta kusan dala miliyan 950, wanda kusan dala miliyan 200 zai shafi kudaden sallama.

Gwamnatin Amurka

Microsoft yana ba da bayanai game da rahoton kwari da aka ruwaito a cikin software ɗin su ga hukumomin leken asirin na gwamnatin Amurka, kafin fitowar jama'a a gyara. Wani mai magana da yawun Microsoft ya bayyana cewa kamfanin na gudanar da shirye-shirye da dama wadanda ke sawwake raba irin wadannan bayanan ga gwamnatin Amurka. Bayan rahotanni daga kafafen yada labarai game da PRISM, babban shirin sanya ido na lantarki a NSA, a watan Mayu 2013, an gano kamfanonin fasaha da dama a matsayin mahalarta, ciki har da Microsoft. Dangane da bayanan shirin, Microsoft ya shiga shirin PRISM a 2007. Koyaya, a cikin Yunin 2013, wata sanarwa daga Microsoft ta ƙi yarda da shiga cikin shirin:

"Muna ba da bayanan abokan cinikin ne kawai lokacin da muka karɓi doka ta ɗauka ko kuma sammaci don yin hakan, kuma ba bisa son rai ba. Bugu da kari kawai muna bin umarnin umarni ne don buƙatu game da takamaiman asusu ko masu ganowa. Idan gwamnati tana da ƙasa ta ƙasa mai son rai shirin tsaro don tattara bayanan kwastomomi, ba mu shiga ciki. "

A cikin watanni shidan farko a shekarar 2013, kamfanin Microsoft ya samu buƙatun da suka shafi tsakanin asusun 15,000 zuwa 15,999. A watan Disambar 2013, kamfanin ya ba da sanarwa don kara jaddada gaskiyar cewa suna daukar sirrin kwastomominsu da kariyar bayanai da matukar muhimmanci, har ma suna cewa "kwancewa da gwamnati ke yi a yanzu ya zama 'barazanar da ke ci gaba,' tare da manyan manhajoji da hare-hare ta hanyar yanar gizo". Sanarwar ta kuma nuna farkon shirye-shiryen sassa uku don bunkasa kokarin Microsoft na boye-boye da nuna gaskiya. Ranar 1 ga Yuli, 2014, a matsayin wani ɓangare na wannan shirin sun buɗe na farko (na yawancin) Cibiyar Tallace-tallace ta Microsoft, wanda ke ba "gwamnatoci masu halarta ikon sake duba lambar tushe don manyan samfuranmu, suna tabbatar wa kansu da amincin software, kuma sun tabbatar a can ba "kofofin baya ba ne." Microsoft ya kuma bayar da hujjar cewa ya kamata Majalisar Dokokin Amurka ta samar da dokoki masu karfi na tsare sirri don kare bayanan masu amfani.

A watan Afrilun 2016, kamfanin ya kai karar gwamnatin Amurka, yana mai cewa umarnin sirrin na hana kamfanin bayyana takardar sammaci ga kwastomomin da ya keta hakkin kamfanin da na kwastomomin. Microsoft ya bayar da hujjar cewa ya saba wa tsarin mulki don gwamnati ta hana kamfanin Microsoft sanar da masu amfani da shi cewa gwamnati na neman imel dinsu da sauran takardu, kuma gyara na hudu ya sanya mutane ko 'yan kasuwa na da' yancin sanin idan gwamnati ta bincika ko ta kwace. dukiyoyinsu. A ranar 23 ga Oktoba, 2017, Microsoft ya ce zai dakatar da karar sakamakon canjin manufofin da Ma’aikatar Shari’a ta Amurka (DoJ) ta yi. DoJ ta "canza ka'idojin neman bayanai kan fadakar da masu amfani da Intanet game da hukumomin da ke samun bayanan su."

