Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
محمد بن عبد الوهاب.png
Rayuwa
Haihuwa 'Uyayna (en) Fassara, 1703
ƙasa First Saudi State (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Diriyah (en) Fassara, 22 ga Yuni, 1792
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Abd al-Wahhab ibn Suleiman
Yara
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Malamai Abd al-Wahhab ibn Suleiman (en) Fassara
Muhammad ibn Sulayman al-Kurdi (en) Fassara
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a Liman da Mai da'awa
Muhimman ayyuka Kitab al-Tawhid (en) Fassara
The Three Fundamental Principles (en) Fassara
Q19443777 Fassara
Imani
Addini Mabiya Sunnah
Wahhabiyya

Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb at-Tamīmī (; Larabci: مُحَمَّدُ بنُ عَبْدِ الوَهَّابِ التَّمِيْمِيُّ‎; 1703 – 22 Yuni 1792) ya kasance mai wa'azin Musulunci,[1] shugaban addini,[2] mai kawo sauyi,[3] mai fafutuka,[4] kuma masanin tauhidi[1][3] daga Najd a tsakiyar Larabawa, wanda ake ganinsa a matsayin babban wanda ya kafa kungiyar Wahabiyawa mai fafutuka.[1][3][5][6][7][8][9] Fitattun dalibansa sun hada da ‘ya’yansa Husayn, Abdullahi, Ali, da Ibrahim, da jikansa Abdur-Raḥman ibn Hasan, da surukinsa ‘Abdul-’Azīz ibn Muḥammad ibn Sa’ūd, Hammad ibn Nāṣir ibn Muʿammar, da kuma Ḥusayn āl-Ghannām.

Lakabin "Wahabiyya" ba mabiyansa ke da'awar ba amma ana aiki da su wajen suka.[2][10][11] An haife shi a gidan malaman fikihu, Ilimin farko na Ibn Abdulwahhab ya ƙunshi koyan ingantaccen tsarin koyarwa na fikihu bisa mazhabar Hanbali ta shari’ar Musulunci, wadda ita ce makarantar da ta fi yawa a yankin da aka haife shi. Ya inganta tsantsar riko da shari’ar Musulunci ta gargajiya, inda ya bayyana wajibcin komawa ga Al-Qur’ani da Hadisi kai tsaye maimakon dogaro da tafsirin tsakiyar zamani, sannan ya dage cewa kowane musulmi – mace da namiji – ya karanta kuma ya yi karatun Alkur’ani da kansa.[12] Ya yi adawa da taklidi (makafin bin) kuma ya yi kira da a yi amfani da ijtihadi (hanyoyin shari'a masu zaman kansu ta hanyar bincike na nassi).[13][14] Ya sami horo na farko a al'adar musulmin Sunna na gargajiya, Ibn Abdulwahhab a hankali ya zama mai adawa da yawancin mashahurai, amma duk da haka masu adawa da ayyukan addini kamar ziyarta da kuma girmama wuraren ibada da kaburburan waliyyai musulmi,[3][9][15] wanda ya ji kamar bidi'a ne. bidi'a ta addini ko ma bautar gumaka.[15][16] Kiransa na gyara zamantakewa a cikin al'umma ya dogara ne akan mahimmin akidar tauhidi ( kadaita Allah).[17][18]

Duk da cewa da yawa daga cikin manyan malaman musulmin Sunna na wannan zamani sun yi watsi da koyarwarsa da adawa da shi,[19][16][20] ciki har da mahaifinsa da dan uwansa,[19][20][21] Ibn AbdulWahhab ya kulla yarjejeniyar siyasa da addini da Muhammad bin Saud don taimaka masa wajen kafa Masarautar. Diriyah, kasa ta farko ta Saudiyya,[22][23] kuma ta fara kulla kawance da tsarin raba madafun iko a tsakanin iyalansu wanda har ya zuwa yau a kasar Saudiyya.[22][2][24] Al ash-Sheikh, babban gidan addini na Saudiyya, zuriyar Ibn Abd al-Wahhab ne,[2][24] kuma a tarihi sun jagoranci malamai a kasar Saudiyya,[24][25] inda suka mamaye cibiyoyin malamai na kasar.[24][26]

