Raye-Raye a Kasar Sin

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Wikidata.svgRaye-Raye a Kasar Sin
type of dance (en) Fassara da dance by country (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Asian dance (en) Fassara
Facet of (en) Fassara history of Chinese dance (en) Fassara
Rawar China.

Raye -raye a ƙasar Sin wani nau'in fasaha ne mai banbanci sosai, wanda ya ƙunshi nau'o'in rawa da yawa na zamani da na gargajiya. Rawa ta ƙunshi fa'idodi da yawa, daga raye -raye na jama'a zuwa wasan kwaikwayo a wasan opera da rawa, kuma ana iya amfani da su a cikin bukukuwan jama'a, al'adu da bukukuwa. Haka kuma akwai kabilu 56 da aka amince da su a ƙasar Sin, kuma kowace ƙaramar ƙabila a ƙasar Sin ma tana da raye -rayen al'adun gargajiya. A wajen ƙasar Sin, shahararrun raye -raye na kasar Sin a yau sune raye -raye na Dragon da na zaki .

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani dan rawa na Daular Tang daga kan bangon da aka gano a cikin Xi'an yana rawa tare da shawl.

Akwai dogon tarihi da aka rubuta na nau'ikan rawa daban -daban a kasar Sin. Halin farko na Sinawa don "rawa",舞-oracle.svg, wanda aka rubuta a kasusuwan oracle, ita kanta wakilcin dan rawa ne da ke riƙe da bijimai a kowane hannu. Wasu raye -raye na ƙasar Sin a yau kamar rawa tare da dogayen hannayen riga an yi rikodin su tun farkon lokacin, tun daga farkon daular Zhou . Muhimman raye -raye na farkon lokacin su ne raye -raye da raye -raye da raye -raye da ake kira yayue, kuma ana yin waɗannan raye -raye a kotun daular har zuwa daular Qing, amma kawai suna tsira a yau kamar wasan kwaikwayo a bukukuwan Confucian.

Kotun masarautar tun daga daular Qin ta kafa sassa daban daban da ke da alhakin tattara kiɗa da raye -raye, horar da masu yin wasan kwaikwayo da kuma wasannin da suke yi a kotun, kamar Ofishin Kiɗa da Royal Academy . A zamanin dauloli shida (220 - 589 AZ), akwai tasiri mai ƙarfi daga Asiya ta Tsakiya a cikin kiɗa da rawa. Sana'ar rawa ta kai kololuwa a daular Tang, kuma raye -raye na lokacin sun bambanta sosai kuma na duniya, raye -raye daga tsakiyar Asiya musamman sun shahara. An rubuta adadi mai yawa na raye -raye a daular Tang, misali akwai sama da manyan kade -kade 60 kadai wadanda manyan wasannin kwaikwayo ne daga kotun Tang, kuma akwai dubunnan mawaka da masu rawa a manyan daulolin daular.

Rawa a matsayin salon fasaha mai zaman kanta duk da haka ta ƙi bayan daular Tang. Rawa ta fara shiga cikin wasan opera na ƙasar Sin wanda ya fara yin tasiri a daular Song da Yuan, inda ya maye gurbin wakar da raye -raye na Sui da Tang. Bugu da ƙari, tun daga daular Song, al'adar ƙafar ƙafafun da wataƙila ta fara fitowa daga masu rawa da kansu ta zama sanannu, wanda ya iyakance motsin mata lokacin da ɗaurin ya ƙara tsananta, kuma shahararrun 'yan rawa mata sun zama da yawa bayan daular Song. Babbar ƙuntatawar zamantakewa da aka sanya wa mata na iya haifar da kawar da masu rawa ta daular Qing . Rawa a matsayin fasahar wasan kwaikwayo daban ta tsira cikin al'adun gargajiya. A cikin 'yan kwanakin nan, fasahar rawa a kasar Sin ta sake farfadowa, kuma ci gaban zamani a cikin raye -raye na ƙasar Sin na ci gaba da gudana.

Rawar gargajiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin raye -rayen gargajiya na da daɗaɗɗen tarihi. Waɗannan na iya zama raye -raye na jama'a, ko raye -rayen da aka taɓa yin su azaman al'ada ko wasan nishaɗi, kuma wataƙila an yi su a kotun masarautar. Daga cikin sanannun raye-raye na gargajiya na ƙasar Sin akwai raye-raye na Dragon da na zaki, kuma an san duka raye-rayen a daulolin da suka gabata ta hanyoyi daban-daban. An bayyana wani irin rawar rawa irin na rawanin zaki na yau tun farkon daular Tang, salon zamani na rawanin dragon duk da haka yana iya zama sabon ci gaba.

