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Raunin kwakwalwa

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Raunin kwakwalwa
psychopathological symptom (en) Fassara, symptom or sign (en) Fassara da trauma (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na psychological phenomenon (en) Fassara da psychological stress (en) Fassara
ICPC 2 ID (en) Fassara P82
Psychological trauma
Rabe-rabe da ma'adanai da waje
TreatmentTherapy
MedicationAntidepressants,
antipsychotics,
antiemetics,
anticonvulsants,
benzodiazepines

Rauni na tabin hankali ( raunin hankali, ciwon zuciya, ko ciwon hauka ) martani ne na motsin rai wanda ke haifar da munanan al'amura masu ban tsoro waɗanda ba su dace da yanayin abubuwan ɗan adam ba, tare da matsanancin misalan tashin hankali, fyade, ko harin ta'addanci. Dole ne wanda abin ya shafa ya fahimci lamarin a matsayin barazana kai tsaye ga wanda abin ya shafa ko kuma 'yan uwansu da suka rasa rayukan su, rauni mai tsanani, ko cin zarafin jima'i; fallasa kai tsaye, kamar daga kallon labaran talabijin, na iya zama mai matuƙar damuwa kuma yana iya haifar da damuwa ba na son rai ba kuma mai yuwuwa mai ruɗi, amma baya haifar da rauni a kowane lokaci.[1]

Kamar yadda abubuwan da suka faru na zahiri suka bambanta tsakanin daidaikun mutane, mutane suna mayar da martani ga abubuwan da suka faru daban-daban. Yawancin mutanen da suka fuskanci wani abin da zai iya haifar da rauni ba su zama masu rauni ta hanyar tunani ba, ko da yake suna iya zama cikin damuwa da wahala.[2] Wasu za su haɓaka PTSD bayan fallasa ga wani lamari mai rauni, ko jerin abubuwan da suka faru.</ref> Some will develop PTSD after exposure to a traumatic event, or series of events.[3][4] Ana iya danganta wannan bambance-bambance a cikin haɗarin haɗari ga abubuwan kariya da wasu mutane ke da su, waɗanda ke ba su damar jure wa al'amura masu wahala, gami da yanayin yanayi da yanayi, kamar juriya da son neman taimako.[5]

Alamomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutanen da suka fuskanci rauni sau da yawa suna fuskantar matsaloli da matsaloli daga baya. Girman waɗannan alamun ya dogara da mutum, nau'in raunin da ya faru, da tallafi da magani da suke samu daga wasu. Yawaitar halayen da suka shafi rauni na iya zama mai faɗi da bambanta, kuma sun bambanta da tsanani daga mutum zuwa mutum.[6]

Bayan wani abu mai ban tsoro, mutum na iya sake fuskantar raunin a hankali da jiki. Misali, sautin injin babur na iya haifar da tunani masu kutsawa ko kuma jin sake fuskantar wani yanayi mai ban tsoro wanda ya haɗa da irin wannan sauti misali. harbin bindiga. Wani lokaci abin ƙarfafawa mara kyau (misali hayaniya daga babur) na iya haɗawa a cikin tunani tare da abin da ya faru na rauni. Wannan tsari shi ake kira traumatic coupling.[7] A cikin wannan tsari, abin ƙarfafawa mai kyau ya zama abin tunatarwa mai rauni, wanda kuma ake kira tashin hankali. Wadannan na iya haifar da rashin jin daɗi har ma da jin zafi. Sake fuskantarwa na iya lalata hankalin mutane na aminci, kai, ingancin kansu, da kuma ikon daidaita motsin rai da kewaya dangantaka. Za su iya juya zuwa magungunan psychoactive, gami da barasa, don ƙoƙarin tserewa ko rage jin daɗi. Wadannan abubuwan da ke haifar da kullun suna haifar da walƙiya, wanda shine abubuwan da ba a so ba inda mutum yake jin kamar abubuwan da suka faru suna maimaitawa. Wasa-wasa na iya kamawa daga shagaltuwa zuwa cikar rabuwar kai ko rasa sanin mahallin da ake ciki. Sake fuskantar bayyanar cututtuka alama ce da ke nuna cewa jiki da tunani suna gwagwarmayar gwagwarmaya don jimre wa abin da ya faru.

