Ruwan gurabatattun Robobi

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Wikidata.svgRuwan gurabatattun Robobi
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na environmental pollution (en) Fassara, marine debris (en) Fassara da human-made landform (en) Fassara
Hanyar da robobi ke shiga cikin tekunan duniya
Tyr

Ruwan gurbatattun robobi wani nau'i ne na gurɓataccen ruwa ta hanyar robobi, wanda ya bambanta da girman girman daga manyan kayan asali kamar kwalabe da jaka, har zuwa microplastics da aka samo daga rarrabuwar kayan filastik. tarkacen ruwa an fi zubar da dattin ɗan adam wanda ke yawo a kai, ko kuma aka dakatar da shi a cikin teku. Kashi tamanin na tarkacen ruwa robobi ne.[1][2] Matsalolin Microplastics da nanoplastics suna haifar da lalacewa ko lalatawar sharar filastik a cikin ruwan saman, koguna ko tekuna. Kwanan nan, masana kimiyya sun gano nanoplastics a cikin dusar ƙanƙara mai yawa, musamman game da tan 3000 da ke rufe Switzerland kowace shekara.[3] An yi kiyasin cewa akwai tarin tarkacen ruwan robobi na tan miliyan 86 a cikin tekun duniya ya zuwa karshen shekarar 2013, inda aka yi zaton kashi 1.4% na robobin da ake samarwa a duniya daga 1950 zuwa 2013 sun shiga cikin tekun kuma sun taru a can. [4] An ƙiyasta cewa tan miliyan 19-23 na robobi na zubewa cikin halittun ruwa a cikin shekara.[5] Taron Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya na Tekun 2017 ya kiyasta cewa tekuna na iya ƙunsar nauyi a cikin robobi fiye da kifi nan da shekara ta 2050.[6]

Tekuna suna gurɓatar da ɓarbashi na robobi masu girma daga manyan kayan asali kamar kwalabe da jakunkuna, har zuwa microplastics da aka samu daga rarrabuwar kayan filastik. Wannan abu yana raguwa a hankali ko kuma an cire shi daga cikin teku don haka barbashi na robobi a yanzu sun yaɗu a ko'ina cikin tekun kuma an san suna da illa ga rayuwar halittun ruwa.[7] Jakunkuna na robobi da aka jefar, zoben fakiti guda shida, buhunan sigari da sauran nau'ikan sharar robobi da suka ƙare a cikin teku suna ba da haɗari ga namun daji da kamun kifi.[8] Ana iya yin barazana ga rayuwar ruwa ta hanyar ruɗewa, shaƙewa, da sha.[9]ref>Six pack rings hazard to wildlife Archived 13 Oktoba 2016 at the Wayback Machine. helpwildlife.com</ref>[10] Tarun kamun kifi, wanda yawanci aka yi da filastik, masunta za su iya barin ko ɓace a cikin teku. An san shi da ragamar fatalwa, waɗannan kifaye masu haɗaka, dolphins, kunkuru na teku,[11] sharks, dugongs, crocodiles, tsuntsayen teku, kaguwa, da sauran halittu, suna hana motsi, haifar da yunwa, laceration, kamuwa da cuta, kuma, a cikin waɗanda suke buƙatar komawa saman zuwa ga numfashi, shaƙewa.[12] Akwai nau'ikan robobin teku daban-daban da ke haifar da matsala ga ruwa. An gano kwalabe a cikin kunkuru da tsuntsayen teku, waɗanda suka mutu saboda toshewar hanyoyin numfashi da na narkewar abinci. Rukunin fatalwa kuma nau'in robobin teku ne mai matsala saboda suna iya ci gaba da kama rayuwar ruwa a cikin tsarin da aka sani da "fatalwa kifi".[13]

Mafi girma 10 da ke fitar da gurɓacewar filastik teku a duniya, daga mafi ƙanƙanta, China, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Masar, Malaysia, Nigeria, da Bangladesh,[14] sun fi girma ta cikin kogin Yangtze, Indus., Yellow, Hai, Nile, Ganges, Pearl, Amur, Niger, and the Mekong, da kuma lissafin kashi 90 cikin 100 na dukkan robobin da ke isa tekunan duniya. Asiya ita ce kan gaba wajen samar da sharar robobi da ba a sarrafa ba, inda China kaɗai ke da nauyin metric ton miliyan 2.4.[15][16]