Shekarun farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An yarda da cewa Ibn Abdulwahhab an haife shi a shekara ta 1703[27] a cikin dangin Larabawa na Banu Tamim[28][29] da ke zaune a cikin Uyayna, ƙauye a yankin Najd a tsakiyar Arabiya.[27][30] Kafin bayyanarsa akwai takaitaccen tarihin ilimin Musulunci a yankin.[29][31] Don haka ne Ibn Abdulwahhab ya kasance yana da karancin damar samun ilimin Musulunci a lokacin kuruciyarsa.[29] Duk da haka,[29][32][33][34] yankin ya samar da wasu fitattun malaman fikihu na mazhabar Hanbali na fikihun Ahlus-Sunnah, wadda ita ce mazhabar shari'a da ta fi yin fice a yankin. Hasali ma, dangin Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab “sun samar da likitoci da yawa na makarantar,” tare da mahaifinsa, Sulayman b. Muhammad, kasancewarsa mai shari'a na Hanbali na Najd kuma kakansa, 'Abd al-Wahhab, kasancewarsa alkali a shari'ar Hanbali.

Ilimin farko na Ibn Abdulwahhab mahaifinsa ne ya koyar da shi, kuma ya kunshi karantar Alqur'ani da zuciya da kuma karanta matakin farko na fikihu na Hanbaliyya da tauhidin Musulunci kamar yadda ya zo a cikin ayyukan Ibn Qudamah (d. 1223), daya daga cikin malamai. mafi rinjayen wakilan makarantar Hanbali na tsakiyar zamanai, wadanda ayyukansu ana daukarsu "a matsayin suna da babban iko" a cikin Najd. Kamar yadda girmama waliyyai musulmi da imani da ikonsu na iya yin mu'ujizozi cikin yardar Allah ya zama daya daga cikin mafi girman al'amuran musulmi na Sunna a ko'ina a fadin duniyar musulmi, kasancewar wani tsarin imani da aka yi ittifaqi a kansa ta hanyar yardar Allah. mafi rinjayen malamai na gargajiya,[35][36][37][38][39][40][41] ba a dade ba Ibn Abdul-Wahhab ya fara cin karo da kasancewar waliyyai a yankinsa ma; kuma kila ya zabi ya bar Najd ya leka wani waje domin nazari don ganin ko girmama waliyai ya shahara a makwaftan kasashen musulmi ko kuma yiwuwar garinsa ya ba da isassun kayayyakin ilimi. A yau ma ba a san dalilin da ya sa ya bar Najd ba.

Bayan barin Uyayna, Ibn Abdulwahhab ya gudanar da babban Hajjin a Makka, inda malamai suka yi nuni da cewa suna da ra'ayi da koyarwar da ba ta so a gare shi. Bayan haka, ya tafi Madina, zaman da aka yi da alama ya kasance "hukunce-hukunce wajen tsara alkiblar tunaninsa." A Madina, ya hadu da wani malamin tauhidin Hanbaliyya daga Najd mai suna ‘Abd Allāh ibn Ibrahim al-Najdi, wanda ya kasance mai goyon bayan ayyukan Neo-Hanbali na Ibn Taimiyyah (wanda ya rasu a shekara ta 1328), malamin da ke da cece-kuce a tsakani wanda aka yi la’akari da koyarwarsa heterodox. ɓatar da muhimman abubuwa da dama daga mafi rinjayen malaman musulmi na Sunna har zuwa wannan lokaci a tarihi.[42][43][44]