Rawar Jegare

A cikin wasu raye -raye na farko da aka yi rikodin su a China, masu rawa na iya yin ado kamar na dabbobi da dabbobin almara, kuma a lokacin daular Han, an ambaci wasu nau'ikan rawar dodon. Rawar da ake yi na Daular Han, duk da haka, ba ta yi kama da salon rawa na zamani ba. Wasannin dragon da aka ambata sun haɗa da raye -raye da ake yi yayin wata al'ada don neman roƙon ruwan sama a lokacin fari yayin da ake danganta dragon na China da ruwan sama, ayyuka a cikin nau'ikan baixi suna nuna inda masu yin wasan suka yi ado kamar koren dodon da ke busa sarewa, kuma yana aiki inda kifin ya zama dragon. Rawa na Zamani na zamani yana amfani da tsarin nauyi mai nauyi wanda dozin ko makamancin haka maza ke amfani da sanduna a lokaci-lokaci tare da tsawon dodon, kuma wasu nau'ikan dodon na iya yin tsayi sosai kuma sun haɗa da ɗaruruwan masu yin wasan. Akwai raye -raye fiye da 700 daban -daban a China.

Rawar Zaki

An ba da shawarar cewa an gabatar da rawar zaki daga wajen China saboda zaki ba ɗan asalin China bane. Shawarwarin raye -raye sun haɗa da Indiya da Farisa, kodayake wasu sun ba da shawarar asalin Sinawa na asali. Cikakken bayanin rawar zaki ya bayyana a lokacin daular Tang sannan an gane shi a matsayin shigo da kaya daga waje, amma wataƙila rawa ta wanzu a China tun farkon ƙarni na uku AD. A lokacin Daular Arewa da Kudanci tana da alaƙa da addinin Buddha. Mawaƙin Tang Bai Juyi ya baiyana sigar rawa ta zaki mai kama da rawar zaki na zamani a cikin waƙarsa "Western Liang Arts" (西凉 伎), inda masu rawa ke sanya kayan zaki da aka yi da kan katako, wutsiyar siliki da jikin furry, da idanu masu ƙyalli da zinariya da hakora da aka liƙa da azurfa, da kunnuwa masu motsi. Akwai manyan sifofi guda biyu na Rawar Zaki na Sin: Zakin Arewacin da Zakin Kudancin. Hakanan ana samun wani nau'i na Rawar zaki a cikin Tibet inda ake kiranshi da Rawar zaki.

Rawar gargajiya ta Han Chinese[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rawar gargajiya tana da muhimmanci a tarihi wajen raye -raye a China, wasu daga cikin raye -raye na farko a al'adun kotu da bukukuwa na iya samo asali daga raye -raye na jama'a. Sarakuna daga dauloli daban -daban sun tattara raye -rayen al'adu, da yawa daga cikinsu sun zama raye -rayen kotu. Koyaya, a lokuta daban -daban kuma an sami rashin jin daɗi ga wasu raye -raye na jama'a kuma wasu sarakuna sun yi ƙoƙarin hana su.

Yawancin raye -rayen al'adu suna da alaƙa da girbi da farauta da tsoffin alloli da ke da alaƙa da su. Misali, an yi Rawar Constellation don siyan hatsi iri iri kamar yadda ake samun taurari a sararin sama, yayin da Rawar Harpoon ke da alaƙa da Fuxi wanda bisa ga tatsuniya ya ba mutanen Han hancin kifi, kuma an haɗa Dance Plow da Shennong., allahn noma.

Wasu misalan raye -rayen al'adun Sinawa:

  • Yangge - rawa ce da ta zama ruwan dare a Arewacin China.
  • Lantern Dance - rawa da aka samu a Kudancin China.
  • Errenzhuan
Rawar gargajiya daga wata ƙungiya marasa rinjaye a China.