Filastik suna taruwa ne saboda ba sa lalacewa kamar yadda sauran abubuwa ke yi. Za su yi photodegrade a kan fallasa rana, amma suna yin haka da kyau kawai a ƙarƙashin yanayin bushe, kuma ruwa yana hana wannan tsari.[17] A cikin mahalli na ruwa, robobin da aka lalatar da su yana tarwatsewa zuwa ƙananan ƙananan guda yayin da sauran polymers, har zuwa matakin ƙwayoyin cuta.[18] Lokacin da ɓarbashi na filastik masu iyo suna yin hoto zuwa girman zooplankton, jellyfish yayi ƙoƙarin cinye su, kuma ta wannan hanyar filastik ta shiga cikin sarkar abinci na teku.[19][20]

Magani ga gurɓataccen filastik na ruwa, tare da gurɓataccen filastik a cikin yanayin gaba ɗaya za a haɗa su tare da canje-canje a cikin masana'antu da ayyukan marufi, da raguwar amfani, musamman, samfuran filastik guda ɗaya ko gajere. Akwai ra'ayoyi da yawa don tsaftace robobi a cikin tekuna ciki har da tarko ɓarɓashi na robobi a bakin kogi kafin shiga cikin teku, da kuma tsaftace magudanar ruwa.[21]

Iyakar matsalar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani nuni a dakin gwaje- gwaje na Mote Marine wanda ke nuna jakunkuna na filastik a cikin teku masu kama da jellyfish.

Ana gane gurɓacewar ruwa da abubuwan filastik ke haifarwa a matsayin batu mafi girman girma, daga yanayin ƙazanta.[22] Yawancin robobin da ake amfani da su a rayuwar yau da kullun na mutane ba a sake yin amfani da su, har zuwa kashi 90% kuma sama da tan miliyan 8 na sharar filastik ana jefa su cikin teku duk shekara. Idan aka ci gaba da haka, to nan da shekara ta 2050 za a samu robobi fiye da kifaye a duniya da nauyi. A cikin shekaru goma na farko na ƙarni, an ƙirƙiri ƙarin robobi fiye da duk filastik a tarihi har zuwa shekara ta 2000 kuma yawancin robobin ba a sake sarrafa su ba. Akwai kimanin nau'in filastik tiriliyan 15 zuwa 51 a cikin dukkan tekunan duniya da suka tashi daga saman teku zuwa benen teku. Tekuna su ne mafi zurfi a duniya kuma mafi fa'ida ta ruwa tare da matsakaicin zurfin filayen abyssal yana da kusan kilomita 4 ƙarƙashin matakin teku. Ƙarƙashin nauyi zai motsa a dabi'a da canja wurin kayan daga ƙasa zuwa teku, tare da tekun ya zama wurin ajiyar ƙarshe. :362Ɗaya daga cikin kiyasin samar da filastik na tarihi ya ba da adadi na metric tonnes (Mt) miliyan 8300 don samar da robobi na duniya har zuwa 2015, wanda kashi 79 cikin 100 an tara a cikin wuraren zubar da ruwa ko kuma yanayin yanayi. Kimanin tan miliyan 8 na sharar filastik na shiga cikin tekunan kowace shekara. A cewar ICUN, wannan adadin ya ƙaru zuwa tan miliyan 14 na filastik. [21] Rashin gurɓataccen filastik na teku yana da ban mamaki don girman kasancewarsa, daga ramukan teku, a cikin zurfin ruwa mai zurfi, a kan tekun teku da ƙwanƙolin teku zuwa saman teku da gaɓar teku. Ko da tsibirin atolls masu nisa na iya samun rairayin bakin teku masu cike da robobi daga tushe mai nisa. A saman teku, tarkacen filastik yana mai da hankali a cikin sifofin madauwari na babban yanki, wanda ake kira da gyres ocean.[23] Gine-ginen teku suna samuwa a cikin dukkan tekuna, saboda mu'amalar igiyoyin tekun na duniya. Magudanar ruwa na teku suna tattara sharar filastik a cikin gyres.[24]