Malamin Ibn Abdulwahhab Abdallah bn Ibrahim bn Sayf, ya gabatar da matashin dan kadan ga Mohammad Hayya Al-Sindhi a Madina, wanda ya kasance a cikin tsarin Naqshbandi (tariqa) ​​na Sufanci,[45][46] kuma ya ba shi shawara a matsayin dalibi.[47][48][49] Muhammad Ibn 'Abd-al-Wahhab da al-Sindhi sun sami kusanci sosai, kuma Ibn 'Abd-al-Wahhab ya zauna tare da shi na wani lokaci.[47] Muhammad Hayya ya kuma koya wa Muhammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab ƙin ƙin ayyukan addini da suka shahara da waliyyai da kaburburansu waɗanda suka yi kama da koyarwar Wahabiyawa daga baya.[47] Bayan karatunsa na farko a Madina, Ibn 'Abd-al-Wahhab ya yi balaguro zuwa wajen yankin Larabawa, inda ya fara zuwa Basra[50] wanda har yanzu cibiyar al'adun Musulunci ce.

Ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Risālah Aslu Dīn Al-Islām wa Qā'idatuhu
  • Kitab al-Qur'an (littafin Allah)
  • Kitab at-Tawhid (Littafin kadaita Allah)
  • Kashf ush-Shubuhaat (bayanin shakku)
  • Al-Usool-uth-Thalaatha (Ka'idoji Uku Na Musamman)
  • Al Qawaaid Al-Arbaa (Tushen Hudu)
  • Al-Usool us Sittah (Ka'idoji Shida Na Mahimmanci)
  • Nawaaqid al-Islam (Masu warware Musulunci)
  • Adab al-Mashy Ila as-Salaa (Hanyoyin Tafiya zuwa Sallah)
  • Usul al-Iman (Tushen Imani)
  • Fada'il al-Islam (Kyawawan halaye na Musulunci)
  • Fada'il Qur'an (Madalla da falalar Alqur'ani)
  • Majmu'a al-Hadith 'Ala Abwab al-Fiqh (Tsarin Hadisin akan Manyan Maudu'ai na Fiqhu).
  • Mukhtasar al-Iman (Rage Imani; i.e. a takaice sigar wani aiki akan Imani)
  • Mukhtasar al-Insaf wa'l-Sharh al-Kabir (Rage Daidaito da Babban Bayani)
  • Mukhtasar Seerat ar-Rasul (Takaitaccen Tarihin Annabi)
  • Kitaabu l-Kabaair (Littafin Manyan Zunubai)
  • Kitabu l-Imaan (Littafin Aminci)
  • Al-Radd 'ala al-Rafida (Karyata Masu Karyata)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Crawford, Michael (2014). "Chapter 4: CHAMPION OF TRUE BELIEF". Makers of the Muslim World: Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab. 10 Bloomsbury Street, London WC1B 3SR, England: One World Publications. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-78074-589-3. Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab’s formal output was limited. He was above all a preacher, teacher and activist.CS1 maint: location (link)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Haykel 2013, pp. 231–32.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad (d. 1791 )". Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Archived from the original on 12 July 2016.
  4. Mouline, Nabil (2014). The Clerics of Islam: Religious Authority and Political Power in Saudi Arabia. London: Yale University Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-300-17890-6. He was not a great intellectual like Ibn Qudama, Ibn Taymiyya, or Ibn al-Qayyim but rather an activist..
  5. Asad, Talal (2003). Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0804747684. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  6. Crooke, Alastair (30 March 2017) [First published 27 August 2014]. "You Can't Understand ISIS If You Don't Know the History of Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia". The Huffington Post. New York. Archived from the original on 28 August 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  7. Hubbard, Ben (10 July 2016). "A Saudi Morals Enforcer Called for a More Liberal Islam. Then the Death Threats Began". The New York Times. New York. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 15 December 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  8. Sells, Michael (22 December 2016). "Wahhabist Ideology: What It Is And Why It's A Problem". The Huffington Post. New York. Archived from the original on 8 April 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Ágoston & Masters 2009, p. 260.
  10. Commins 2015, p. 151.
  11. Silverstein 2010, pp. 112–13.
  12. J. Delong-Bas, Natana (2004). Wahhabi Islam:From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad. New York 10016: Oxford University Press. pp. 29, 30, 117, 28, 37. ISBN 0195169913.CS1 maint: location (link)