Bayanin Kamfani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Al'adar Kamfanoni

Bayanin fasaha ga masu haɓakawa da labarai don mujallu daban-daban na Microsoft kamar su Microsoft Systems Journal (MSJ) ana samun su ta hanyar Mai Rarraba Yanar Gizo na Microsoft (MSDN). MSDN kuma yana ba da rajista don kamfanoni da mutane, kuma rajista mafi tsada galibi suna ba da damar samfuran beta na software na Microsoft kafin fitowar su. A watan Afrilu 2004, Microsoft ya ƙaddamar da rukunin yanar gizo don masu haɓakawa da masu amfani, mai suna Channel 9, wanda ke ba da wiki da kuma dandalin Intanet. Wani shafin yanar gizon da ke ba da shirye-shiryen bidiyo na yau da kullun da sauran ayyuka, On10.net, wanda aka ƙaddamar a ranar 3 ga Maris, 2006. Ana bayar da tallafin fasaha kyauta ta al'ada ta hanyar rukunin labarai na Usenet, da CompuServe a baya, waɗanda ma'aikatan Microsoft ke kulawa; za'a iya samun ƙungiyoyin labarai da yawa don samfur ɗaya. Abokan aiki ko kuma ma'aikatan Microsoft za su iya zaɓar mutane masu taimako don matsayin Microsoft mai ƙima mafi ƙwarewa (MVP), wanda ke ba su damar samun wani matsayi na musamman na zamantakewar al'umma da damar samun lambobin yabo da sauran fa'idodi.

Bayanin lura da kamus dinsa na ciki, ana amfani da kalmar "cin abincin karenka" don bayyana manufar amfani da sigar fitarwa da kuma kayan beta a cikin Microsoft a kokarin gwada su a cikin "duniyar gaske". Wannan galibi ana taqaita shi zuwa "abincin kare" kuma ana amfani dashi azaman suna, fi'ili, da sifa. Wani ɗan ƙaramin jargon, FYIFV ko FYIV ("Fuck You, I'm [Fully] Vested"), ana amfani da shi ga ma'aikaci don nuna cewa suna da 'yancin kuɗi kuma suna iya kauce wa aiki a duk lokacin da suke so.

Microsoft babban abokin hamayya ne game da biza ta H-1B, wanda ke baiwa kamfanoni a Amurka damar daukar wasu ma'aikata daga kasashen waje. Bill Gates ya ce hular da ke kan bizar H1B tana da wahala wajen daukar ma'aikata ga kamfanin, yana mai cewa "lallai zan kawar da hular H1B din" a shekarar 2005. Masu sukar biza H1B suna jayayya cewa sassauta iyakokin zai haifar da rashin aikin yi ga 'yan ƙasar Amurka saboda ma'aikatan H1B da ke aiki don ƙananan albashi. Rahoton Daidaita Ka'idojin Kare Hakkin Dan Adam, rahoto kan yadda kungiyar ke ganin ci gaban manufofin kamfanin game da ma'aikatan LGBT, an kiyasta Microsoft da kashi 87% daga 2002 zuwa 2004 da kuma 100% daga 2005 zuwa 2010 bayan sun ba da izinin bayyana jinsi.

A watan Agusta 2018, Microsoft ta aiwatar da wata manufa ga duk kamfanonin da ke ba da ƙananan kamfanoni don buƙatar makonni 12 na izinin iyaye da aka biya ga kowane ma'aikaci. Wannan ya fadada kan tsohon abin da ake buƙata daga 2015 yana buƙatar kwanaki 15 na hutu da aka biya da kuma rashin lafiya a kowace shekara. A cikin 2015, Microsoft ta kafa nata tsarin izinin iyaye don ba da izinin makonni 12 don hutun iyaye tare da ƙarin makonni 8 ga iyayen da suka haihu.

