September 11 attacks

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Template:Infobox civilian attackTemplate:Infobox civilian attack A Satumba 11 hare-hare (wanda kuma ake kira 9/11), [nb 1] hare-haren ta'addanci ne guda hudu da aka kai kan Amurka. Duk sun faru da safiyar Talata, 11 ga Satumba, 2001. Hare -haren sun kashe mutane 3,000, ciki har da maharan 19, wanda ya zama harin ta'addanci mafi muni a tarihi. Sun sa anyi asarar fiye da kayayyakin more rayuwa da suka kai kimanin dalar Amurka 10. Kungiyar 'yan ta'adda ta Islama ta al-Qaeda ce ta aiwatar da su. [1] Sun yi amfani da jiragen fasinja don lalata shahararrun gine -gine ta hanyar shawagi da jiragen a cikin su. An kai hare-hare biyu a birnin New York da kuma daya a Arlington, Virginia. Harin na huɗu bai yi aiki ba kuma jirgin ya yi hatsari a wani filin da ke kusa da Shanksville, Pennsylvania.

Gine -ginen da aka kai harin sune tagwayen hasumiyar Cibiyar Ciniki ta Duniya a birnin New York, da Pentagon a Arlington, Virginia. Jirgin na hudu ya yi hatsari a filin da babu kowa a cikin Pennsylvania kafin ya isa inda ya nufa a Washington, DC Wannan manufa ita ce ko dai Fadar White House ko Capitol na Amurka . Bayan taron, gwamnatin Amurka ta ce mutanen da suka kai hare-haren na kusa da kungiyar ta'adda ta al-Qaeda .

Jiragen sama da abun ya shafa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Cibiyar Ciniki ta Duniya a cikin Maris 2001, wanda hare -haren suka lalata.

Na farko cikin jirage huɗu da za su tashi shi ne jirgin saman Amurka na 11, Boeing 767-200ER. Tsayinsa ya kai ƙafa 159 (mita 48) da faɗin ƙafa 16 (4.9 m). Yana da hanyoyi biyu. Jirgin ya yi zirga -zirgar yau da kullun tsakanin Boston da Los Angeles. Lokacin da ta tashi da ƙarfe 7:59 na safiyar ranar sha ɗaya, ya ɗauki fasinjoji 81 kawai a cikin kujerun ta 158. Bayan mintuna arba'in da bakwai, ta faɗa cikin Hasumiyar Arewa a nisan mil 440 a awa ɗaya (kilomita 710/h). Tana ɗauke da galan 9,717 na man jirgin sama, ƙasa da 14,000 ƙasa da yadda ta iya ɗauka.

Jirgin saman United Airlines Flight 175, shi ma Boeing 767-200ER, shine na biyu. Kamar American Airlines 11, an shirya tashi daga Boston zuwa Los Angeles . Lokacin da United 175 ta tashi da karfe 8:14 na safe, ya fi sauƙi fiye da jirgin Amurka: 56 na kujeru 168 ne kawai aka cika. Lokacin da ta fada kan Hasumiyar Kudu ta Cibiyar Ciniki ta Duniya da karfe 9:03 na safiya, tafiya 540 miles per hour (870 km/h), tana da galan 9,118 na mai a cikin tankokin ta. An watsa wannan hatsarin kai tsaye ta tashoshin talabijin da yawa a duk duniya waɗanda tuni ke nuna Hasumiyar Arewa tana ƙonewa.

Pentagon a shekarar 1998, wanda ya lalace bayan da jirgin American Airlines Flight 77 ya yi karo da shi.

Jirgin saman American Airlines Flight 77 shine jirgi na uku da ya tashi. Jirgin Boeing 757-200 ne. Ta bar Washington, DC da ƙarfe 8:20 na safe zuwa Los Angeles. Ya kasance kashi biyu cikin uku babu komai, tare da fasinjoji 58 a cikin kujerun ta 176. Yana dauke da galan 4,000 na man fetur, kasa da galan 11,500 da zai iya dauka. ya fada cikin Pentagon da karfe 9:37 na safe, yana tashi da nisan mil 530 a awa daya (kilomita 850/h).