Masu tayar da hankali da alamomi suna aiki azaman tunatarwa game da rauni kuma suna iya haifar da damuwa da sauran motsin zuciyar da ke da alaƙa.[9] Sau da yawa mutum zai iya zama gaba ɗaya rashin sanin menene waɗannan abubuwan da ke haifar da su. A lokuta da yawa, wannan na iya sa mai fama da rashin lafiya ya tsunduma cikin ɗabi'a masu ɓarna ko hanyoyin da za su halaka kansa, sau da yawa ba tare da sanin yanayin ko musabbabin ayyukan nasu ba. Hare-haren firgici misali ne na martanin psychosomatic ga irin waɗannan abubuwan da ke haifar da motsin rai.[8]

Saboda haka, tsananin fushi na iya fitowa akai-akai, wani lokaci a cikin abubuwan da ba su dace ba ko kuma ba zato ba tsammani, kamar yadda koyaushe haɗari na iya kasancewa saboda sake fuskantar abubuwan da suka faru a baya. Tunawa da bacin rai kamar hotuna, tunani, ko faɗuwa na iya ɓata mutum, kuma mafarki mai ban tsoro na iya zama akai-akai.[9] Rashin barci na iya faruwa yayin da tsoro da rashin tsaro ke sa mutum ya kasance a faɗake da kuma lura da haɗari, dare da rana. Matsakaicin yanayin kuɗi na mutum, da kuma bashi, fasali ne na gama gari a cikin mutanen da suka sami rauni. Rashin rauni ba wai kawai yana haifar da canje-canje a cikin ayyukan yau da kullun ba, har ma yana iya haifar da canje-canjen ilimin halittar jiki. Irin waɗannan sauye-sauye na epigenetic za a iya kaiwa ga tsara na gaba, don haka sanya kwayoyin halitta daya daga cikin abubuwan da ke haifar da rauni na tunani. Duk da haka, an haifi wasu mutane tare da ko kuma daga baya suna haɓaka abubuwan kariya kamar kwayoyin halitta waɗanda ke taimakawa rage haɗarin rauni na tunani.[10]

Mutum ba zai iya tunawa da ainihin abin da ya faru ba, yayin da motsin zuciyar da aka samu a lokacin raunin da ya faru zai iya sake samun kwarewa ba tare da mutumin ya fahimci dalilin da ya sa ba (duba ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya). Wannan zai iya haifar da abubuwan da suka faru na tashin hankali suna ci gaba da kasancewa kamar suna faruwa a halin yanzu, yana hana batun daga samun hangen nesa game da kwarewa. Wannan na iya haifar da yanayin tsayin daka na matsanancin tashin hankali wanda ke tattare da lokutan gajiya ta jiki da ta hankali. Wannan na iya haifar da rashin lafiyar kwakwalwa kamar matsananciyar damuwa da rashin damuwa, rashin jin daɗi na tsawon lokaci, rikice-rikicen yanayi, rikice-rikicen juzu'i, rikice-rikice na rikice-rikice, rashin daidaituwa na iyaka, matsalar daidaitawa, da sauransu. Rashin hankali shine wata cuta ta tabin hankali da ke da alamun da ke kama da raunin hankali, irin su farfaganda da tunani na kutsawa. Bincike ya nuna cewa mutanen da suka fuskanci wani lamari mai ban tsoro an san su da yin amfani da alamun cututtuka na rikice-rikice, irin su duba lafiyar jiki, a matsayin hanyar da za a rage alamun da ke tattare da rauni.[11]

A cikin lokaci, gajiyawar motsin rai na iya farawa, yana haifar da karkatarwa, kuma tsayayyen tunani na iya zama da wahala ko kuma ba zai yiwu ba. Rage motsin rai, da kuma rabuwar kai ko "numbing out" na iya faruwa akai-akai. Rarrabuwa da ɓacin rai ya haɗa da rage duk wani motsin rai, kuma mutum na iya zama kamar lallausan motsin rai, shagaltuwa, nisa, ko sanyi. Rarraba ya haɗa da rashin daidaituwa, dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative ainihi cuta, da dai sauransu. Bayyanawa da sake fuskantar rauni na iya haifar da canje-canje na neurophysiological kamar jinkirin myelination, rashin daidaituwa a cikin synaptic pruning, raguwa na hippocampus, fahimi da rashin tasiri. Wannan yana da mahimmanci a cikin binciken binciken kwakwalwa da aka yi game da ƙimar aiki mai girma tare da yara da matasa waɗanda ke cikin mahalli masu rauni.

