Tajine

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.

Tajine ko tagine abinci ne na Arewacin Afirka, ana kiransa da tukunyar yumbu da ake dafa shi.[1] Ana kuma kiransa maraq ko marqa.

Etymology[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Larabci طجين (ṭažin) an samo shi daga Berber ṭajin "tukun ƙasa marar zurfi", daga tsohuwar Girkanci τάγηνον (tágēnon) "kwannonin soya, tukunya".[2][3][4]

Asalin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A kan bangon Antonine wanda gwamnan Numidiya na Roman Birtaniyya, Quintus Lollius Urbicus ya gina, an gano nau'ikan tukwane iri-iri, ɗaya kasancewar tasa ce mai yuwuwa ya zama mafari ga Tajine na zamani.[5][6] Hakanan an gano guntuwar tajin a tsakanin yumbu na Numidian.[7]

Tarihin tagine ya samo asali ne tun zamanin Haruna Al-Rashid, Halifan Abbasiyawa na biyar.[8][9][10] Rubuce-rubucen farko game da manufar dafa abinci a cikin tajine sun bayyana a cikin shahararren One Thousand and One Nights, tarin labaran larabci daga ƙarni na 9.[10]

A yau, tukunyar dafa abinci da naman ta na gargajiya ana shirya su ne a Gabas ta Tsakiya da Arewacin Afirka. Akwai hanyoyi daban-daban don shirya tajine. A tsarin qidra na asali, ana amfani da saman (man shanu mai tsabta) don shafawa saman ƙasa sannan a ƙara yankakken albasa don dandano da ƙamshi. Don dafa abinci irin na muqawlli, ana sanya kayan aikin a cikin man zaitun don wadatar da dandano.

Akwai bayanai da yawa na yadda ake shirya tajine daga malaman Larabawa. Shahararriyar bayanin shi ne na ibn al-Adim (1192-1262):

A tafasa naman sai a soya da sabo, albasa da kayan kamshi mai zafi da tafarnuwa kadan. Sa'an nan kuma ku fitar da zukatan fennel a yanka a rabi. Saka kan nama. Sai ki mayar da ruwan romon a kai tare da wutsiyar tumaki. Tafasa har sai an dahu kuma broth ya nutse. Cire [daga zafi].

— Ibn al-Adim, Kitab Al Wuslah il Al-Habib fi wasf al tayyibat wa Al-Tib
Aljeriya tajine zitoun (kaza da zaitun tajine).

Tukwane[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tukwane na gargajiya na tajine, wani lokacin fenti ko glazed, ya ƙunshi sassa biyu: rukunin tushe mai madauwari wanda ke da lebur tare da ƙananan gefe da babban murfin mazugi ko kumbura wanda ke zaune a gindi yayin dafa abinci. An ƙera murfin don mayar da duk abin da ke ciki zuwa ƙasa. Ana iya inganta wannan tsari ta ƙara ruwan sanyi a cikin rijiyar da aka kera ta musamman a saman murfi.

A al'adance ana dafa Tajine akan gawayi mai zafi yana barin isasshen sarari tsakanin garwashin da tukunyar tajine don gujewa tashin zafi da sauri. Ana amfani da manyan bulo na gawayi, musamman don iya zama da zafi na awanni. Sauran hanyoyin su ne yin amfani da tajine a cikin tanda a hankali ko kuma a saman murhu mai iskar gas ko lantarki, a kan mafi ƙarancin zafi da ake buƙata don kiyaye stew ɗin a hankali. Ana amfani da na'ura mai yatsa, kayan aikin madauwari da aka sanya tsakanin tajine da harshen wuta, ana amfani da shi don rarraba zafin murhu daidai gwargwado. Masana'antun Turai sun ƙirƙira tajin tare da babban simintin ƙarfe na ƙarfe waɗanda za a iya dumama su a kan murhu mai zafi zuwa zafi mai zafi, wanda ke ba da izinin yin launin nama da kayan lambu kafin dafa abinci.

Ana iya maimaita girkin Tajine ta amfani da jinkirin mai dafa abinci ko makamancin haka, amma sakamakon zai ɗan bambanta. Yawancin tajin yumbu abubuwa ne na ado da kuma tasoshin dafa abinci. Wasu tajin, duk da haka, ana nufin kawai a yi amfani da su azaman kayan abinci na ado.

Tajine na Aljeriya da Morocco[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tajine tare da tumatir, naman nama, da kwai suna yin hidimar zafi a Casablanca.

Jita-jita tajine na Aljeriya da na Moroko su ne miya mai daɗin dafawa a hankali, yawanci ana yin su da yankakken nama, kaji ko kifi tare da kayan lambu ko 'ya'yan itace.[11][12][13] Ana kuma amfani da kayan yaji, goro, da busassun 'ya'yan itatuwa. Kayan yaji na yau da kullun sun haɗa da ginger, cumin, turmeric, kirfa, da saffron. Ana amfani da paprika da chili a cikin kayan lambu tajines. Haɗin zaki da tsami ya zama ruwan dare a cikin abinci tajine kamar rago tare da prunes da kayan yaji. Gabaɗaya ana ba da Tajine da burodi. Domin murfin tukunyar tajine mai siffar domed ko mazugi yana kama tururi kuma ya mayar da ruwan da aka dasa cikin tukunyar, ana buƙatar ƙaramin adadin ruwa don dafa nama da kayan lambu. Wannan hanyar dafa abinci tana da mahimmanci a wuraren da ruwa ke da iyaka ko kuma inda ba a samu ruwan jama'a ba.[14]

Tajine na Tunisia[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tajine na Tunisia

