Shibam Hadramawt

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Globe icon.svgShibam Hadramawt
شبام (ar)
Shibam.jpg

Wuri
 15°55′37″N 48°37′36″E / 15.9269°N 48.6267°E / 15.9269; 48.6267
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaYemen
Governorate of Yemen (en) FassaraHadhramaut Governorate (en) Fassara
District of Yemen (en) FassaraShibam District (en) Fassara
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 13,316 (2004)
Harshen gwamnati Larabci
Labarin ƙasa
Altitude (en) Fassara 683 m
Bayanan tarihi
Muhimman sha'ani
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
UTC+03:00 (en) Fassara

Shibam Hadramawt (Larabci: شِبَام حَضْرَمَوْت, romanized: Shibām Ḥaḍramawt)[1][2] birni ne, da ke a ƙasar Yemen. Tana da mazauna kusan 7,000, ita ce wurin zama na Gundumar Shibam[3] a cikin Hakimin Hadramaut. An santa da gine-gine masu tsayi da aka yi da tubalin laka, ana kiranta da "Chicago of the Desert" (شِيْكَاغو ٱلصَّحْرَاء),[1] ko kuma "Manhattan na Hamada" (مَانْهَاتَن ٱلصَّحْرَاء).[4]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rubutun farko da aka sani game da birnin ya kasance tun daga karni na 3 AD.[5] Shi ne babban birnin Masarautar Hadramawt.

A karni na 20, ya kasance daya daga cikin manyan garuruwa uku na masarautar Qu'aiti, sauran su ne Al-Mukalla da Ash-Shihr.[6]

An jera birnin tare da jerin abubuwan tarihi na UNESCO,[7] a cikin 1982.[8]

A cikin 2008, guguwa mai zafi ta mamaye Shibam.[9]

A lokacin yakin basasar kasar Yemen, birnin ya samu 'yar barna[10][11] bayan da 'yan tawaye suka tayar da wata mota makare da bama-bamai.[12] An kuma kai harin bam a yankin. A cikin 2015, UNESCO ta lissafa birnin a matsayin "al'adun gargajiyar da ke cikin haɗari".[8]

Labarin ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Garin yana tsakiyar yammacin yankin Hadhramaut Governorate, a cikin hamadar Ramlat al-Sab'atayn. Babban hanyarta ta hada birnin Sana'a da sauran garuruwan yammacin Yemen da yankunan gabashi mai nisa. Garuruwan mafi kusa sune Seiyun, wurin zama na filin jirgin sama, da Tarim, duka a gabas. Wata hanyar, wacce ta taso daga kauyen Alajlanya, a yamma, ta hade Shibam zuwa Mukalla, babban birnin jihar, dake gabar tekun Indiya.

Yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shibam yana da yanayin hamada mai zafi (Köppen: BWh). A matsakaicin zafin jiki na 28.0 Celsius (digiri 82.4 Fahrenheit), Yuni shine watan mafi zafi na shekara. Janairu shine watan mafi sanyi, tare da matsakaicin yanayin zafi 18.6 °C (65.5 °F).

Climate data for Shibam
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
Average high °C (°F) 24.0
(75.2)
25.3
(77.5)
27.4
(81.3)
29.5
(85.1)
31.8
(89.2)
33.4
(92.1)
32.5
(90.5)
31.8
(89.2)
30.8
(87.4)
29.0
(84.2)
26.7
(80.1)
25.3
(77.5)
29.0
(84.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 18.6
(65.5)
19.9
(67.8)
22.1
(71.8)
24.3
(75.7)
26.7
(80.1)
28.0
(82.4)
27.5
(81.5)
26.9
(80.4)
26.0
(78.8)
23.3
(73.9)
20.8
(69.4)
19.8
(67.6)
23.7
(74.6)
Average low °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
14.6
(58.3)
16.9
(62.4)
19.2
(66.6)
21.7
(71.1)
22.7
(72.9)
22.6
(72.7)
22.1
(71.8)
21.3
(70.3)
17.6
(63.7)
14.9
(58.8)
14.3
(57.7)
18.4
(65.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 8
(0.3)
5
(0.2)
17
(0.7)
10
(0.4)
3
(0.1)
0
(0)
3
(0.1)
4
(0.2)
1
(0.0)
0
(0)
5
(0.2)
8
(0.3)
64
(2.5)
Source: Climate-Data.org[13]

Gine-gine[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayanin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shibam, wanda a yanzu ya zama wurin Tarihin Duniya na UNESCO, an san shi da keɓaɓɓen gine-ginensa. Gidajen Shibam duk an yi su ne da tubalin laka, kuma kusan 500 daga cikinsu ginshiƙi ne, masu tsayin benaye 5 zuwa 11,[14] kowanne bene yana da ɗaki ɗaya ko biyu.[15] Anyi amfani da wannan salon gine-gine don kare mazauna daga hare-haren Bedouin.[16] Yayin da Shibam ya kasance yana wanzuwa na kimanin shekaru 1,700, yawancin gidajen garin sun samo asali ne daga karni na 16. Da yawa, ko da yake, an sake gina su sau da yawa a cikin ’yan ƙarnuka da suka shige.