Ana ƙara ƙera robobi saboda sassauƙansu, gyare-gyare da halaye masu ɗorewa, wanda ke ba da filastik tare da ɗimbin aikace-aikace masu amfani. Filastik suna da matuƙar juriya ga tsarin yanayin yanayi wanda ke rushe wasu abubuwa da yawa a saman duniya. Tsarin teku, gami da guguwa, aikin igiyar ruwa, magudanar ruwa, hydration, da fallasa saman ga tsarin yanayin yanayi (misali iskar shaka) da hasken ultraviolet, ayan karya ɓarɓashi filastik cikin girma masu raguwa (sakamakon microplastics), maimakon organically narkewa. ko sinadarai canza kayan filastik. Ƙididdiga na jimlar adadin da nauyin robobi a cikin yankuna biyar na tekun gyre filastik sun kasance na tsari na ɓarɓashi tiriliyan 5.25 masu nauyin kusan tan 300,000. Rage girman ƙwayoyin filastik zuwa millimita da ƙananan ma'auni suna ba da damar filastik don daidaitawa a cikin ruwan teku mai zurfi, tare da watakila sau hudu fiye da filastik da ke ƙarewa a cikin sediments idan aka kwatanta da ruwan teku.[25] Filastik yanzu wani bangare ne na hadaddun kemikal na kwayoyin halitta tare da rayayyun halittu, irin su cetaceans, tsuntsun teku, dabbobi masu shayarwa, da ƙwayoyin cuta, masu shigar da robobi.[26][27]

Fiye da tan miliyan 300 na robobi ake samar da su kowace shekara, rabinsu ana amfani da su a cikin samfuran amfani guda ɗaya kamar kofuna, jakunkuna, da marufi. An kiyasta cewa tan miliyan 19-23 na robobi na zubewa cikin halittun ruwa a shekara.[28] Ba shi yiwuwa a san tabbas, amma an kiyasta cewa akwai kimanin tan miliyan 150 na robobi a cikin tekunan mu. Gurbacewar robobi na samar da kashi 80% na duk tarkacen ruwa daga saman ruwa zuwa magudanan ruwa mai zurfi. Saboda robobi suna da haske, yawancin wannan gurɓacewar ana ganin su a ciki da wajen tekun, amma a halin yanzu ana samun sharar filastik da barbashi a mafi yawan wuraren zama na ruwa da na ƙasa, gami da teku mai zurfi, Manyan Tafkuna, murjani reefs, rairayin bakin teku, koguna, da rairayin bakin teku.[29] Shaidar da ta fi daukar hankulan jama’a kan matsalar robobin teku ita ce tarkacen datti da ke taruwa a yankunan gyale. Gire shine madauwari mai da'ira ta hanyar iskar duniya da kuma ƙarfin jujjuyawar duniya.[30] Akwai manyan ginshiƙan teku guda biyar: Arewa da Kudancin Pacific Subtropical Gyres, Arewa da Kudancin Tekun Atlantika Gyre, da Gyre Subtropical Tekun Indiya. Akwai mahimman facin datti a kowanne ɗayan waɗannan.[31]

Manyan sharar robobi za a iya cinye su ta hanyar nau'in ruwa, suna cika cikinsu kuma ya kai su ga yarda cewa sun cika yayin da a zahiri ba su da wani abu na abinci mai gina jiki. Wannan na iya kawo tsuntsayen teku, Whales, kifi, da kunkuru su mutu saboda yunwa tare da cike da robobi. Hakanan ana iya shaƙa nau'in magudanar ruwa ko kuma a haɗa su cikin dattin filastik.[32]


