Shaddar gargajiya

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Zane na shaddar gargajiya tare da wajen tsuguno da kuma inuwa.[1]

A Shaddar gargajiya ko masai wani irin masai ne da ya ke tara bahaya ta ɗan adam a wani rami da ke cikin ƙasa. Ba sa amfani da ruwa ko lita ɗaya zuwa lita uku na ruwa domin kora bayan-garin da aka yi ta amfani da abin kora ruwa zuwa masai.[2] Idan aka gina su sosai kuma aka lura da su za su iya rage yaɗuwar cutuka ta rage yawan bahaya a wurin zaman jama'a wanda akan yi tsuguno a fili.[3][4] Wannan ya na rage musayar abubuwan da ke kawo cuta tsakanin bayan-gari da abinci wanda ƙuda ke yaɗawa.[3] Waɗan nan abubuwa da ke kawo cuta su ne manyan abubuwa da ke haifar da gudawa da ake kamuwa da ita da kamuwa da cutar tsutsotsin hanji.[4] Gudawa da za'a iya kamuwa da ita ta yi sanadiyyar mutuwar ƙananan yara 'yan ƙasa da shekaru biyar kimanin miliyan 0.7 a shekara ta 2011 da kuma kwanakin makaranta miliyan 250.[4][5] Shaddar gargajiya ita ce hanya mafi rangwame ta raba bahaya da mutane.[3]

Yawaici shadda ta ƙunshi manyan ɓangarori guda uku: rami a ƙasa, murfi ko daɓe wanda aka yiwa ƙaramar kafa, da kuma inuwa.[2] Ramin a ƙalla an fi haƙashi har zurfin mita 3 zurfin (ƙafa 10 ) da mita 1 (ƙafa 3.2) a kwance.[2]Ƙungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya na bayar da shawara cewa a ginasu a nisa wanda ke gwargwado da gidaje domin daidaitawa tsakanin yadda za'a biya bukata da kuma na wari.[3] Zurfinsa daga ruwan da ke ƙasa da ruwan da ke sama ya zamanto akwai tazara sosai domin kaucewa matsalar gurɓata. Ramin daɓen ka da ya fi faɗin santimita 25 (inci 9.8) domin kare yara daga faɗawa ciki. A hana haske daga shiga ramin domin rage yawan ƙudaje samun damar shiga. Domin yin haka za'a bukaci amfani da murfi domin rufe ramin da ke daɓen lokacin da ba'a amfani da ita.[3] Idan shaddar ta cika zuwa kimanin nisan mita 0.5 (ƙafa 1.6) zuwa sama, ko dai a kwasheta ko kuma a gina wata sabuwa sannan a mayar da inuwar can ko kuma a samar da wani wurin sabo.[6] Tafiyar da ƙazanta wadda aka kwashe daga masai na da sarƙaƙiya. Akwai haɗari dangane da mahalli da kuma lafiya idan ba'a yi shi yadda ya kamata ba.

Za'a iya inganta shaddar gargajiya ta hanyoyi da dama. Guda daga ciki ta haɗa da saka bututu mai kawo iska daga ramin zuwa saman ginin. Wannan na inganta zagayawar iska da kuma rage warin bandakin. Kuma zai rage ƙudaje idan an rufe saman bututun da raga (wadda aka yi yawaici da zaren ƙarfe). A irin waɗan nan banɗakuna, ba sai an yi amfani da murfi ba wajen rufe ramin da ke daɓen.[6] Wasu hanyoyin na ingantawa sun haɗa da daɓe wanda aka yi ta yadda ruwa zai gangara ramin da kuma sake samun ƙarfi daga ɓangaren sama na ramin tare da ƙawanya ta bulo ko siminti domin ƙara ƙarfi.[2][6]

Har zuwa shekara ta 2013 an ƙiyasta cewa mutane biliyan 1.77 ke amfani da shaddar gargajiya.[7] Yawaicin wannan a ƙasashen duniya masu tasowa da kuma ƙauyuka da dazuka. A shekara ta 2011 kimanin mutane biliyan 2.5 ba su da damar amfani da banɗakuna da suka dace kuma biliyan ɗaya sun gwammace biyan bukatarsu a fili a gewayensu.[8] Kudancin Asiya da Hamadar Saharar Afirka su ke da mafi muni na samun dama ga banɗakuna.[8] A ƙasashe masu tasowa, kuɗin da za'a kashe wajen gina masan gargajiya ya kama tsakanin Dalar Amurka 25 da 60.[9] Ci gaba da gyara kan ci kuɗi tsakanin Dalar Amurka 1.5 da Dala 4 ga duk mutum guda a kowace shekara wanda wasu lokuta ba'a la'akari da wannan.[10] A wasu ɓangarori na ƙauyukan Indiya shelar da aka yi ta "Babu Banɗaki, Babu Mata" an yi amfani da ita domin haɓaka banɗakuna ta hanyar ƙarfafawa mata domin su ƙi auren mutumin da ba shi da banɗaki.[11][12]

Abubuwan da aka duba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. WEDC. Latrine slabs: an engineer’s guide, WEDC Guide 005. Water, Engineering and Development Centre The John Pickford Building School of Civil and Building Engineering Loughborough University. p. 22. ISBN 978 1 84380 143 6. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Tilley, E., Ulrich, L., Lüthi, C., Reymond, Ph. and Zurbrügg, C. (2014). Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (2 ed.). Dübendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). ISBN 9783906484570. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "Simple pit latrine (fact sheet 3.4)". who.int. 1996. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Call to action on sanitation" (pdf). United Nations. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  5. Walker, CL; Rudan, I; Liu, L; Nair, H; Theodoratou, E; Bhutta, ZA; O'Brien, KL; Campbell, H et al. (Apr 20, 2013). "Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea.". Lancet 381 (9875): 1405–16. PMID 23582727. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60222-6. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 François Brikké (2003). Linking technology choice with operation and maintenance in the context of community water supply and sanitation. World Health Organization. p. 108. ISBN 9241562153. 
  7. Graham, JP; Polizzotto, ML (May 2013). "Pit latrines and their impacts on groundwater quality: a systematic review.". Environmental health perspectives 121 (5): 521–30. PMID 23518813. doi:10.1289/ehp.1206028. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Progress on sanitation and drinking-water - 2014 update. (pdf). WHO. 2014. pp. 16–20. ISBN 9789241507240. 
  9. Selendy, Janine M. H. (2011). Water and sanitation-related diseases and the environment challenges, interventions, and preventive measures. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 25. ISBN 9781118148600. 
  10. Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa Where Do We Stand?. Intl Water Assn. 2013. p. 161. ISBN 9781780405414. 
  11. Global Problems, Smart Solutions: Costs and Benefits. Cambridge University Press. 2013. p. 623. ISBN 9781107435247. 
  12. Stopnitzky, Yaniv (12 December 2011). "Haryana's scarce women tell potential suitors: "No loo, no I do"". Development Impact. Blog of World Bank. Retrieved 17 November 2014.