  13. "Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad (d. 1791 )". Oxford Islamic Studies. Archived from the original on 12 July 2016.
  14. J. Delong-Bas, Natana (2004). Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 14, 21, 29. ISBN 0195169913.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Crooke, Alastair (30 March 2017) [First published 27 August 2014]. "You Can't Understand ISIS If You Don't Know the History of Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia". The Huffington Post. New York. Archived from the original on 28 August 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Khatab 2011, pp. 56–76.
  17. J. Delong-Bass, Natana (2004). Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 13. ISBN 0195169913.
  18. "Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad (d. 1791 )". Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Archived from the original on 12 July 2016. Plans for socioreligious reform in society were based on the key doctrine of tawhid (oneness of God)
  19. 19.0 19.1 Brown 2009, p. 245.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Traboulsi, Samer (January 2002). Brunner, Rainer (ed.). "An Early Refutation of Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb's Reformist Views". Die Welt des Islams. Leiden: Brill Publishers. 42 (3: Arabic Literature and Islamic Scholarship in the 17th/18th Century: Topics and Biographies): 373–415. doi:10.1163/15700600260435038. eISSN 1570-0607. ISSN 0043-2539. JSTOR 1571420.
  21. Gaye 2021, p. 212.
  22. 22.0 22.1 Esposito 2004, p. 123.
  23. Hourani 1992: 257–58
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 Nawaf E. Obaid (September 1999). "The Power of Saudi Arabia's Islamic Leaders". Middle East Quarterly. Middle East Forum. 6 (3): 51–58. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  25. Abir 1987: 4, 5, 7
  26. Metz 1992
  27. 27.0 27.1 Philby 1930: 8
  28. Glassé 2003: 470
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 Shahi, Afshin (2013). The Politics of Truth Management in Saudi Arabia. Routledge. p. 46. ISBN 978-1134653195.
  30. EI1: 1086
  31. Navalk Post Graduate School Thesis, September 2009, Michael R. Dillon: Wahhabism: Is it a factor in the spread of global terrorism?, p. 13 Archived 7 ga Afirilu, 2014 at the Wayback Machine Linked 3 March 2015
  32. ibn Ghannam: 75–76
  33. Hopwood 1972: 55
  34. EI2: 677–78
  35. Al-Nasafī, Majmūʿat al-ḥawāshī al-bahiyya ʿalā sharḥ al-ʿaqāʾid al-nasafiyya, 4 vols.
  36. Al-Ashʿarī, al-Ibāna ʿan uṣūl al-diyāna, ed.
  37. Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Matn al-ʿaqīda al-ṭaḥāwiyya, ed.
  38. Al-Shaʿrānī, Laṭāʾif al-minan, 2 vols.
  39. Al-Qushayrī, al-Risāla al-qushayriyya (Cairo: [al-Maṭbaʿa al-ʿĀmira], 1870), 186–87: "Believing in the possibility of the miracles of saints is an obligation."
  40. Ibn Qudamah, cited in Ahmet T. Karamustafa, Sufism: The Formative Period (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007, p. 132).
  41. Radtke, B.; Lory, P.; Zarcone, P.; DeWeese, Th.; Gaborieau, D.; Denny, M., F. M.; Aubin, Françoise; Hunwick, J. O.; Mchugh, N. (2012) [1993]. "Walī". In Bearman, P. J.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E. J.; Heinrichs, W. P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. 11. Leiden: Brill Publishers. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_1335. ISBN 978-9004161214.
  42. Rapoport, Yossef; Ahmed, Shahab (1 January 2010).
  43. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, in Rapoport, Yossef; Ahmed, Shahab (1 January 2010).
  44. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami: "Ibn Taymiyya is a servant whom God has forsaken, led astray, made blind and deaf, and degraded.
  45. John L. Esposito (ed.
  46. Islamic Law and Society (in Turanci). E.J. Brill. 2006. p. 216.
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 Voll 1975: 32–39
  48. ibn 'Hajar: 17–19
  49. Official sources on Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab's life put his visits to these cities in different chronological orders, and the full extent of such travels remains disputed among historians.
  50. ibn Bishr: 7–8