Raye -rayen ƙabilu marasa rinjaye a China[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai ƙabilu 56 a ƙasar Sin, kuma kowace ƙabila tana da rawar da take da halaye na ƙabilanci, don haka tana fassara al'adunsu na gida, salon rayuwarsu, da al'adun kabila a cikin rawa. Baya ga rayuwar yau da kullun, kowace ƙabila ta fi son bayyana abin da ke cikin ta ta rawa. Kowane biki ya zo, mutane za su taru don cire farin cikin da ke cikin zuciyar kowa ta hanyar rawa. Don haka rawa na iya isar da cikakkiyar motsin zuciyar kowane al'umma da mutane.

Wasu misalai na raye -rayen su:

  • Baishou Dance - rawa ce ta mutanen Tujia
  • Rawar kwano ta Mongoliya (頂 碗 舞) - rawa inda mata masu rawa ke daidaita kwano da yawa a kawunansu yayin rawa.
  • Long Drum Dance (長 鼓舞) - raye -rayen mutanen Yao wanda ya yi wahayi ga ƙungiyar makaɗa ta Dance na Yao People .
  • Sanam - rawa Uyghur.
  • Lhamo - wasan opera na Tibet tare da rawa da waka

Rawa a gidan wasan kwaikwayo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yi rawa a matsayin wani ɓangare na Opera na Peking a cikin wasan kwaikwayon "Furen Sarauniya ta Sama" (天女散花).

A cibiyoyin nishaɗi da ake kira wazi a lokacin daular Song, nau'o'in wasan kwaikwayo daban -daban sun bunƙasa kuma wasan opera na Sin ya fara yin kyau, rawa ta fara haɗewa zuwa wasan opera. Rawa kamar "Hukuncin Rawa" (舞 判, wanda kuma ake kira Rawar Zhong Kui, 跳 鐘 馗) ya zama wasan opera a daular Ming, da raye -raye na Daular Song kamar Fashe Tutar (撲 旗子). Sauran raye -raye da aka samu a wasan opera sun haɗa da Rawar Sword . Wasan opera na ƙasar Sin ya shahara sosai a daular Yuan, kuma raye -raye sun shiga cikin opera a cikin ƙarnoni masu zuwa.

Rawar al'ada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin rikodin farko na raye -raye a China sun kasance raye -raye ko raye -raye na gargajiya, kuma waɗannan raye -raye sun kafa yayue wanda ake ganin yana da mahimmanci a cikin kotun. Waɗannan raye -raye sun ɓace daga al'adun gargajiyar Han na zamani, duk da cewa ana samun raye -raye na al'ada a cikin wasu al'adun gargajiya da al'adun ƙananan ƙabilu a China.

  • (佾舞, a zahiri "rawa rawa") asalin rawa ce ta kotu, amma an karbe ta don zama wani ɓangare na bikin Confucian. Ana iya yin wannan tsohuwar rawar tare da layuka na masu rawa waɗanda ke riƙe da gashin fuka -fukai da jan sarewa a cikin tsarin murabba'i (Rawar jama'a) ko kuma suna iya riƙe garkuwa da mayaƙan yaƙi (Rawar Soja). Al'adar raye -raye na riƙe da abubuwa kamar fuka -fukan fuka -fukan tun zamanin daular Shang. Ana yin bikin mafi mahimmanci tare da layuka 8 na masu rawa 8 (Rawar Takwas Yi, masu rawa 64 gaba ɗaya). Da farko an yi raye-raye a cikin layuka 6 na masu rawa (masu rawa 36 gaba ɗaya) a cikin haikalin Confucian yayin da aka ƙuntata layuka 8 ga kotun Masarautar, [1] amma daga baya an ba da izinin yin rawa 8-jere haka ma tushen cewa sarki ya ba shi mukamin sarki. Ana gabatar da sigar zamani na irin waɗannan wasannin don masu yawon buɗe ido a haikalin confucian a Qufu . Ana kuma yin wannan rawa ta Confucius a Taiwan da Koriya.
  • Dano Nuo (儺 舞) - rawa tare da abin rufe fuska wanda za a iya yin shi a cikin wasan opera na Nuo ko azaman bukukuwa don fitar da mugayen ruhohi.
  • Rawar Cham - rawar Buddha ta Tibet
Rawa a wurin shaƙatawa a matsayin motsa jiki

Motsa jiki rawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cewar Lüshi Chunqiu, a lokacin Sarki Yao, an ƙirƙiri rawa a matsayin motsa jiki don mutane su kasance cikin koshin lafiya bayan tsawan yanayi na damina. A al'adance wasu raye -raye na ƙasar Sin na iya kasancewa suna da alaƙa da dabarun yaƙi da aka yi amfani da su don horar da dabarun yaƙi har ma da motsa jiki, kuma wasu wasannin motsa jiki irin na Tai chi ko Qigong suna kama da rawa mai rawa. A ƙasar Sin ta zamani, ana yawan samun mutane suna amfani da rawa a matsayin wani salon motsa jiki a wuraren shakatawa.

