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Multiple myeloma

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Multiple myeloma
Micrograph of a plasmacytoma, H&E stainMultiple myeloma
Micrograph of a plasmacytoma, H&E stainMultiple myeloma
Micrograph of a plasmacytoma, H&E stain
Rabe-rabe da ma'adanai da waje
SymptomsBone pain, bleeding, frequent infections, anemia[1]
ComplicationsAmyloidosis, kidney problems, bone fractures, overly thick blood[1][2]
DurationLong term[2]
CausesUnknown[3]
RisksObesity[4]
DiagnosisBlood or urine tests, bone marrow biopsy, medical imaging[5]
TreatmentSteroids, chemotherapy, thalidomide, stem cell transplant, bisphosphonates, radiation therapy[2][5]
OutcomeFive-year survival rate 52% / life expectancy 6 years (USA)[6]
Frequency488,200 (affected during 2015)[7]
Deaths101,100 (2015)[8]


Multiple myeloma ( MM ), wanda kuma aka sani da plasma cell myeloma da kuma myeloma mai sauƙi, ciwon daji ne na ƙwayoyin plasma, nau'in farin jini wanda yakan haifar da kwayoyin cuta. [5] Sau da yawa, ba a ga alamun alamun farko ba. Yayin da yake ci gaba, ciwon kashi, zubar jini, cututtuka masu yawa, da anemia na iya faruwa. [1] Matsaloli na iya haɗawa da amyloidosis.

Ba a san abin da ke haifar da myeloma da yawa ba. Abubuwan haɗari sun haɗa da kiba, bayyanar radiation, tarihin iyali, da wasu sinadarai. Yawancin myeloma na iya tasowa daga gammopathy na monoclonal na mahimmancin da ba a tantance ba wanda ke ci gaba zuwa smoldering myeloma. [9] Kwayoyin plasma marasa al'ada suna samar da ƙwayoyin rigakafi marasa kyau, wanda zai iya haifar da matsalolin koda da kuma jini mai kauri. Kwayoyin plasma kuma suna iya samar da taro a cikin bargon kashi ko taushin nama. [1] Lokacin da ƙwayar cuta ɗaya ta gwagwalada kasance, ana kiranta plasmacytoma ; fiye da ɗaya ana kiransa da yawa myeloma. [1] Ana bincikar myeloma da yawa dangane da gwajin jini ko fitsari wanda ke gano ƙwayoyin cuta mara kyau, ƙwayar ƙwayar kasusuwa ta gano ƙwayoyin plasma masu cutar kansa, da kuma hoton likitancin gano raunin kashi. [5] Wani binciken da aka saba samu shine yawan sinadarin calcium na jini. [5]

Ana ɗaukar myeloma da yawa ana iya magance su, amma gabaɗaya ba za a iya warkewa ba. Za'a iya kawo jinkirin tare da steroids, chemotherapy, maganin da aka yi niyya, da dashen sel mai tushe . [2] A wasu lokuta ana amfani da Bisphosphonates da radiation far don rage zafi daga raunin kashi. [2] [5]

A duniya baki daya, myeloma mai yawa ya shafi mutane 488,000 kuma ya haifar da mutuwar 101,100 a cikin 2015. [7] [8] A cikin Amurka, yana tasowa a cikin 6.5 a cikin 100,000 mutane a kowace shekara kuma 0.7% na mutane suna shafar wani lokaci a rayuwarsu. Yawanci yana faruwa a kusa da shekaru 60 kuma ya fi kowa a cikin maza fiye da mata. [5] Abu ne da ba a saba gani ba kafin shekaru 40. [5] Ba tare da magani ba, rayuwa ta yau da kullun shine watanni bakwai. Tare da jiyya na yanzu, rayuwa yawanci shekaru 4-5 ne. [2] Yawan tsira na shekaru biyar kusan kashi 49 ne. [6] Kalmar myeloma daga myelo- ma'anar "bargo" da -oma ma'ana "tumor".

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)—Patient Version". NCI. 1980-01-01. Archived from the original on 27 July 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version". NCI. July 29, 2016. Archived from the original on 4 July 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  3. World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 5.13. ISBN 978-9283204299.
  4. World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 2.3 and 2.6. ISBN 978-9283204299.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Raab MS, Podar K, Breitkreutz I, Richardson PG, Anderson KC (July 2009). "Multiple myeloma". Lancet. 374 (9686): 324–39. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60221-X. PMID 19541364.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Myeloma". NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Archived from the original on 27 July 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  7. 7.0 7.1 GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.
  8. 8.0 8.1 GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.
  9. van de Donk NW, Mutis T, Poddighe PJ, Lokhorst HM, Zweegman S (2016). "Diagnosis, risk stratification and management of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma". International Journal of Laboratory Hematology. 38 Suppl 1: 110–22. doi:10.1111/ijlh.12504. PMID 27161311.