Babbar barazanar gurɓacewar filastik teku ta fito ne daga microplastics. Waɗannan ƙananan tarkace ne na tarkacen filastik, wasu daga cikinsu an samar da su don zama wannan ƙananan kamar microbeads. Sauran microplastics sun fito ne daga yanayin babban sharar filastik. Da zarar manyan sharar filastik sun shiga cikin teku, ko kowace hanyar ruwa, hasken rana, yanayin zafi, zafi, raƙuman ruwa, da iska suna fara karya robobin zuwa guntu mai tsayi fiye da millimita biyar. Hakanan za'a iya rushe robobi ta hanyar ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta waɗanda za su ci tarkacen robobi, su wargaje su ƙanƙanta, ko dai su fitar da waɗannan microplastics ko kuma su tofa su. A cikin gwaje-gwajen gwaje-gwaje, an gano cewa amphipods na nau'in Orchestia gammarellus na iya cinye guntuwar buhunan robobi cikin sauri, tare da tarwatsa buhu ɗaya zuwa gaɓoɓin ɓangarorin microscopic miliyan 1.75.[33][34] Duk da cewa robobin ya karye, amma har yanzu wani abu ne da mutum ya yi wanda ba ya lalacewa. An ƙiyasta cewa kusan kashi 90% na robobi a cikin mahallin marine pelagic sune microplastics.[35] Wadannan microplastics ana yawan cinye su ta hanyar ƙwayoyin ruwa a gindin sarkar abinci, kamar plankton da tsutsa na kifi, wanda ke haifar da tarin filastik da aka ci sama da sarkar abinci. Ana samar da robobi ne da sinadarai masu guba, don haka wadannan abubuwa masu guba suna shiga cikin sarkar abinci na ruwa, ciki har da kifin da wasu mutane ke ci.[36]

Nau'in tushe da adadin kuɗi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Matsakaicin ƙiyasin lokutan rushewar abubuwan tarkacen ruwa na yau da kullun. Ana nuna abubuwan filastik da shuɗi.

Sharar da robobin da ke shiga cikin teku yana karuwa kowace shekara tare da yawancin robobin da ke shiga cikin tekun suna cikin barbashi kasa da milimita 5.[37] As of 2016 an kiyasta cewa akwai kusan tan miliyan 150 na gurbacewar filastik a cikin tekunan duniya, wanda aka ƙiyasta ya kai tan miliyan 250 a shekarar 2025.[38] Wani bincike ya kiyasta cewa a cikin 2012, ya kai kusan tan miliyan 165. [39] A shekara ta 2020 wani bincike ya gano cewa Tekun Atlantika ya ƙunshi robobi kusan sau goma fiye da yadda ake zato.[40] Mafi girman nau'in gurɓataccen filastik guda ɗaya (~10 %) kuma yawancin manyan robobi a cikin teku ana watsar da su kuma ana asarar gidajensu daga masana'antar kamun kifi.[41]

Hukumar Conservancy ta Ocean Conservancy ta bayar da rahoton cewa, Sin, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, da Vietnam suna zubar da robobi a cikin teku fiye da sauran ƙasashen duniya.[42] Wani bincike da aka yi kiyasin cewa akwai fiye da tiriliyan 5 na robobi (wanda aka siffanta su zuwa nau'o'i huɗu na ƙananan ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta, manyan microplastics, meso- da macroplastics) suna shawagi a teku. A cikin 2020, sabbin ma'auni sun sami fiye da ninki 10 na filastik a cikin Tekun Atlantika fiye da yadda aka yi ƙiyasin a can.[43][44]

A watan Oktoba na shekarar 2019, lokacin da bincike ya nuna yawancin gurbatar robobin teku suna fitowa ne daga jiragen dakon kaya na kasar Sin, mai magana da yawun tsaftar teku ya ce: “Kowa yana magana ne game da ceton tekunan ta hanyar dakatar da amfani da jakunkuna, bambaro da marufi guda daya. Wannan yana da mahimmanci, amma idan muka tashi a kan teku, ba lallai ba ne abin da muke samu ba."[45]