Ƙungiyar rawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Waƙar Waƙa da Rawar Ƙabilan Ƙasar Sin

Rawa ta zamani da ta Yamma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

1972

Ballet[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An kafa makarantar rawa ta farko a China, makarantar rawa ta Beijing, a 1954 tare da Dai Ailian a matsayin shugabar kuma wasu fitattun malaman Rasha, ciki har da Pyotr Gusev wanda ya kafa tsarin horon Rasha. [2] A cikin shekaru masu zuwa an yi rawa kamar Swan Lake da Romeo da Juliet. An kafa National Ballet of China a rana ta ƙarshe ta 1959 a matsayin Kamfanin Ƙwararren Waƙa na Makarantar Rawar Beijing. A lokacin Juyin Juya Halin Al'adu a ƙarƙashin ikon Madame Mao, wasan kwaikwayo na Juyin Juya Halin ya zo kan gaba, kuma a ƙarshe an rage repertory zuwa ballet aƙida guda biyu - The Red Detachment of Women and The White Haired Girl . Bayan faɗuwar ƙungiya ta huɗu, kamfanin rawa ya fara yin garambawul da canza alƙibla tare da tsoffin ballets na Yammacin da aka tashe su, sannan kuma ya faɗaɗa kewayonsa don haɗawa da ƙarin ballet na zamani daga ko'ina cikin duniya. [2]

Sauran kamfanonin rawa a China:

  • Kamfanin Ballet na Shanghai
  • Guangzhou Ballet
  • Ballet na Hong Kong
  • Liaoning Ballet
  • Suzhou Ballet
  • Tianjin Ballet
Ayyukan kiɗa na zamani akan jigogi na gargajiya - wannan ya dogara ne akan zane -zane da sassaƙa na Guanyin Hannu Dubu.

Rawar zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • BeijingDance / LDTX
  • Kamfanin rawa na zamani na Beijing
  • Kamfanin rawa na zamani na City a Hong Kong
  • Kamfanin rawa na zamani na Guangdong
  • Gidan rawa mai rawa a Beijing

Yawancin ƙwararrun mutane da nau'ikan rawa na gargajiya a China hurarrun al'adu ne, amma a zahiri fassarar zamani ce. Yawancin raye-rayen da aka gabatar a matsayin na gargajiya a gidajen wasan kwaikwayo da talabijin su ne tunanin zamani na tsoffin raye-rayen ta amfani da kide kide na zamani, misali shahararriyar rawar shigar fata mai kalar bakan gizo na Daular Tang.

  • Rawar Dunhuang - abun da ke ciki na zamani wanda aka yi wahayi daga frescos daga kogon Dunhuang .

Rawan Zamantakewa

Rawar gidan rawa na yamma ( Chinese ) ya shahara a karni na 20, a baya ba zai halatta maza da mata daga dangi masu mutunci su yi rawa tare ba. Ya shahara a cikin gidajen shaƙatawa na Shanghai na 1940, kuma shugabannin Kwaminisanci na farko kamar Mao Zedong da Zhou Enlai suma sun kasance masu rawar rawa irin ta Soviet. Wasan rawa amma duk da haka daga baya ya ɓace bayan Juyin Juya Halin Al'adu don maye gurbinsa da manyan raye -raye na ƙungiya kamar rawa yangge. Wasan raye -raye duk da haka ya sake bayyana bayan samun 'yancin China daga baya a cikin ƙarni, kuma yanzu yawancin mutane ana samun su a wuraren shakatawa na jama'a da safe a matsayin motsa jiki.

Makarantar rawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Kwalejin Rawa ta Beijing

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Ba Yi (八佾) According to ancient texts, this dance should only be offered in court. Confucius once complained of one such performance in the house of a noble: "The 8 yi dance is supposed to be performed in court, if he can bear to do this, what else can he bear to do?"
  2. 2.0 2.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named guardian

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Wasan yangge daga Shanbei a Shaanxi wanda ya kasance tsawon yini.
  • Gabatar da raye -rayen raye -rayen al'adun kananan kabilu na kasar Sin.