Dalilai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Halin rauni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana iya haifar da rauni ta hanyar bala'o'i na ɗan adam, fasaha da na dabi'a, gami da yaƙi, cin zarafi, tashin hankali, karon abin hawa, ko gaggawar likita.[12]

Amsar mutum ga raunin tunani na iya bambanta dangane da nau'in raunin da ya faru, da kuma al'amuran zamantakewa da al'umma.

Akwai martanin ɗabi'a da yawa da aka saba amfani da su ga masu damuwa da suka haɗa da martani, mai da martani, da kuma ba da amsa. Amsoshi masu fa'ida sun haɗa da yunƙurin magancewa da gyara damuwa kafin ya sami tasiri mai tasiri akan salon rayuwa. Amsoshin amsawa suna faruwa bayan damuwa da yiwuwar raunin da ya faru kuma ana nufin ƙarin gyara ko rage lalacewar wani lamari mai damuwa. Amsar da ba ta dace ba sau da yawa ana siffanta ta da ɓacin rai ko rashin sanin mai damuwa.

Har ila yau, akwai bambanci tsakanin raunin da ya faru a kwanan nan da kuma raunin da ya faru na dogon lokaci wanda zai yiwu an binne shi a cikin sume daga al'amuran da suka gabata kamar cin zarafin yara. A wasu lokuta ana shawo kan rauni ta hanyar warkarwa; A wasu lokuta ana iya samun wannan ta hanyar sake ƙirƙira ko sake duba asalin raunin da ya faru a ƙarƙashin ƙarin yanayin aminci na hankali, kamar tare da mai ilimin hanyoyin kwantar da hankali. Kwanan nan, wayar da kan jama'a game da sakamakon sauyin yanayi ana kallonsa a matsayin tushen rauni yayin da daidaikun mutane ke tunanin abubuwan da za su faru nan gaba tare da fuskantar bala'o'i masu alaƙa da canjin yanayi. Abubuwan da ke tattare da motsin rai a cikin waɗannan mahallin suna karuwa, kuma aiki tare da haɗin gwiwa tare da waɗannan motsin zuciyarmu na iya haifar da haɓakar haɓakawa da ci gaba da haɓakawa, da kuma mafi girman ma'anar kasancewa. Waɗannan sakamakon suna da kariya daga mummunan tasirin raunin hankali.[13]

Rashin damuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dukkanin raunin hankali sun samo asali ne daga damuwa, amsawar ilimin lissafi ga wani abu mara dadi.[23] Damuwa na dogon lokaci yana ƙara haɗarin rashin lafiyar hankali da kuma rashin hankali, wanda za'a iya danganta shi da ɓoyewar glucocorticoids na dogon lokaci. Irin wannan tsawaita bayyanarwa yana haifar da tawaya da yawa kamar su danne tsarin garkuwar jiki da karuwar hawan jini.[24] Ba wai kawai yana shafar jiki ta hanyar ilimin halittar jiki ba, amma canjin yanayin halitta a cikin hippocampus shima yana faruwa. Nazarin ya nuna cewa matsananciyar damuwa a farkon rayuwa na iya rushe ci gaban al'ada na hippocampus kuma yana tasiri ayyukan sa a lokacin balaga. Lallai bincike ya nuna alaƙa tsakanin girman hippocampus da kuma yadda mutum ke fama da matsalar damuwa.[25] A lokutan yaki, an san raunin hankali da girgiza harsashi ko fama da damuwa. Ciwon hauka na iya haifar da mummunan yanayin damuwa wanda zai iya haifar da rikicewar damuwa bayan tashin hankali (PTSD). PTSD ya fito a matsayin alamar wannan yanayin bayan Yaƙin Vietnam wanda yawancin tsoffin sojoji suka koma ƙasashensu sun lalace, kuma wani lokacin, sun kamu da abubuwan psychoactive.

Alamomin PTSD dole ne su ci gaba da kasancewa aƙalla wata ɗaya don ganewar asali. Babban bayyanar cututtuka na PTSD sun ƙunshi manyan nau'i hudu: rauni (watau tsoro mai tsanani), rayayye (watau flashbacks), halayen gujewa (watau rashin jin dadi), da kuma hypervigilance (watau ci gaba da duba yanayin don haɗari).[15]. Bincike ya nuna cewa kusan kashi 60 cikin 100 na al'ummar Amurka sun ba da rahoton cewa sun sami aƙalla alamun rauni guda ɗaya a rayuwarsu, amma kaɗan ne kawai ke haɓaka PTSD. Akwai alaƙa tsakanin haɗarin PTSD da ko wanda ya aikata laifin ya aikata laifin ko a'a.[15] Ana kula da raunin ilimin halin ɗan adam tare da magani kuma, idan an nuna, magungunan psychotropic.