Kusan kashi 20% na tarkacen filastik da ke gurbata ruwan teku, wanda ke fassara zuwa tan miliyan 5.6, ya fito ne daga tushen teku. MARPOL, yarjejeniyar ƙasa da ƙasa, "ta sanya cikakken hana zubar da robobi a teku".[46] [47][48] Jiragen ƴan kasuwa suna korar kaya, najasa, kayan aikin likita da aka yi amfani da su, da sauran nau'ikan sharar da ke dauke da robobi a cikin teku. A Amurka, Dokar Bincike da Kula da Gurɓatar Ruwa ta Ruwa ta 1987 ta hana fitar da robobi a cikin teku, gami da jiragen ruwa na ruwa.[49][50] Jiragen ruwa da na bincike suna fitar da sharar gida da kayan aikin soja waɗanda ake ganin ba lallai ba ne. Sana'ar jin daɗi tana sakin kayan kamun kifi da sauran nau'ikan sharar gida, ko dai da gangan ko ta hanyar sakaci. Mafi girma tushen tushen gurbataccen robobi a cikin teku ana jefar da kayan kamun kifi (ciki har da tarkuna da taruna), an ƙiyasta ya kai kashi 90% na tarkacen filastik a wasu wurare.[51]

Litattafan roba na nahiyoyi na shiga cikin tekun ta hanyar guguwar ruwa, da ke kwarara cikin magudanan ruwa ko kuma a watsar da su kai tsaye zuwa cikin ruwan bakin teku. An nuna robobi a cikin teku yana bin magudanar ruwa wanda a ƙarshe ya zama abin da ake kira Great Garbage Patches. Sanin hanyoyin da robobi ke bi a cikin magudanan ruwa na zuwa ne daga fadowar kwantena na bazata daga masu jigilar kayayyaki. Alal misali, a watan Mayun 1990 Jirgin Hansa, wanda ya tashi daga Koriya zuwa Amurka, ya rabu saboda guguwa, wanda ya haifar da dubban takalma da aka zubar; Waɗannan daga ƙarshe sun fara nunawa a gabar tekun yammacin Amurka, da Hawaii.

Ƙirƙirar sharar robobi ya zarce adadin gurɓacewar filastik da ake fitarwa daga cikin teku.

Tasirin microplastic da macroplastic a cikin teku ba a fuskantar kutse kai tsaye ta hanyar zubar da robobi a cikin halittun ruwa, amma ta gurbatattun koguna waɗanda ke kaiwa ko ƙirƙirar hanyoyin shiga tekuna a duk faɗin duniya. Koguna na iya yin aiki azaman tushen tushe ko nutsewa dangane da mahallin. Koguna suna karɓa kuma suna tattara yawancin filastik amma kuma suna iya hana kaso mai kyau shiga cikin teku. Koguna sune tushen gurɓacewar filastik a cikin yanayin ruwa suna ba da gudummawa kusan 80% a cikin binciken kwanan nan.[52]

Adadin robobin da aka rubuta yana cikin teku ya yi ƙasa da adadin robobin da ke shiga cikin teku a kowane lokaci. A cewar wani binciken da aka yi a Burtaniya, akwai manyan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan macroplastic "manyan goma" waɗanda ke da alaƙa da mabukaci kawai (wanda ke cikin teburin da ke ƙasa).[53] A cikin wannan binciken, an ƙidaya abubuwa 192,213 da aka ƙidaya tare da matsakaita na 71% kasancewa filastik kuma 59% sune abubuwan macroplastic masu alaƙa da mabukaci.[54] Ko da yake gurbatar ruwa shine babban abin da ke haifar da gurbatar ruwan robobi a cikin ruwa, babu wani bincike da aka yi da kuma tattara bayanai na yawan gurbacewar da ke fitowa daga ruwa zuwa ruwa. Yawancin takardu sun kammala cewa akwai ƙarancin tattara bayanai na tarkacen filastik a cikin ruwa mai tsabta da kuma yanayin ƙasa, kodayake waɗannan sune manyan masu ba da gudummawa. Bukatar canjin manufofi a cikin samarwa, amfani, zubarwa, da sarrafa sharar gida yana da mahimmanci don rage adadin da yuwuwar filastik don shiga wuraren ruwa mai tsabta.[54] [55]

Wani bincike da aka gudanar a shekarar 1994 a kan gadon teku ta hanyar amfani da tarunan kwalwa a arewa-maso-yammacin Bahar Rum a kusa da gaɓar tekun Spain, Faransa, da Italiya, ya ba da rahoton ma'anar tarin tarkace na abubuwa 1,935 a kowace murabba'in kilomita. tarkacen filastik ya kai kashi 77%, wanda kashi 93% na buhunan filastik ne.[56]