Muhalli

A shekarar 2011, Greenpeace ta fitar da wani rahoto wanda ya fitar da manyan kamfanoni guda goma a cikin tsarin sarrafa girgije a kan hanyoyin samar da lantarki ga cibiyoyin bayanan su. A lokacin, cibiyoyin bayanai sun cinye har zuwa 2% na dukkan wutar lantarki ta duniya kuma an tsara wannan adadin zai ƙaruwa. Phil Radford na Greenpeace ya ce "mun damu da cewa wannan sabon fashewar ta amfani da wutar lantarki na iya kulle mu a cikin tsofaffin, gurɓatattun hanyoyin samar da makamashi maimakon makamashi mai tsafta da ake samu a yau," kuma ya yi kira ga "Amazon, Microsoft da sauran shugabannin bayanan. -n dole ne masana'antar fasaha ta rungumi makamashi mai tsafta don samar da cibiyoyin bayanansu na girgije. " Microsoft yana a matsayi na 17 a cikin littafin Greenpeace's na jagorar Greener Electronics (Bugu na 16) wanda ya kera masana'antun lantarki guda 18 bisa ga manufofin su kan sinadarai masu guba, sake amfani da su da canjin yanayi. Lokaci na Microsoft don daina fitar da brominated flaard retardant (BFRs) da phthalates a cikin dukkan kayayyaki shine 2012 amma jajircewar sa na cire PVC bai bayyana ba. Ya zuwa Janairu 2011, ba shi da samfuran da ba su da kwatankwacin PVC da BFRs.

Babbar harabar Microsoft ta Amurka ta karɓi takaddar azurfa daga shirin Leadership a Makamashi da Tsarin Muhalli (LEED) a 2008, kuma ta girka bangarori masu amfani da hasken rana sama da 2,000 a saman gine-ginenta a harabar Silicon Valley, suna samar da kusan kashi 15 cikin ɗari na yawan ƙarfin da ake buƙata ta wuraren a cikin watan Afrilun 2005. Microsoft yana amfani da wasu nau'ikan hanyoyin wucewa. Ta kirkiri ɗaya daga cikin manyan motocin bus masu zaman kansu a duniya, "Mai haɗawa", don jigilar mutane daga wajen kamfanin; don jigilar kayayyaki a cikin harabar, "Shuttle Connect" yana amfani da manyan motocin haɗin gwano don adana mai. Hakanan kamfanin yana ba da tallafi ga jigilar jama'a na yanki, wanda aka bayar ta Sound Transit da King County Metro, a matsayin abin ƙarfafawa. A watan Fabrairun 2010, duk da haka, Microsoft ya ɗauki matsaya game da ƙara ƙarin zirga-zirgar jama'a da manyan motocin hawa (HOV) zuwa Hanyar Jiha ta 520 da kuma gadar da ke iyo da ke haɗa Redmond zuwa Seattle; kamfanin bai so ya jinkirta ginin ba. Microsoft ya kasance na 1 a cikin jerin Bestungiyoyin Duniya masu Kyau na byasashe masu Kyau ta Babban Wuri zuwa Cibiyar Aiki a 2011. A watan Janairun shekarar 2020, kamfanin yayi alƙawarin cire dukkanin carbon ɗin da yake fitarwa tun daga kafuwarta a shekarar 1975. A watan Oktoba, 9, 2020, Microsoft sun sanya aikin su daga manufofin gida ya zama dindindin. A watan Janairun 2021, kamfanin ya sanar a shafin Twitter don shiga Yarjejeniyar Cibiyar Ba da Bayani ta Yanayi, wanda ke ba da damar samar da kayayyakin girgije da cibiyoyin bayanai don isa tsaka tsaki a Turai a 2030.

Babban Ma'aikata

Hedikwatar kamfanin, wanda aka sani da suna Microsoft Redmond campus, yana a One Microsoft Way a Redmond, Washington. Da farko Microsoft ya koma farfajiyar harabar ne a ranar 26 ga Fabrairu, 1986, makonni kafin kamfanin ya fito fili ya bayyana a ranar 13 ga Maris 13. An kiyasta cewa ya kunshi sama da miliyan 8 ft2 (750,000 m2) na sararin ofis da kuma ma'aikata 30,000-40,000. Officesarin ofisoshin suna cikin Bellevue da Issaquah, Washington (ma'aikata 90,000 a duk duniya). Kamfanin yana shirin haɓaka haɓaka Mountain Mountain, California, harabar kan babban sikelin. Kamfanin ya mamaye wannan harabar tun shekarar 1981. A shekarar 2016, kamfanin ya sayi harabar mai fadin eka 32, da shirin gyara da fadada shi da kashi 25%. Microsoft yana aiki da hedkwatar Gabas ta Gabas a Charlotte, North Carolina.