Raunin ɗabi'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Raunin ɗabi'a damuwa shi ne kamar laifi ko kunya bayan ƙetare na ɗabi'a. Akwai wasu ma’anoni da yawa wasu bisa la’akari da nau’o’in dalilai daban-daban.[28]: 2  Raunin ɗabi'a yana da alaƙa da matsalar damuwa bayan rauni amma an bambanta da shi. PTSD yana da alaƙa da tsoro da damuwa.[28]

Mugun rauni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A al'ada, jin labarin ko ganin rikodin wani lamari, ko da damuwa, ba ya haifar da rauni; duk da haka, an keɓance keɓancewa ga ƙa'idodin bincike don abubuwan da suka shafi aiki.[1] Mummunan rauni yana shafar ma'aikatan da ke shaida raunin abokan cinikin su. Zai fi yiwuwa ya faru a yanayi inda aikin da ke da alaƙa da rauni ya zama al'ada maimakon banda. Saurara tare da tausayawa abokan ciniki yana haifar da jin daɗi, kuma ganin kai a cikin raunin abokan ciniki na iya haɓaka haɗarin haɓaka alamun rauni.[29] Har ila yau, rauni na iya haifar da idan ma'aikata sun shaida yanayin da ke faruwa a yayin aikin su (misali tashin hankali a wurin aiki, nazarin kaset na bidiyo na tashin hankali.)[30] Haɗarin yana ƙaruwa tare da fallasa kuma tare da rashin abubuwan kariya na neman taimako da kuma shirye-shirye na farko. na dabarun rigakafi. Mutanen da ke da tarihin rauni suma suna cikin haɗarin haɓaka rauni mai rauni.[31] Mummunan rauni na iya haifar da ma'aikata don haɓaka ra'ayi mara kyau game da kansu, wasu, da kuma duniya gaba ɗaya, wanda zai iya lalata ingancin rayuwarsu da ikon yin aiki yadda ya kamata[32].

Samfuran ka'idoji[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ka'idar zato ta ruguje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Janoff-Bulman, yanada ra'ayin cewa mutane gabaɗaya suna ɗaukar zato na asali guda uku game da duniya waɗanda aka gina kuma aka tabbatar da su tsawon shekaru da suka shafe suna gogewa: duniya tana da alheri, duniya tana da ma'ana, kuma na cancanci[33]. Bisa ka'idar rugujewar ka'idar zato, akwai wasu munanan al'amura da suke "rusa" ra'ayin mutum ta hanyar kalubale mai tsanani da karya zato game da duniya da kanmu[34]. Da zarar mutum ya sami irin wannan rauni, ya zama dole mutum ya ƙirƙiri sabbin zato ko gyara nasu na dā don murmurewa daga abin da ya same shi.[33] Don haka munanan illolin da wannan rauni ke haifarwa suna da alaƙa ne kawai da ra’ayinmu na duniya, kuma idan muka gyara waɗannan ra’ayoyin, za mu farfaɗo daga abin da ya same mu.[35]

A cikin psychodynamics[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mahimman ra'ayi na tunani suna da jayayya, [36] amma an nuna cewa suna da amfani ta hanyar warkewa.[37]

Likitan jijiyoyin Faransa, Jean-Martin Charcot, ya yi jayayya a cikin 1890s cewa raunin hankali shine asalin duk yanayin cutar tabin hankali da ake kira hysteria. Charcot's "traumatic hysteria" sau da yawa yakan bayyana a matsayin gurguje wanda ya biyo bayan raunin jiki, yawanci bayan shekaru bayan abin da Charcot ya bayyana a matsayin lokacin "cubation". Sigmund Freud, dalibin Charcot kuma uban ilimin halin dan Adam, yayi nazari akan ra'ayi na raunin hankali a cikin aikinsa. Jean Laplanche ya ba da cikakken bayani game da fahimtar Freud game da rauni, wanda ya bambanta sosai a tsawon lokacin aikin Freud: "Wani al'amari a cikin rayuwar batun, wanda aka kwatanta da ƙarfinsa, ta hanyar rashin iyawar batun don amsa daidai da shi da kuma tashin hankali da kuma tashin hankali. tasiri mai ɗorewa da yake haifarwa a cikin ƙungiyar mahaukata[38].