Tushen tushen gurɓacewar filastik teku[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Photodegraded plastic straw – a light touch breaks a straw into microplastics

Ƙididdiga don gudummawar robobi na tushen ƙasa sun bambanta sosai. Yayin da wani bincike ya yi kiyasin cewa sama da kashi 80 cikin 100 na tarkacen robobi a cikin ruwan teku sun fito ne daga tushen ƙasa, wanda ke da alhakin 800,000 tonnes (880,000 short tons) kowace shekara. A cikin 2015, an ƙididdige cewa 275 million tonnes (303×10^6 short tons) na sharar filastik an samar da shi a cikin ƙasashe 192 na bakin teku a cikin 2010, tare da 4.8 to 12.7 million tonnes (5.3×10^6 to 14.0×10^6 short tons) shiga cikin teku - kashi na kawai har zuwa 5%.

A cikin wani binciken da Kimiyya ta buga, Jambeck et al (2015) ya kiyasta cewa 10 mafi girma masu fitar da gurɓata ce filastik na teku a duniya, daga mafi girma zuwa mafi ƙanƙanta, China, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Masar, Malaysia, Najeriya, da Bangladesh.

Wata majiya da ta haifar da damuwa ita ce zubar da ƙasa . Yawancin sharar gida a cikin nau'in filastik a cikin wuraren da ake zubar da ƙasa abubuwa ne masu amfani guda ɗaya kamar marufi. Yin watsi da robobi ta wannan hanya yana haifar da tarawa. Ko da yake zubar da sharar robobi a cikin wuraren shara yana da ƙasa da haɗarin hayaƙin iskar gas fiye da zubarwa ta hanyar ƙonawa, tsohon yana da iyakokin sarari. Wani abin damuwa shi ne cewa masu layin da ke aiki a matsayin matakan kariya tsakanin wuraren da ake zubar da ƙasa da muhalli na iya karyewa, ta haka za su zubar da guba da kuma gurɓata ƙasa da ruwa da ke kusa. Wuraren da ke kusa da teku sukan ba da gudummawa ga tarkacen teku saboda abubuwan cikin sauƙi ana share su kuma ana jigilar su zuwa teku ta hanyar iska ko ƙananan magudanan ruwa kamar koguna da koguna. Har ila yau, tarkacen ruwa na iya haifar da ruwan najasa wanda ba a kula da shi yadda ya kamata ba, wanda a ƙarshe ake kai shi cikin teku ta koguna. Hakanan ana iya ɗaukar abubuwan robobin da aka jefar ba daidai ba zuwa cikin tekuna ta cikin ruwa da mai haɗari.

Nurdles[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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Ƙananan Robobis[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙananan Robobi a cikin saman teku 1950-2000 da tsinkaya bayan, a cikin miliyoyin metric tonne.
Polystyrene kumfa beads a bakin tekun Irish
Babban facin datti na Fasifik - Ruwan tekun Pacific ya haifar da "tsibirin" guda uku na tarkace.
Misalin microplastic da Jami'ar Jihar Oregon ta tattara

Babban damuwa game da gurɓataccen filastik a cikin yanayin yanayin ruwa shine amfani da microplastics. Microplastics gefe ne na filastik ƙasa da faɗin milimita 5, kuma galibi ana samun su a cikin sabulun hannu, masu wanke fuska, da sauran abubuwan cirewa. Lokacin da aka yi amfani da waɗannan samfuran, ƙwayoyin microplastics suna bi ta hanyar tsarin tace ruwa zuwa cikin teku, amma saboda ƙananan girmansu da alama za su iya tserewa kamawa ta hanyar allon jiyya na farko akan tsire-tsire na ruwa. Waɗannan gefen suna da illa ga halittun da ke cikin teku, musamman masu tace abinci, domin suna iya shiga cikin sauki cikin robobi kuma su yi rashin lafiya. Microplastics suna da matuƙar damuwa saboda yana da wuya a tsaftace su saboda girmansu, don haka mutane na iya ƙoƙarin guje wa amfani da waɗannan robobi masu cutarwa ta hanyar siyan samfuran da ke amfani da abubuwan da ba su dace da muhalli ba.