Abin da 'yan Tunisiya ke kira "tajine" ya bambanta da sauran nau'ikan tasa.[15] Tajine na Tunisiya ya fi kama da frittata na Italiyanci ko eggah. Da farko, ana shirya ragout mai sauƙi, na naman da aka yanka a ƙanana sosai, ana dafa shi da albasa da kayan yaji, kamar haɗaɗɗen busassun furen fure da kirfa na ƙasa wanda aka fi sani da baharat ko haɗakar daɗaɗɗen ciyawa da caraway tsaba; wannan ake ce ma tabil.[16] Sannan a zuba wani abu mai sitaci domin ya kauri. Masu kauri na gama-gari sun haɗa da wake cannellini, chickpeas, breadcrumbs ko dankali mai cubed. Lokacin da naman ya yi laushi, ana haɗa shi tare da abubuwan da aka zaɓa don zama mafi yawan dandano. Misalai sun haɗa da faski, busasshen mint, saffron, busasshen tumatiri da rana, dafaffen kayan lambu da ƙwalwar maruƙa. Bayan haka, an wadatar da stew da cuku da ƙwai. A karshe ana toya wannan kwai da stew a cikin wani kwanon abinci mai zurfi, ko dai a kan murhu ko kuma a cikin tanda har sai an dahu sama da kasa sosai sannan a ajiye kwai. Idan tajine ta shirya sai a juye a faranti a yanka ta cikin murabba'i, tare da yankan lemo. Hakanan ana iya yin tajin Tunisiya da abincin teku ko a matsayin abinci mai cin ganyayyaki gaba ɗaya.

A yankunan karkarar Tunisiya, masu dafa abinci na gida suna sanya wani farantin ƙasa mai zurfi a kan garwashin itacen zaitun, su cika shi, a rufe shi da kasko mai lebur, sannan su tara garwashi a sama. Sakamakon tajine yana da ɓawon ciki a sama da ƙasa, ɗanɗano ne a ciki kuma ana zuba shi da ƙamshi mai ƙamshi.

Tagine na Yahudancin Maghrebi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yahudawan Maghrebi kuma suna cin abinci kuma suna shirya tagine, saboda kasancewarsu na tarihi a Arewacin Afirka. Tagine abinci ne mai matukar muhimmanci a cikin abinci na Sephardi, kuma Yahudawan Moroko, Yahudawan Aljeriya, Yahudawan Tunisiya, Yahudawan Libya, Yahudawan Djerban, da Yahudawan Faransanci, Bayahude Ba’amurke, da Isra’ilawa ne suke cin su kuma suna shirya su. Sephardim a cikin waɗannan ƙasashe.

Tagine shine babban jigon abinci na Sephardic[17] wanda aka saba shirya don abincin dare na Shabbat a cikin al'ummar Sephardi, kuma ana yin hidima tare da couscous. Sephardim daga yankuna daban-daban suna shirya nau'o'in Tagine daban-daban, misali Yahudawa na Moroccan sukan shirya tagine tare da busassun 'ya'yan itatuwa, yayin da Yahudawan Tunisiya sukan shirya tagine na kayan lambu mai dauke da dankali, karas, da zucchini a yanka a cikin manyan dice. Hakanan ana shirya Tagine akai-akai don bukukuwan Yahudawa kamar Rosh Hashanah da kalacin Yom Kippur.[18]

Gallery[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Histoire du tajine, un éloge berbère de la lenteur" [History of the tagine, a Berber praise of slowness]. GEO. 12 November 2018.
  2. Albala, Ken (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Greenwood. p. 234. ISBN 978-0313376269. The Arabic word ṭažin is derived from the Greek teganon, meaning “frying pan".
  3. τάγηνον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  4. "الطاجين المغربي يقاوم التشويه". BBC Arabic. 31 May 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  5. Africans on the Antonine Wall? Rebecca Jones Historic Environment Scotland
  6. Jones, Rebecca H. (2021). "What Divides Us Also Connects Us: Roman Frontiers, World Heritage and Community". The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice. 12 (2): 120–145. doi:10.1080/17567505.2021.1916703. S2CID 236625898 Check |s2cid= value (help).
  7. Ben Moussa, Moncef, Joan Ramon, Víctor Revilla Calvo, Joan (Sanmartí i Grego) Sanmartí, Maria Carme Belarte Franco, Chokri Touihri, Imed Ben Jarbania, and Sami Ben Tahar. Catalogue Du Mobilier. 2011. Consorci de Biblioteques Universitáries de Catalunya, Centre de Serveis Científics i Acadèmics de Catalunya.
  8. Roden, Claudia (2008-12-24). The New Book of Middle Eastern Food (in Turanci). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 9780307558565.
  9. "Tagine in heartwarming spoonfuls". english.alarabiya.net. Al Arabiya Newsdate=22 April 2011. 22 April 2011. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (2004-12-29). Encyclopedia of Kitchen History (in Turanci). Routledge. ISBN 1135455716.
  11. Lucy M. Long (17 July 2015). Ethnic American Food Today: A Cultural Encyclopedia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 24–27. ISBN 978-1-4422-2731-6.
  12. Sari Edelstein (2011). Food, Cuisine, and Cultural Competency for Culinary, Hospitality, and Nutrition Professionals. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-7637-5965-0.
  13. "The Art of Moroccan Cuisine". fescooking.com. 10 October 2007.
  14. https://www.masterclass.com/articles/how-to-use-a-moroccan-tagine#how-to-use-a-tagine Template:Bare URL inline
  15. Paula Wolfert. "Recipe for Tunisian Tajine". Retrieved 2014-07-21.
  16. Nancy Harmon Jenkins. "Divine Secrets of the Mahjoub Sisterhood". Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
  17. "Seven Sephardic Foods that won't make buzzfeed gag". The Forward. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  18. "You're Doing it Wrong: Tagine". Slate. Retrieved 18 October 2019.