Either the White House (top) or the United States Capitol (bottom) were the targets in Washington, D.C. of the failed United 93 attack.

Jirgin na huɗu, United Airlines Flight 93, shi ma ya kasance 757-200. Yana tafiya daga Newark, New Jersey zuwa San Francisco. An shirya tashi da karfe 8 na safe, amma an jinkirta na mintuna 42. Lokacin da ya tashi daga ƙarshe, ya ɗauki fasinjoji 37 ne kawai a cikin kujerun ta 182. yaana da fiye da galan 7,000 na mai. Da karfe 10:03 na safe, ya yi hatsari a nisan mil 560 a awa daya (kilomita 900/h) cikin filin da babu kowa kusa da Shanksville, Pennsylvania bayan fasinjojin da ma'aikatan jirgin sun yi nasarar sake kwace iko da jirgin don dakatar da 'yan ta'adda masu garkuwa da mutane daga bugun wani wuri.

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ragowar Cibiyar Ciniki ta Duniya bayan hare -haren

Dukkan mutane 246 da ke cikin jirage hudu sun mutu a hadarin. An kuma kashe 'yan ta'adda 19 a hare -haren. Duwatsu biyu na Cibiyar Ciniki ta Duniya sun kama da wuta bayan hatsarin. Hasumiyar Kudu (2 WTC) ta ƙone na mintuna 56 kafin ta faɗi kuma ta lalace. Hasumiyar Arewa (1 WTC) ta kone na mintuna 102 kafin ita ma ta ya fadi. Yayin da hasumiyoyin suka fadi, sassan hasumiyar sun buge wasu gine -gine da ke kusa da su. An yi imanin cewa saboda wannan lalacewar, gini na uku, Cibiyar Ciniki ta Duniya 7 (7 WTC), ta faɗi da ƙarfe 5:20 na yamma. Wasu gine -gine da yawa a yankin sun lalace sosai kuma dole ne an rusa su daga baya, wanda ya bar daukacin ginin Cibiyar Ciniki ta Duniya. Mutane 2,602 sun mutu a Cibiyar Ciniki ta Duniya.

Jirgin da ya buge Pentagon ya bugi kasa ne daidai lokacin da ya doshi gefen ginin. Daga nan sai ta fadi ta cikin uku "zoben" guda biyar wadanda suka hada da Pentagon. Hadarin ya kashe mutane 125 a Pentagon.

Akwai mutane 2,996 da suka mutu a hare -haren. Sun hada da jami’an kashe gobara da jami’an ‘yan sanda da ke kokarin ceto sauran mutanen. Sun kuma hada da maharan 19 wadanda duk aka kashe.

Abinda ya biyo baya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gwamnatin Amurka ta biya kimanin dala miliyan 1.8 ga iyalan wadanda harin ya rutsa da su. [2]

Hare -haren sun kuma haifar da samar da Ma'aikatar Tsaron Cikin Gida ta Amurka, wacce ke kare kasar daga hare -haren ta'addanci.

Ka'idodin makirci da yawa sun bayyana waɗanda ke cewa wasu mutane a cikin gwamnatin Amurka sun san hare -haren, ko ma sun sa su faru. Wadannan da gwamnatin ta ce karya ce.

Yaki akan Ta'addanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Bayan harin, Amurka ta dora laifin akan kungiyar Al-Qaeda, wanda Amurka ta dauka kungiyar ta'addanci ce. Shugaba George W. Bush ya ce zai fara " Yaki da Ta'addanci ". Yana nufin Amurka za ta yi karin abubuwa don kokarin dakatar da ta'addanci a nan gaba. Bush ya ce an yi hakan ne domin kare Amurkawa da dukiyoyinsu daga 'yan ta'adda. Misali, gwamnatin Amurka za a sake tsara ta. An ƙarfafa tsaro da sarrafawa a wuraren taruwar jama'a, musamman a filayen jirgin sama. Ana gaya wa Amurkawa kowace rana ko akwai babbar barazanar ta'addanci. (Anyi wannan ta hanyar ba da launi don ranar. Ja yana nufin akwai babban haɗari, kore yana nufin ƙarancin haɗari, kuma akwai matakan da yawa a tsakanin.

