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Nahawu

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
nahawu
academic discipline (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na convention (en) Fassara da ilimin harsuna
Bangare na ilimin harsuna
Has characteristic (en) Fassara grammatical category (en) Fassara da grammatical evolution (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan grammarian (en) Fassara
Entry in abbreviations table (en) Fassara ব্যা◦ da ব্যাক.

A cikin ilimin harshe, nahawun harshe na dabi'a shi ne tsarinsa na takurawa tsarin masu magana ko na marubuta na jumla, jimloli, da kalmomi. Kalmar kuma tana iya komawa ga nazarin irin waɗannan ƙuntatawa, filin da ya haɗa da yankuna kamar su phonology, morphology, da syntax, sau da yawa ana haɗa su ta hanyar sauti, ilimin semantics da kuma aikace-aikace. A halin yanzu akwai hanyoyi guda biyu daban-daban don nazarin nahawu: nahawu na gargajiya da nahawu na ka'ida.

yadda harshe kan kasance wajen furta magana a nahawu

Masu iya magana da harshe iri-iri ko laccoci sun yi amfani da waɗannan ƙaƙƙarfan yadda ya kamata, [1] mafi yawan waɗanda-aƙalla a yanayin yare (s) na asali-ana samun su ba ta hanyar nazari ko koyarwa ba amma ta hanyar jin sauran masu magana. Yawancin wannan yana faruwa a lokacin ƙuruciya; Koyan yare daga baya a rayuwa yakan ƙunshi ƙarin koyarwa a sarari. A wannan ra'ayi, ana fahimtar nahawu a matsayin bayanin fahimi da ke ƙarƙashin takamaiman misali na samar da harshe.

Kalmar “nahawu” kuma na iya bayyana halayen harshe na ƙungiyoyin masu magana da marubuta maimakon daidaikun mutane. Bambance-bambancen ma'auni yana da mahimmanci ga wannan ma'anar kalmar: alal misali, kalmar "Nahawun Ingilishi" na iya nufin duka nahawu na Ingilishi (wato, ga nahawu na duk masu magana da harshen), a cikin wannan yanayin kalmar. ya ƙunshi babban nau'i mai yawa. A ƙaramin ma'auni, yana iya komawa ga abin da aka raba tsakanin nahawu na dukka ko galibin masu magana da Ingilishi (kamar batun-fi'ili-tsarin kalma a cikin jimlolin bayyanawa masu sauƙi). A mafi ƙanƙancin ma'auni, wannan ma'anar "nahawu" na iya kwatanta ƙa'idodin Ingilishi guda ɗaya kawai (kamar daidaitaccen Ingilishi na yanki).

Hakanan ana iya kiran bayanin, nazari, ko nazarin irin waɗannan dokoki azaman nahawu. Littafin tunani da ke kwatanta nahawu na harshe ana kiransa "nahawun nahawu" ko kuma kawai "nahawu" (duba History of English grammars). Cikakken nahawun nahawu, wanda ke yin cikakken bayanin gine-ginen nahawu na nau'in magana, ana kiransa nahawun siffa. Irin wannan bayanin na harshe ya bambanta da takardar sayan harshe, yunƙuri na ƙwaƙƙwara ko murkushe wasu gine-gine na nahawu yayin ƙirƙira da haɓaka wasu, ko dai a cikakkiyar ma'ana ko game da daidaitaccen iri. Alal misali, wasu masu rubuta magunguna sun tabbatar da cewa jimloli a cikin Ingilishi ba za su ƙare da abubuwan da aka riga aka ambata ba, haramcin da aka binne shi ga John Dryden (13 Afrilu 1668-Janairu 1688) wanda rashin fahimtarsa ga aikin ƙila ya sa wasu masu magana da Ingilishi su guje wa ginin da kuma hana amfaninsa. [2] Amma duk da haka tsinkayar tana da dogon tarihi a cikin harsunan Jamusanci kamar Ingilishi, inda ya yaɗu har ya zama daidaitaccen amfani.

A wajen ilimin harshe, ana yawan amfani da kalmar nahawu ta wata ma'ana ta dabam. Ana iya amfani da shi sosai don haɗa ƙa'idodin rubutu da rubutu, waɗanda masana ilimin harshe ba za su yi la'akari da shi azaman ɓangare na nahawu ba amma a matsayin ɓangare na rubutun kalmomi, ƙa'idodin da aka yi amfani da su don rubuta harshe. Hakanan za'a iya amfani da shi da kunkuntar don komawa zuwa jerin ƙa'idodi kawai, ban da waɗannan bangarorin nahawu na harshe waɗanda ba su da bambanci ko muhawara kan karɓuwarsu na yau da kullun. Jeremy Butterfield ya yi iƙirarin cewa, ga waɗanda ba masu ilimin harshe ba, "Grammar sau da yawa wata hanya ce ta gama gari ta yin magana ga kowane fanni na Ingilishi da mutane ke yi."

Asalin kalma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Zanen kalmomi kenan

An samo kalmar nahawu daga Girkanci γραμματικὴ τέχνη (grammatikḕ téchnē), wanda ke nufin "fasaha na haruffa", daga γράμμα (grámma), "wasika", kanta daga γράφειν (gráphein), "don zana, rubuta". [3] Tushen Girkanci iri ɗaya kuma yana bayyana a cikin kalmomin zane-zane, grapheme, da hoto.



Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bishiyar parse generative : an raba jimlar zuwa jumlar suna (maudu'i), da kuma kalmar fi'ili wacce ta hada da abu. Wannan ya bambanta da nahawu na tsari da na aiki waɗanda ke la'akari da batun da abu a matsayin daidaitattun abubuwa. [4]
  1. Traditionally, the mental information used to produce and process linguistic utterances is referred to as "rules". However, other frameworks employ different terminology, with theoretical implications. Optimality theory, for example, talks in terms of "constraints", while construction grammar, cognitive grammar, and other "usage-based" theories make reference to patterns, constructions, and "schemata"
  2. Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum, 2002, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press, p. 627f.
  3. Empty citation (help)Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum, 2002, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press, p. 627f.
  4. Empty citation (help)