Saboda ana amfani da filastik sosai a duk faɗin duniya, microplastics sun zama tartsatsi a cikin yanayin ruwa. Misali, ana iya samun microplastics akan rairayin bakin teku masu yashi da ruwan saman da kuma a cikin ginshiƙin ruwa da zurfin ruwan teku. Ana kuma samun nau'ikan halittun ruwa kamar matattun kayan halitta (nama da harsashi) da wasu barbashi na ƙasa (waɗanda iska ke hura su kuma a kai su cikin teku ta koguna). Bayan isa ga mahalli na ruwa, makomar microplastics tana ƙarƙashin direbobin da ke faruwa a zahiri, kamar iskoki da igiyoyin ruwa na saman teku. Samfuran ƙididdiga suna iya gano ƙananan tarkacen filastik (micro- da meso-robobi) da ke yawo a cikin teku, don haka yin hasashen makomarsu.

Microplastics suna shiga hanyoyin ruwa ta hanyoyi da yawa da suka haɗa da lalacewar fenti na titi, lalacewar taya da kurar birni da ke shiga magudanan ruwa, pellet ɗin robobi da suka zubo daga kwantena na jigilar kayayyaki, tarun fatalwa da sauran yadudduka na roba da aka zubar a cikin teku, kayan kwalliya da kayan wanki da ke shiga cikin ruwan najasa da kayan rigunan ruwa. a kan jirãge wulãkanci.

Wasu microplastics suna barin teku suna shiga iska, kamar yadda masu bincike daga Jami'ar Strathclyde suka gano a cikin 2020. Wasu sun kasance a saman teku; Microplastics suna da kashi 92% na tarkacen filastik a saman teku, a cewar wani bincike na 2018. Wasu kuma suna nutsewa zuwa saman teku. Hukumar kimiya ta kasa ta Ostiraliya CSIRO ta kiyasta cewa tan miliyan 14 na microplastics sun riga sun kasance a saman teku a cikin 2020. Wannan yana wakiltar ƙaruwa daga ƙiyasin 2015 cewa tekunan duniya sun ƙunshi metric ton dubu 93-236 na microplastics da kuma kiyasin 2018 na tan dubu 270.

Hukumar Conservancy ta Ocean Conservancy ta bayar da rahoton cewa, Sin, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, da Vietnam suna zubar da robobi a cikin teku fiye da sauran ƙasashen duniya.

Nazarin rarraba tarkacen filastik saman gabashin tekun Pacific (ba musamman microplastic ba, ko da yake, kamar yadda aka ambata a baya, yawancin yuwuwar microplastic) yana taimakawa wajen kwatanta karuwar yawan robobi a cikin teku. Ta hanyar yin amfani da bayanai akan ƙwayar filastik ta saman (yankuna na filastik a kowace km 2 ) daga 1972 zuwa 1985 (n=60) da 2002-2012 (n = 457) a cikin yanki ɗaya na tara filastik, binciken ya gano ma'anar ƙimar ƙwayar filastik tsakanin saitin bayanai guda biyu, gami da haɓakar ninki 10 na 18,160 zuwa 189,800 na filastik a kowace kilomita 2 .

Microplastics na Arctic Ocean sun fito ne daga tushen Atlantic, musamman Turai da Arewacin Amurka.

Wani bincike ya gano cewa, an gano wasu na'urorin da ake kira da microplastics daga tekuna a cikin iskar teku.

An tabbatar da shigar da robobi ta halittun ruwa a cikin zurfin teku. An samo microplastic a cikin ciki na amphipods na magana da aka samo daga Japan, Izu-Bonin, Mariana, Kermadec, New Hebrides da kuma ramukan Peru-Chile. Amphipods na Mariana Trench an gwada su a 10,890 m kuma duk sun ƙunshi microfibres.

Microplastics na iya maida hankali a cikin gills da hanji na rayuwar ruwa kuma suna iya tsoma baki tare da halayen ciyar da su, yawanci yana haifar da mutuwa.

Ƙirƙirar ƙwayoyin microplastics na iya yin babban tasiri akan hanyar samun abinci, don haka canza yanayin muhalli da ba da gudummawa ga asarar bambancin halittu .

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