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Tarihin Ƙasar Indiya

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Tarihin Ƙasar Indiya
history of a geographic region (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na history of Asia (en) Fassara
Facet of (en) Fassara Indiya
Karatun ta Indology (en) Fassara
Template or module that populates category (en) Fassara Template:History of India (en) Fassara

Bisa ga kidaya a cikin kwayoyin halitta na zamani, mutanen zamani na zamani sun fara zuwa yankin Indiya daga Afirka tsakanin shekaru 73,000 zuwa 55,000 da suka wuce.[1]. The Making of Pakistan. London: Faber and Faber. p. 74. OCLC 1462689. A wurin Mehrgarh, ana iya rubuta kasancewarsa, tare da shaidar alkama da sha'ir, wanda na awaki, tumaki, da shanu ke biye da shi cikin sauri [2]. The Nation. On the same dates [4 and 5 March 1947], Muslim League-led mobs fell with determination and full preparations on the helpless Hindus and Sikhs scattered in the villages of Multan, Rawalpindi, Campbellpur, Jhelum and Sargodha. The murderous mobs were well supplied with arms, such as daggers, swords, spears and fire-arms. [3] </ref>. A shekara ta 4500 KZ, irin wannan zaman rayuwar ya ƙara yaɗuwa, kuma ya fara canzawa a hankali zuwa cikin wayewar kwarin Indus, wanda ya yi zamani da Tsohuwar Masar da Mesofotamiya [4]. Wannan wayewar ta bunƙasa tsakanin 2500 KZ da 1900 KZ a Pakistan ta yau da kuma arewa maso yammacin Indiya, kuma an lura da ita don tsara birane, gidajen bulo da aka toya, magudanar ruwa, da samar da ruwa [5]. A farkon karni na biyu KZ, fari da ya ci tura ya sa al'ummar kwarin Indus suka watse daga manyan birane zuwa kauyuka. Kusan lokaci guda, kabilun Indo-Aryan sun ƙaura zuwa Punjab daga tsakiyar Asiya a cikin raƙuman ƙaura da yawa[6]. Lokacin Vedic (1500-500 KZ) an yi masa alama ta tarin tarin waƙoƙin da ake kira Vedas. Tsarin su na varna, wanda ya samo asali zuwa tsarin ƙabila, ya ƙunshi jerin manyan firistoci, mayaka, manoma masu 'yanci, da bayi. Makiyaya da makiyaya Indo-Aryan sun bazu daga Punjab zuwa cikin filin Gangetic, babban yankin da suke sare dazuzzuka don noma. Haɗin rubutun Vedic ya ƙare a kusan 600 KZ, lokacin da sabon al'adun yanki ya taso. Sannan, an haɗa ƙananan sarakuna (janapadas) zuwa manyan jahohi (mahajanapadas)[7].

Zamanin Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An kiyasta fadada Hominin daga Afirka ya isa yankin Indiya kusan shekaru miliyan biyu da suka gabata, kuma maiyuwa a farkon shekaru miliyan 2.2 kafin yanzu.[8]Wannan saduwar ta dogara ne akan kasancewar Homo erectus a Indonesia shekaru miliyan 1.8 kafin yanzu da kuma Gabashin Asiya da shekaru miliyan 1.36 kafin yanzu, da kuma gano kayan aikin dutse a Riwat a cikin kwarin Soan na tsaunin Pabbi. yanki, Pakistan [9]. Ko da yake an yi iƙirarin wasu tsoffin binciken da aka yi, kwanakin da aka ba da shawarar, dangane da kwanan watan da aka yi da maƙarƙashiya, ba a tabbatar da kansu ba.

Hotuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Symonds, Richard (1950)
  2. Abid, Abdul Majeed (29 December 2014). "The forgotten massacre"
  3. Vinod Chandra Srivastava (2008). History of Agriculture in India, Up to C. 1200 A.D. Concept. p. 857. ISBN 978-81-8069-521-6.
  4. Prakash, Gyan (April 1990). "Writing Post-Orientalist Histories of the Third World: Perspectives from Indian Historiography". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 32 (2): 383–408. doi:10.1017/s0010417500016534. JSTOR 178920. S2CID 144435305.
  5. The Seven Spiritual Laws Of Yoga, Deepak Chopra, John Wiley & Sons, 2006,
  6. Gordon Johnson, Provincial Politics and Indian Nationalism: Bombay and the Indian National Congress 1880–1915 (2005)
  7. Schimmel, Annemarie Schimmel, Religionen – Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Brill Academic Publishers, 1980,
  8. Rosen, Elizabeth S. (1975). "Prince ILango Adigal, Shilappadikaram (The anklet Bracelet), translated by Alain Damelou. Review". Artibus Asiae. 37 (1/2): 148–150. doi:10.2307/3250226. JSTOR 3250226.
  9. Essays on Indian Renaissance by Raj Kumar p. 260