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Sviatoslav I

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Sviatoslav I
Grand Prince of Kyiv (en) Fassara

945 - 972
Igor of Kyiv (en) Fassara - Yaropolk I of Kiev (en) Fassara
Grand Prince of Novgorod (en) Fassara

945 - 969
Igor of Kyiv (en) Fassara - Vladimir the Great (en) Fassara
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Kiev, 942
ƙasa Kievan Rus' (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Dnieper Rapids (en) Fassara, 972
Yanayin mutuwa kisan kai
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Igor of Kyiv
Mahaifiya Olga of Kyiv
Abokiyar zama Predslava (en) Fassara
Ma'aurata Malusha of Dereva (en) Fassara
Yara
Yare Rurik dynasty (en) Fassara
Karatu
Harsuna Old East Slavic (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a Mai wanzar da zaman lafiya da ɗan siyasa
Imani
Addini Slavic religion (en) Fassara

Sviatoslav ko kuma Svyatoslav I Igorevich (Samfuri:Lang-orv;[lower-alpha 1] c. 943 – 972) ya kasance yariman Kiev daga 945 har zuwa mutuwar shi a 972.[1] Ya yi fice da jajircewarsa na kamfe a gabas da kudu, wanda ya janyo rushewar manyan Kasashen Iko guda biyu na Turai, Khazaria da kuma Daukar Bulgaria ta Farko. Ya mamaye yarukan Gashin Slavic, yayi nasara akan Alans kuma ya farmaki Volga Bulgars,[2] kuma a wasu lokutan ya hada gwiwa tare da Pechenegs da kuma Magyars (mutanen Hungariya).

[3][4][5][6] Bayan rasuwar mahaifinsa Igor a 945, mahaifiyar Sviatoslav Olga ta yi mulki a matsayin mai rikon kwarya na Kiev har zuwa 962. [1] [2] [3] Sarautarsa ta tsawon shekaru goma a kan Kievan Rus' ta kasance alama ce ta fadada cikin kwarin Kogin Volga, da tsaunukan Pontic, da Balkans, wanda ya kai shi ga sassaƙa wa kansa babbar jiha a Turai. [7][8] shekara ta 969, ya koma kujerarsa zuwa Pereyaslavets a kan Danube. [1] [2] [9][10] A 970, ya nada 'ya'yansa maza Yaropolk da Oleg a matsayin sarakuna na Kiev da Drelinia, yayin da ya nada Vladimir, ɗansa wanda mai masa hidima a gidansa kuma bawansa Malusha, a matsayin yarima na Novgorod.

Dangane da sauya addinin mahaifiyar sa zuwa Kiristanci, Sviatoslav ya cigaba da bauta a matsayin mara addini na tsawon rayuwarsa.[3] A sanadiyar mutuwarsa na ba zato ta harin kwanton bauna, ba’a samu daman hade garuruwan sa da ya mamaye ba a matsayin daula guda, haka zalika a dalilin rashin samar da tsayayyen magaji ya janyo matsanancin rikici a tsakanin ‘ya’yan sa, wanda ya janyo mutuwar Yaropolk da Oleg, a yayin da Vladimir ya zamo sarki.[4]

Suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Olga ta Kiev, wacce ta yi aiki a matsayin mai mulki a lokacin ƙuruciyar ɗanta

Tarihin ainihin tatsuniya ya shigar da cewa Sviatoslav a matsayin mai mulki na farko na Kievan Rus' tare da sunan asali na Slavic, sabanin magabatansa, waɗanda sunayensu suna da tsohuwar asalin Norse. [11][12] malamai suna ganin sunan Sviatoslav, wanda ya ƙunshi tushen Slavic mai nufin "tsarki" da "ɗaukaka", a matsayin ƙaddamarwa yayin da aka hada ta da sunan magabatansa Oleg da Rurik, [13] amma masu bincike na zamani suna tambaya game da yiwuwar irin wannan fassarar sunaye daga yare ɗaya zuwa wani.

A cikin karni na 10 Sarkin Gabashin Roma Constantine VII a cikin harshen Helenanci De Administrando Imperio ("A kan Mulkin Daular") sun rubuta sunansa a matsayin Σφενδοσθ актуος ("Sfendostlabos").

