Ta'addanci

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Wikidata.svgTa'addanci
tsatstsauranci
North face south tower after plane strike 9-11.jpg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na laifukan siyasa
Hannun riga da faɗa da ta'addanci
Gudanarwan mai-ta'adi
United Airlines Flight 175 ya doka jikin South Tower na World Trade Center lokacin September 11 attacks na shekarar 2001 a Birnin New York.

Ta'addanci (da turanci Terrorism) shine, yin amfani da tada hankali ko kawo rikici ba tare da yin tunani ba, ko nuna ban-banci akan wanda zai shafa ba, da gangar domin sanya tsoro da tashin hankali a cikin ƙirazan mutane; da tsoratar dasu ko wani sa'in halakar dasu dan cimma burin siyasa ko addini.[1] Ana amfani da wannan ma'anar dan nuna kawo tashin hankali lokacin zaman lafiya ko yin yaƙi da non-combatants.[2] Kalmar "mai ta'adi" da "ta'addanci" ya samo asali ne lokacin French Revolution da ya faru a ƙarshen ƙarni na 18th[3] amma kalmar tayi tashe a bakunan jama'a ne a shekarar 1970 a cikin rahotannin masu yaɗa labarai da littafan dake bayyana faɗace-faɗacen ƙasar Arewacin Ireland, da ƙasar Basque da Palestine. Da ƙaruwar samun yin laifukan kisan kai daga 1980 zuwa abinda yayi sama, haka harin ranar Satumba ta 11 a birnin New York da Washington, D.C. a 2001 ya nuna tabbacin lallai akwai ta'addanci.

Babu cikakken ma'anar "ta'addanci" da kowa ya yarda dashi.[4][5] Amma Ta'addanci kuma akan yi amfani da sunan dan danganta wani abu mara kyau ko "ba hali maikyau" bace. Gwamnatoci da kungiyoyi kanyi amfani da kalmar dan zagi ko sukan masu hamayya dasu saboda kashe masu karsashi a fuskokin mabiya.[6][7][8][5] cibiyoyi maban-banta na mutane, an tuhume su akan amfani da ta'addanci domin cimma ƙudurorin siyasarsu. Waɗannan cibiyoyi kamar right-wing da left-wing na siyasa, ƙungiyoyin ƴan ƙasanci, Mamayewar addini, masu neman sauyi da gwamnatoci masu mulki.[9] dokakin dake tabbatar da ta'addanci amatsayin laifi an samar dasu a yawan cin kasashe.[10] Babu matsaya akan ko ta'addanci laifin yaƙi ne ko a'a.[10][11]

Global Terrorism Database, da Jami'ar Maryland, College Park ke kula dashi, ta tara fiye da 61,000 na ayyukan ta'addanci da kungiyoyi suka aiwatar, da yayi sakamakon rasuwar mutane 140,000 daga tsakanin shekarar 2000 zuwa 2014.[12]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Fortna, Virginia Page (20 May 2015). "Do Terrorists Win? Rebels' Use of Terrorism and Civil War Outcomes". International Organization. 69 (3): 519–556. doi:10.1017/S0020818315000089.
  2. Wisnewski, J. Jeremy, ed. (2008). Torture, Terrorism, and the Use of Violence (also available as Review Journal of Political Philosophy Volume 6, Issue Number 1). Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 175. ISBN 978-1-4438-0291-8.
  3. Stevenson, ed. by Angus (2010). Oxford dictionary of English (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-957112-3.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  4. Halibozek, Edward P.; Jones, Andy; Kovacich, Gerald L. (2008). The corporate security professional's handbook on terrorism (illustrated ed.). Elsevier (Butterworth-Heinemann). pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-7506-8257-2.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Robert Mackey (20 November 2009). "Can Soldiers Be Victims of Terrorism?". The New York Times. Terrorism is the deliberate killing of innocent people, at random, in order to spread fear through a whole population and force the hand of its political leaders.
  6. Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Antonius, Daniel (2012). The Psychology of Terrorism Fears. Oxford University Press, US. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-19-538811-4.
  7. White, Jonathan R. (1 January 2016). Terrorism and Homeland Security. Cengage Learning. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-305-63377-3.
  8. Ruthven, Malise; Nanji, Azim (24 April 2017). Historical Atlas of Islam. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01385-8.
  9. "Terrorism". Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 3.
  10. 10.0 10.1 "The Illusion of War: Is Terrorism a Criminal Act or an Act of War?". Mackenzie Institute.
  11. Eviatar, Daphne (13 June 2013). "Is 'Terrorism' a War Crime Triable by Military Commission? Who Knows?". Huffington Post.
  12. "Global Terrorism Index 2015" (PDF). Institute for Economics and Peace. p. 33.