Masanin ilimin halin dan Adam na Faransa Jacques Lacan ya yi iƙirarin cewa abin da ya kira "Gaskiya" yana da inganci mai ban tsoro na waje zuwa alama. A matsayin abin damuwa, Lacan ya ci gaba da cewa Gaskiyar ita ce "mahimmin abu wanda ba abu ba ne kuma, amma wannan wani abu da yake fuskanta wanda duk kalmomi ke gushewa kuma dukkan nau'o'in sun kasa, abin damuwa daidai ne"[39].

Fred Alford, yana ambaton aikin masanin dangantakar abu Donald Winnicott, yana amfani da ra'ayi na ciki, da kuma wakilci na duniya na zamantakewa, wanda mutum yayi magana a ciki kuma wanda aka samo shi ta hanyar hulɗa da wasu. Ya bayyana cewa abin da ke ciki ya lalace ta hanyar rauni amma ana iya gyara shi ta hanyar tattaunawa da wasu kamar masu kwantar da hankali. Ya danganta tunanin abin da ke ciki da aikin Albert Camus yana kallon na ciki a matsayin abin da ke kawar da rashin hankali[40]. Alford ya lura da yadda raunin da ya faru ke lalata aminci ga dangantakar zamantakewa saboda tsoron cin zarafi kuma ya yi jayayya cewa al'adu da zamantakewa na iya taimaka wa mutane su warke daga rauni.[40]

Diana Fosha, majagaba na hangen nesa na zamani na zamani, ta kuma bayar da hujjar cewa dangantakar zamantakewa na iya taimakawa mutane su murmure daga rauni, amma musamman yana nufin ka'idar abin da aka makala da kuma abin da aka makala na alaƙar warkewa. Fosha ya bayar da hujjar cewa ma'anar aminci na motsin rai da tsarin haɗin gwiwa wanda ke faruwa a cikin dangantakar da ke da alaƙa da ilimin halayyar ɗan adam yana aiki azaman abin da aka makala amintacce wanda ya wajaba don ba da damar abokin ciniki ya dandana da aiwatar da raunin su cikin aminci da inganci.[41]

Bincike[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kamar yadda "rashin lafiya" ya karɓi ma'anar ma'anar a ko'ina, ilimin traumatology a matsayin fage ya haɓaka hanyar haɗin gwiwa. Wannan wani bangare ne saboda wakilcin ƙwararru iri-iri da suka haɗa da: masana ilimin halayyar ɗan adam, ƙwararrun likita, da lauyoyi. Sakamakon haka, an daidaita abubuwan da aka gano a wannan fanni don aikace-aikace daban-daban, daga jiyya na tabin hankali ga ɗaiɗaikun ilimin halin ɗan adam zuwa kula da manyan cututtuka na zamantakewa. Yayin da filin ya ɗauki nau'ikan hanyoyin dabaru iri-iri, da yawa suna ba da iyakokin nasu a aikace.

Ana iya tantance gwaninta da sakamakon raunin hankali ta hanyoyi da yawa.[42] A cikin mahallin hira na asibiti, haɗarin haɗari na gabatowa ga kai ko wasu yana da mahimmanci a magance amma ba shine abin da aka fi mayar da hankali akan kima ba. A mafi yawan lokuta, ba zai zama dole a haɗa da tuntuɓar sabis na gaggawa ba (misali, likita, masu tabin hankali, jami'an tsaro) don tabbatar da amincin mutane; membobin hanyar sadarwar tallafin zamantakewar mutum sun fi mahimmanci.