Kuruciya da halayensa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kusan babu wani abu [14] da aka sani game da yarintar Sviatoslav da tasowar sa, wanda ya kwashe yana mulki a Novgorod. Mahaifin Sviatoslav, Igor, wanda Drevlians suka kashe shi a kusan alif 945, kuma mahaifiyarsa, Olga, ta yi mulki a matsayin mai mulki a Kiev har sai Sviatoslav ya balaga (kimanin 963). [15] [16] Varangian mai suna Asmud ne ya koyar da Sviatoslav. Al’adar daukar malamai na Varangian ga 'ya'yan sarakuna masu mulki ya cigaba har zuwa karni na 11. Sviatoslav ya bayyana ba shi da haƙuri ga gudanarwa. [17] Ya shafe rayuwarsa tare da druzhina (kimanin, "kamfani") a cikin yaƙi na dindindin da jihohin da ke makwabtaka da su.

A cewar Tarihin Asali, bai ɗauki kaya ko hajoji a tafiye-tafiyensa ba, kuma bai dafa nama ba, amma yakan yanka sashin jikin doki, wasa, ko naman sa don cinyewa bayan ya gasa shi a kan garwashi. [18] Kuma har ila yau, ba shi da lema, face lullubewa yake da bargon doki kuma ya sa kujerar doki a matsayin matashin kai, kuma duka ma'aikatansa sun yi haka.

Mahaifiyar Sviatoslav, Olga, tare da masu kula da ita a Constantinople, ƙaramin labari daga ƙarshen ƙarni na 11 na John Skylitzes.
Hoton Sviatoslav yana sanye da vyshyvanka, na Fedor Solntsev

Leo the Deacon ya bayyana bayyana sigar Sviatoslav a bude, wanda shi da kansa ya halarci taron Sviatoslav tare da John I Tzimiskes. Dangane da labarin Deacon, Sviatoslav mutum ne mai idanu masu haske mai matsakaicin tsayi amma mai ƙarfin hali, ya fi ƙarfin Tzimiskes. Yana da gemu mai laushi kuma yana da gashin baki mai buzo, da kuma saje a matsayin alamar daraja. Ya fi son yin ado da fari, kuma an nuna cewa tufafinsa sun fi tsabta fiye da na mutanensa, kodayake yana abubuwa da yawa iri ɗaya da mayaƙansa. [19] sa babban zoben zinariya guda ɗaya dauke da carbuncle da lu'ulu'u biyu.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Russian: Святослав Игоревич; Samfuri:Lang-uk; Samfuri:Lang-be
  1. Borrero 2009.
  2. Khazarian state and its role in the history of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus A.P. Novoseltsev, Moscow, Nauka, 1990. (in Russian)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Bushkovitch 2011.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Martin 2007.
  5. Gasparov & Raevsky-Hughes 2018.
  6. Gleason 2014.
  7. Curta 2019.
  8. Stephenson 2000.
  9. Franklin & Shepard 2014.
  10. Feldbrugge 2017.
  11. Elena Rydzevskaya. Ancient Russia and Scandinavia in the 9th–14th centuries Moscow: Nauka, 1978. Pp. 203
  12. Anna Litvina. Fyodor Uspensky. The choice of the name of the Russian princes in the X-XVI centuries. Dynastic history through the prism of anthroponymy. – Moscow, 2006 .-- 904 p. – 1000 copies. – ISBN 5-85759-339-5. – P. 41.
  13. See А.М. Членов. К вопросу об имени Святослава, in Личные имена в прошлом, настоящем и будущем: проблемы антропонимики (Moscow, 1970).
  14. Basilevsky 2016.
  15. If Olga was indeed born in 879, as the Primary Chronicle seems to imply, she should have been about 65 at the time of Sviatoslav's birth. There are clearly some problems with chronology.
  16. Primary Chronicle entry for 968
  17. Cross and Sherbowitz-Wetzor, Primary Chronicle, p. 84.
  18. Cross and Sherbowitz-Wetzor, Primary Chronicle, p. 84.
  19. Vernadsky 276–277. The sidelock is reminiscent of Turkic hairstyles and practices and was later mimicked by Cossacks.