Yakin Ta'addanci kuma ya haifar da yaƙe -yaƙe na gaske. Shugaban kungiyar Al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden, ya zauna a masarautar Musulunci ta Afghanistan . Amurka ta fadawa gwamnatin Afghanistan, da ake kira Taliban, da ta mika musu bin Laden. Taliban ba za ta yi hakan ba. Shugaban kungiyar Taliban, Mullah Muhammad Omar, ya nemi ganin hujja daga gwamnatin Amurka. Idan ba a ba da hujja ba, Mullah Omar ya ce ba zai mika bin Laden ba. Shugaba George W. Bush ya ce baya bukatar bayar da hujja. Daga nan Amurka ta shiga yaki da Afghanistan. An cire 'yan Taliban daga madafun iko, an kafa sabuwar gwamnati, mutanen Afghanistan sun zabi sabon shugaban kasa.

Yayin da wannan ke faruwa, gwamnatin Amurka ta canza ta wasu hanyoyi. Ma'aikatar Sufuri ta Amurka (DOT) ta kirkiro Hukumar Tsaro ta Sufuri (TSA). Kafin 9/11, kamfanonin jiragen sama sun samar da tsaro a filayen jiragen saman Amurka. TSA ta mayar da ita aikin gwamnati ta samar da tsaron filin jirgin sama. TSA ta dauki sabbin hafsoshin don yin aiki a filayen saukar jiragen sama da kuma tashi da jirage a matsayin marshals na sama. TSA kuma tana ba da tsaro akan jiragen ƙasa na Amurka da na jirgin ƙasa. An kuma kirkiro sabuwar Ma'aikatar Tsaron Cikin Gida. Ya zama aikinsu na kare Amurkawa da dukiyoyinsu a cikin Amurka. Lokacin da aka kirkiro wannan sashin, TSA ta tashi daga DOT zuwa Tsaron Gida.

Bayan fatattakar 'yan Taliban, Shugaba George W. Bush ya yi tunanin yakamata Amurka ta mamaye Iraki. Ya yi imanin cewa Iraki tana taimakawa ƙungiyoyin 'yan ta'adda, ciki har da al-Qaeda. Ya ce yana da shaidar cewa Iraqi ma tana kera makaman kare dangi. Ya aika Sakataren Harkokin Wajen Colin Powell zuwa Majalisar Dinkin Duniya don nuna musu wasu daga cikin shaidun. A cikin Maris, 2003, Amurka ta fara mamaye Iraki. (Wasu ƙasashe huɗu kuma sun shiga, ciki har da Ƙasar Ingila, Ostiraliya, Poland, da Denmark.) An kifar da gwamnatin Iraki, kuma mutanen Iraki sun zaɓi sabuwar gwamnati. Ba a samu makaman kare dangi ba a Iraki

Osama bin Laden, shugaban al-Qaeda, kungiyar da ta kai hare-haren, wanda aka nuna a nan a 1997

A ranar 2 ga Mayu, 2011, Rundunar Sojojin Ruwa ta Amurka sun kashe shugaban al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden, wanda ya jagoranci hare-haren 11 ga Satumba, 2001 da sauran yunkurin ta’addanci.

Bincike[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

FBI[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A head shot of a man in his thirties looking expressionless toward the camera
Mohamed Atta, dan kasar Masar, shi ne jagoran maharan.

Nan da nan bayan hare -haren, Ofishin Bincike na Tarayya ya fara PENTTBOM. Wannan shine babban binciken manyan laifuka a tarihin Amurka. A wani lokaci, fiye da rabin wakilan FBI sun yi aiki kan binciken kuma sun bi jagorar rabin miliyan. FBI ta kammala da cewa akwai kwararan hujjoji da ba za a iya musantawa ba (ba za a iya musanta su ba) ”wadanda ke alakanta al-Qaeda da bin Laden da hare-haren.Template:Bar chart FBI ba ta yi rikodin mutuwar mutane 2,977 daga hare -haren ba a cikin rikodin laifukan su na shekara -shekara na 2001. Birnin New York kuma bai haɗa da mace -macen ba a cikin ƙididdigar laifukan su na shekara -shekara na 2001.