Fahimta da yarda da yanayin tunanin mutum shine mafi mahimmanci. Akwai rashin fahimta da yawa game da abin da ake nufi ga mai rauni ya kasance cikin rikicin tunani. Waɗannan lokuta ne lokacin da mutum ke cikin matsanancin zafi kuma ya kasa samun ta'aziyya. Idan aka yi masa mutunci da mutunta mutum ba zai iya yin illa ga kansa ba. A cikin waɗannan yanayi yana da kyau a samar da yanayi mai taimako, kulawa da kuma sadarwa ga mutum cewa komai yanayin, za a ɗauki mutum da muhimmanci maimakon a ɗauke shi a matsayin mai ruɗi. Yana da mahimmanci ga mai tantancewa ya fahimci cewa abin da ke faruwa a kan wanda aka ji rauni yana da inganci kuma na gaske. Idan an yi la'akari da dacewa, likitan likitancin na iya ci gaba ta hanyar yin tambaya game da duka abubuwan da suka faru da kuma sakamakon da aka samu (misali, bayyanar cututtuka na baya-bayan nan, rabuwa, cin zarafi, alamun somatic, halayen halayen kwakwalwa). Irin wannan binciken yana faruwa ne a cikin mahallin da aka kafa kuma an kammala shi cikin tausayawa, kulawa da tallafi. Likitan kuma na iya yin tambaya game da yiwuwar hargitsi na dangantaka, kamar faɗakarwa ga haɗarin juna, batutuwan watsi, da buƙatar kariyar kai ta hanyar kulawar ɗan adam. Ta hanyar tattaunawa game da dangantaka tsakanin mutane, likitan ya fi iya tantance ikon mutum na shiga da kuma ci gaba da dangantaka ta asibiti.

A ƙarshe, ƙididdigan raunin hankali na iya haɗawa da yin amfani da gwaje-gwajen tunani na kai-da-kai. Ana kwatanta maki ɗaya akan irin waɗannan gwaje-gwajen da bayanan na yau da kullun don tantance yadda matakin aikin mutum ya kwatanta da wasu a cikin samfurin wakilin jama'a. Gwajin tunani na iya haɗawa da yin amfani da gwaje-gwaje na gabaɗaya (misali, MMPI-2, MCMI-III, SCL-90-R) don tantance takamaiman alamun rashin rauni da kuma matsalolin da suka shafi mutumci. Bugu da ƙari, gwajin tunani na iya haɗawa da yin amfani da takamaiman gwaje-gwajen rauni don tantance sakamakon da ya biyo baya. Irin waɗannan gwaje-gwajen na iya haɗawa da sikelin rikice-rikice na tashin hankali, [48] Gwajin Davidson Trauma, [49] Decrimfiled Gyara damuwa game da damuwa mai rauni, [51] Masana Alamomin Bincike na Yara, [52] Traumatic Tambayar Tambayoyin Abubuwan Rayuwa, [53] da Ƙididdigar Laifin da ke da alaƙa.[54]

Ana iya tantance yara ta hanyar ayyuka da alaƙar warkewa, wasu ayyukan sune wasan genogram, duniyoyin yashi, canza launi, zane na kai da na dangi, aikin alama, wasan tsana mai ban mamaki, ba da labari, Briere's TSCC, da sauransu[55].

Ma'anarsa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) ya bayyana rauni a matsayin alamun da ke faruwa bayan fallasa wani lamari (watau bala'i mai rauni) wanda ya ƙunshi ainihin ko barazanar mutuwa, rauni mai tsanani, ko cin zarafin jima'i.[56] ] Wannan fallasa na iya zuwa ta hanyar fuskantar al'amarin ko shaida abin da ya faru, ko kuma sanin cewa wani babban tashin hankali ko abin da ya faru na bazata ya fuskanci wani masoyi[56]. Alamun rauni na iya zuwa ta hanyar tunanin kutse, mafarkai, ko walƙiya; guje wa tunatarwa game da abin da ya faru; mummunan tunani da ji; ko ƙara faɗakarwa ko maida martani.[56] Tunanin da ke da alaƙa da rauni galibi a bayyane suke, daidaitacce, da wahalar mantuwa.[57] Saboda sarkar da ke tattare da mu’amala tsakanin faruwar abin da ya faru da rauni da kuma bayyanar cututtuka, yadda mutum zai mayar da martani game da wasu bayanai masu ban tsoro na abin da ya faru na iya haifar da tsoro ko rashin taimako amma ya bambanta bisa ga mahallin.[56]. A cikin yara, alamun rauni na iya bayyana a cikin yanayin rashin tsari ko tashin hankali.[58]

Ana iya haifar da rauni ta hanyar abubuwa da yawa iri-iri, amma akwai ƴan al'amuran gama gari. Sau da yawa ana cin zarafin ainihin tunanin mutum game da duniya da yancin ɗan adam, yana jefa mutum cikin matsanancin ruɗani da rashin tsaro. Ana ganin wannan lokacin da cibiyoyi suka dogara da su don cin zarafi, wulakanci, cin amana, ko haifar da babbar asara ko rarrabuwa a maimakon haifar da fa'idodi kamar darajar kai mai kyau, iyakoki mai aminci da 'yanci.[59]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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