Taliban

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Template:Infobox war factionThe Taliban ( /t æ l ɪ b æ n, T ɑː l ɪ b ɑː n / ; Pashto ko 'masu neman') ne a Deobandi Islama addini da siyasa da kuma soja motsi kungiyar a Afghanistan . A halin yanzu daya daga cikin kungiyoyi biyu da ke ikirarin cewa su ne halattacciyar gwamnatin Afganistan, tare da Jamhuriyar Musulunci ta Afghanistan da kasashen duniya suka amince da su, kungiyar Taliban tana rike da madafun iko a kasar. An bayyana akidar Taliban da hada wani “sabon abu” na shari’ar Musulunci ta Sharia dangane da tsattsauran ra’ayin Deobandi [1] da Islama mai gwagwarmaya, hade [1] tare da dabi’un zamantakewa da al’adun Pashtun da ake kira Pashtunwali, kamar yadda mafi yawan 'yan Taliban' yan kabilar Pashtun ne. The kungiyar da aka ƙ a] en da ayyukanta a cikin doka fataucin miyagun} wayoyi ta hanyar samar da fataucin miyagun kwayoyi kamar tabar heroin, damfarar, da kuma satar mutane da fansa . Sun kuma kwace iko da ayyukan hakar ma'adinai a tsakiyar shekarun 2010 wadanda ba bisa ka'ida ba a karkashin gwamnatin da ta gabata.

Daga shekara1996 zuwashekara 2001, 'yan Taliban sun mallaki iko a kan kusan kashi uku cikin huɗu na Afghanistan, kuma sun aiwatar da tsauraran fassarar Shari'a, ko shari'ar Musulunci. [2] Yan Taliban sun fito a shekara1994 a matsayin daya daga cikin fitattun kungiyoyi a yakin basasar Afghanistan kuma galibi sun kunshi dalibai ( talib ) daga yankunan Pashtun na gabashi da kudancin Afghanistan wadanda suka yi karatu a makarantun Islama na gargajiya, kuma suka yi yaki A lokacin Soviet -Afghanistan War . A karkashin jagorancin Mohammed Omar, harkar ta bazu a cikin mafi yawan Afganistan, inda ta karkata mulki daga hannun mayakan jihadi . An kafa mulkin kama -karya Masarautar Musulunci ta Afghanistan ashekara 1996 kuma an canza babban birnin Afghanistan zuwa Kandahar . Ta mallaki mafi yawan kasar har zuwa lokacin da aka kifar da ita bayan mamayar da Amurka ta yi wa Afghanistan a watan Disambar shekara2001 bayan harin shadaya11 ga Satumba . A lokacin da kungiyar ta gabata mulki sassa na arewa maso gabashin aka gudanar da Northern Alliance, wanda sun fi mayar da kiyaye kasa da kasa fitarwa a matsayin ci gaba da rikon Islamic State of Afghanistan . A mafi ƙanƙantarsa, ƙasashe uku sun amince da amincewar gwamnatin diflomasiyya ta Taliban: Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, da Hadaddiyar Daular Larabawa. Daga baya kungiyar ta sake haduwa a matsayin kungiyar masu tayar da kayar baya don yakar gwamnatin Karzai da Amurka ke marawa baya da kuma rundunar tsaro ta kasa da kasa ta NATO (ISAF) a yakin Afghanistan .

Kasashen duniya sun yi Allah wadai da 'yan Taliban saboda tsananin aiwatar da tafsirin su na Shari'ar Musulunci, wanda ya haifar da zaluntar' yan Afghanistan da dama. [3] A lokacin mulkinsu daga shekara1996 zuwa shekara2001, 'yan Taliban da kawayensu sun aikata kisan gilla kan fararen hular Afganistan, sun hana kayayyakin abinci na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ga farar hula dubudaridasitin160,000 da ke fama da yunwa, kuma sun gudanar da manufar kasa mai konewa, ta kona manyan yankuna masu albarka da lalata dubunnan gidaje. Yayin da Taliban ke iko da Afghanistan, sun hana ayyuka da kafofin watsa labarai ciki har da zane -zane, daukar hoto, da fina -finan da ke nuna mutane ko wasu abubuwa masu rai. Sun kuma haramta kida ta amfani da kayan kida, in ban da daf, wani nau'in gangar jikin firam . 'Yan Taliban sun hana' yan mata da 'yan mata zuwa makaranta, hana mata yin aiki a waje da kiwon lafiya (an hana likitocin maza kula da mata), kuma sun buƙaci mata su kasance tare da dangin maza kuma su sa burqa a duk lokacin da ake cikin jama'a. Idan mata sun karya wasu dokoki, an yi musu bulala ko a kashe su a bainar jama'a. An nuna wariya ga marasa rinjaye na addini da kabilu a lokacin mulkin Taliban kuma sun tsunduma cikin kisan kare dangi na al'adu, tare da lalata abubuwan tarihi da yawa ciki har da sanannen Buddha na Bamiyan mai shekaru 1500. A cewar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, 'yan Taliban da kawayensu ne ke da alhakin 76% na mutuwar fararen hular Afganistan a shekara2010, da 80% a shekara2011 da shekara2012. [4]

Kasashen duniya da gwamnatin Afganistan na zargin jami'an leken asirin Pakistan da ayyukan soji da taimakawa Taliban a lokacin kafuwar su da lokacin da suke kan mulki, da kuma ci gaba da marawa Taliban baya a lokacin tayar da kayar baya. Pakistan ta bayyana cewa ta janye dukkan goyon bayan da take baiwa kungiyar bayan harin shadaya11 ga watan Satumba. [5] A shekarar 2001, an ruwaito Larabawa dububiyudadaribiyar2,500 karkashin jagorancin shugaban Al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden sun yi fafutukar yaki da Taliban. Bayan faduwar Kabul a ranar shabiyar15 ga Agustashekara 2021, kungiyar Taliban ta sake kwace ikon Afghanistan .

Kalmar Taliban itace Pashto, طالبان ( ṭālibān ), ma'ana 'ɗalibai', jam'in ṭālib . Wannan kalmar aro ce daga Larabci طالب ( ṭālib ), ta amfani da ƙaramin adadin ان . Da Larabci طالبان ( ṭālibān ) yana nufin ba 'ɗalibai' ba amma a'a 'ɗalibai biyu', kamar yadda nau'i biyu ne, jam'in Larabci shine طلاب ( ṭullāb ) - wani lokaci yana haifar da rudani ga masu magana da larabci. Tun lokacin da ya zama kalmar aro a cikin Ingilishi, Taliban, ban da sunan jam’i da ke magana kan ƙungiyar, an kuma yi amfani da ita azaman sunaye guda ɗaya da ke nufin mutum. Misali, an kira John Walker Lindh a matsayin "Taliban na Amurka", maimakon "Talib Ba'amurke" a cikin kafofin watsa labarai na cikin gida. Wannan ya sha bamban da na Afganistan, inda ake kiran memba ko mai goyon bayan ƙungiyar da Talib (طالب) ko jam'inta Talib-ha (طالبها).

  1. 1.0 1.1 Rashid 2000
  2. Matinuddin 1999.
  3. Gerstenzan, James; Getter, Lisa (18 November 2001). "Laura Bush Addresses State of Afghan Women". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 14 September 2012."Laura Bush Addresses State of Afghan Women". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 14 September 2012. * Empty citation (help)A Woman Among Warlords. PBS. 11 September 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  4. ISAF has participating forces from 39 countries, including all 26 NATO members.
  5. US attack on Taliban kills 23 in Pakistan, The New York Times, 9 September 2008