Shibam galibi ana kiransa "birni mafi tsufa a duniya".[5] Yana ɗaya daga cikin tsofaffi kuma mafi kyawun misalan tsara birane bisa ka'idar gini a tsaye.[17] Birnin yana da wasu manyan gine-ginen laka mafi tsayi a duniya, tare da wasu daga cikinsu sama da 30 m (ƙafa 98) tsayi,[18] don haka kasancewar manyan gine-gine na farko. Domin kare gine-gine daga ruwan sama da zazzagewa, dole ne a kiyaye ganuwar akai-akai ta hanyar amfani da sabbin laka. An kewaye birnin da katangar katanga,[17] wanda aka ba shi suna "Birnin Shibam mai katanga".

Barazana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gine-ginen bulo na laka ana yawan fuskantar barazanar iska, ruwan sama, da zazzagewar zafi, kuma suna buƙatar kulawa akai-akai domin kiyaye tsarinsu. Ambaliyar ruwa da aka yi a birnin ta yi katutu a shekarar 2008, sakamakon guguwa mai zafi da aka yi a birnin.[19] Ruwan ya lalata harsashin ginin gine-gine da dama a birnin, wanda a karshe ya kai ga rugujewa.[20] Har ila yau, ita ce harin da Al Qaeda ta kai a shekarar 2009.[21][22]

A cikin 2015, an saka Shibam cikin jerin wuraren tarihi na duniya da ke cikin haɗari lokacin da wani mummunan yakin basasa ya barke a Yemen. Gine-ginen tarihi sun lalace sosai yayin tashin bama-bamai a birnin Sana'a, kuma har yanzu suna cikin kasadar tashe-tashen hankula.[23][24]

Hotuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 مدينة شبام حضرموت "شيكاغو الصحراء". Al-Bayan (in Larabci). 30 July 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  2. بلدة شبام حضرموت. Mawdoo3.com (in Larabci). 6 April 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  3. "Districts of Yemen". Statoids. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  4. "The Ancient City of Shibam: The Manhattan of the Desert". Weather.com. 9 November 2013. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Wadi Hadramowt and walled city of Shabam". ShibamOnline.net. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
  6. McLaughlin, Daniel (2008). "10: Southeast Yemen". Yemen. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 191–198. ISBN 978-1-8416-2212-5.
  7. Old Walled City of Shibam, UNESCO, World Heritage List
  8. 8.0 8.1 Bricks and mortar fire: Yemen’s cultural heritage is in the crosshairs.17 December 2015.
  9. Gulnaz Khan, This Ancient Mud Skyscraper City is the 'Manhattan of the Desert'. National Geographic.
  10. Yemen suffers cultural vandalism during its war.
  11. This Ancient Mud Skyscraper City is the 'Manhattan of the Desert'. National Geographic.
  12. Maggie Michael, Report details damage to ancient Yemeni archaeological sites 15 November 2018.
  13. "Climate: Shibam". Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  14. Helfritz, Hans (April 1937). "Land without shade". Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society. 24 (2): 201–16. doi:10.1080/03068373708730789.
  15. Jerome, Pamela; Chiari, Giacomo; Borelli, Caterina (1999). "The Architecture of Mud: Construction and Repair Technology in the Hadhramaut Region of Yemen". APT Bulletin. 30 (2–3): 39–48 [44]. doi:10.2307/1504639. JSTOR 1504639.
  16. Morrison, Alastair M.; Coca-Stefaniak, J. Andres (27 August 2020). Routledge Handbook of Tourism Cities. Routledge. ISBN 9780429534805 – via Google Books.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Old Walled City of Shibam, UNESCO World Heritage Centre
  18. Shipman, J. G. T. (June 1984). "The Hadhramaut". Asian Affairs. 15 (2): 154–162. doi:10.1080/03068378408730145.
  19. "Death Toll Mounts In Tropical Storm". CBS13.com. 26 October 2008. Archived from the original on 22 March 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
  20. "Historic Town of Shibam Hadramout Escapes Flooding Largely Unscathed". ITN Source. 3 November 2008.
  21. "Al Qaeda blamed for Yemen attack". CNN. 16 March 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
  22. "Al-Qaeda in Yemen:Political, Social and Security Dimensions". Yemen Post. 12 April 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
  23. "List of World Heritage in Danger: The 54 properties which the World Heritage Committee has decided to include on the List of World Heritage in danger in accordance with Article 11 (4) of the Convention". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  24. Bokova, Irina (12 May 2015). "UNESCO Director-General calls on all parties to protect Yemen's cultural heritage". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 30 April 2017. In addition to causing terrible human suffering, these attacks are destroying Yemen’s unique cultural heritage, which is the repository of people’s identity, history and memory and an exceptional testimony to the achievements of the Islamic Civilization.