CIA[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sufeto Janar na Hukumar Leken Asiri ta Tsakiya (CIA) ya yi bitar ayyukan CIA na gabanin 9/11. Ya kasance yana sukar manyan jami'an CIA saboda rashin yin duk mai yiwuwa don dakatar da ta'addanci. Ya soki gazawar da suka yi na dakatar da biyu daga cikin maharan 9/11, Nawaf al-Hazmi da Khalid al-Mihdhar, yayin da suke shiga Amurka. Ya kuma soki yadda suka kasa raba bayanai kan mutanen biyu ga hukumar FBI. A watan Mayu 2007, sanatoci daga manyan manyan jam’iyyun siyasar Amurka sun rubuta doka don yin bita a bainar jama’a. Daya daga cikin masu goyon bayan, Sanata Ron Wyden ya ce, "Mutanen Amurka suna da 'yancin sanin abin da Hukumar Leken Asiri ta Tsakiya ke yi a cikin wadancan watanni masu mahimmanci (masu mahimmanci) kafin 9/11."

Binciken Majalisar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A watan Fabrairun 2002, Majalisar Dattawa ta Zaɓi Kwamitin Bincike da Kwamitin Zaɓaɓɓen Zaɓaɓɓen Kwamitin akan Sirrin ya ƙirƙiri binciken haɗin gwiwa game da ayyukan Hukumar Leken Asiri ta Amurka. An fitar da rahoton su mai shafuka 832 a watan Disamba na 2002. A cikin rahoton, akwai gazawar FBI da CIA na yin amfani da bayanan da ke akwai. Wannan ya haɗa da bayanai game da 'yan ta'adda da CIA ta sani suna cikin Amurka. Sun gaza amfani da wannan bayanin don dakatar da tsare -tsaren. Binciken hadin gwiwar ya samo bayanansa game da jami'an gwamnatin Saudi Arabiya mai yiwuwa suna da hannu daga wasu kafofin da ba a san su ba. Gwamnatin Bush ta buƙaci shafuka masu alaƙa 28 da aka keɓe.

Sake Ginawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An sake gina Cibiyar Ciniki ta Duniya Daya kusa da kammalawa a watan Yulin 2013

A ranar da aka kai harin, magajin garin New York Rudy Giuliani ya ce: "Za mu sake ginawa. Za mu fito daga cikin wannan da karfi fiye da na da, na siyasa, da karfin tattalin arziki. Za a sake samun sararin sama

An sake gina bangaren Pentagon da ya lalace a cikin shekara guda da kai hare -haren. An fara gina Cibiyar Ciniki ta Duniya Daya a ranar 27 ga Afrilu, 2006. Ya kai tsayinsa a ranar 20 ga Mayu, 2013. An saka spire a saman ginin a wannan ranar. Wannan ya sa jimlar tsawo na 1 WTC's a ƙafa 1,776 (541 m). Wannan ya sa ya zama gini mafi tsayi a Yammacin Duniya . WTC ɗaya ya gama ginin kuma an buɗe shi a ranar 3 ga Nuwamba, 2014.

A shafin Cibiyar Ciniki ta Duniya, ya kamata a gina wasu hasumiyai uku na ofisoshin a wani shinge gabas daga inda hasumiyar ta asali take. 7 WTC shine farkon wanda aka buɗe a ranar 23 ga Mayu, 2006 bayan shekaru huɗu na gini. 4 WTC ita ce hasumiya ta biyu da za a buɗe a ranar 13 ga Nuwamba, 2013. buɗe 3 WTC a ranar 11 ga Yuni, 2018 wanda ya sa ya zama bene na huɗu a wurin da za a gama.

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Shafuka masu dangantaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Ranar Patriot

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Sauran gidajen yanar gizo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 9/11 is pronounced "nine eleven". The slash is not part of the pronunciation. The name is used worldwide, although the dating conventions differ in some countries.
  1. Wright, Looming Tower, 2006, p. 79
  2. 25 Interesting Facts About 9/11