Shagunan dake kan ƙasar

A ranar 26 ga Oktoba, 2015, kamfanin ya buɗe wurin sayar da shi a Fifth Avenue a cikin New York City. Wurin yana dauke da shagon gilashi mai hawa biyar kuma yana da murabba'in kafa 22,270. Kamar yadda yake a cikin shugabannin kamfani, Microsoft ya kasance a kan ido don samun wuri mai mahimmanci tun daga shekarar 2009. Wuraren tallace-tallace na kamfanin wani ɓangare ne na babbar dabaru don taimakawa haɓaka haɗin kai tare da masu amfani da ita. Bude shagon yayi daidai da lokacin da aka fara gabatar da littafin “Surface Book and Surface Pro 4. A ranar 12 ga Nuwamba, 2015, Microsoft ta buɗe babban shago na biyu, wanda ke cikin Pitt Street Mall na Sydney.

Tambarin Ma'aikata (Logo)

Microsoft ya ɗauki abin da ake kira "Pac-Man Logo," wanda Scott Baker ya tsara, a cikin 1987. Baker ya ce "Sabon tambarin, a cikin rubutun haruffan Helvetica, yana da matsala tsakanin o da s don jaddada ɓangaren" mai laushi "na suna kuma ka isar da motsi da sauri. " Dave Norris ya yi kamfen na barkwanci na ciki don adana tsohuwar tambarin, wacce take kore ce, a cikin duka manyan haruffa, kuma ya fito da wata wasika mai kyau, O, wacce akewa laƙabi da blibbet, amma aka jefar da ita. Alamar Microsoft tare da alamar "potentialarfinku. Passionaunarmu." - ƙasa da babban sunan kamfanoni - ya dogara ne da taken Microsoft da aka yi amfani da shi a shekarar 2008. A 2002, kamfanin ya fara amfani da tambarin a Amurka kuma daga ƙarshe ya fara kamfen na talabijin da taken, ya canza daga lakabin da ya gabata na "Ina kake son zuwa yau?" A yayin taron MGX na sirri (Microsoft Global Exchange) a shekarar 2010, Microsoft ya bayyana taken kamfanin na gaba, "Be Menene Gaba. " Sun kuma sami taken / sanya alama" Yin shi duka yana da ma'ana. "

A ranar 23 ga Agusta, 2012, Microsoft ya buɗe sabon tambarin kamfani a buɗe shagonsa na Microsoft na 23 a Boston, wanda ke nuni da sauyawar kamfanin daga salon salo zuwa fasalin zamani na tayal-centric, wanda yake amfani da shi / zai yi amfani da shi a kan Windows Dandalin waya, Xbox 360, Windows 8 da kuma Office Suites mai zuwa. Sabuwar tambarin kuma ta hada da murabba'ai hudu dauke da launuka na tambarin Windows na yanzu wanda aka yi amfani da shi don wakiltar manyan kayayyakin Microsoft guda hudu: Windows (shudi), Office (ja), Xbox (kore) da Bing (rawaya). Alamar tana kama da buɗe ɗayan tallace-tallace na Windows 95

Shekarar 1975 Zuwa 1980: Tambarin (Logo) Kamfanin Microsoft na Farko, a shekarar 1975
Shekara 1982 Zuwa 1987: Tambarin Microsoft na Uku, a shekarar 1982
Shekara 1987 Zuwa 2012: Tambarin Microsoft na "Pac-Man" , wanda Scott Baker ya kirkiro kuma yayi amfani dashi daga shekara 1987 zuwa 2012
Shekarar 2012 Zuwa Yanzu: Tambarin Microsoft na Biyar, wanda aka gabatar a ashirin da uku (23) ga watan August, shekarar 2012

Tallafi

Kamfanin ya kasance mai daukar nauyin mai zane na kungiyar kwando ta kasa a EuroBasket 2015.

Kyauta

A yayin annobar COVID-19, shugaban Microsoft, Brad Smith, ya ba da sanarwar cewa an ba da gudummawar rukunin kayayyaki na farko, da suka hada da tabarau na kariya 15,000, infrared thermometers, hps medical, and suit suit kariya.