Tsarin Matsayin Duniya

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Tsarin Matsayin Duniya
radionavigation-satellite service (en) Fassara da global navigation satellite system (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na avionics (en) Fassara da positioning system (en) Fassara
Amfani wuri
Ƙasa Tarayyar Amurka
Ma'aikaci United States Space Force (en) Fassara
Shafin yanar gizo gps.gov
Manifestation of (en) Fassara global navigation satellite system (en) Fassara
ACM Classification Code (2012) (en) Fassara 10011559

   

Tsarin Matsayin Duniya ( GPS ), asalin Navstar GPS, tsarin radiyo ne na tauraron dan adam mallakar gwamnatin Amurka kuma sojojin sararin samaniya na Amurka.[1] Yana ɗaya daga cikin tsarin tauraron dan adam na duniya (GNSS) wanda ke ba da bayanan ƙasa da lokaci zuwa mai karɓar GPS a ko'ina a duniya ko kusa da Duniya inda akwai layin gani mara shinge zuwa tauraron dan adam GPS huɗu ko fiye. Ba ya buƙatar mai amfani don watsa kowane bayanai, kuma yana aiki ba tare da kowane liyafar wayar tarho ko Intanet ba, koda yake waɗannan fasahohin na iya haɓaka amfanin bayanan saka GPS. Yana ba da damar matsayi mai mahimmanci ga sojoji, farar hula, da masu amfani da kasuwanci a duk duniya. Koda yake gwamnatin Amurka ta ƙirƙira, sarrafawa da kiyaye tsarin GPS, ana samun dama ga duk wanda ke da mai karɓar GPS.[2]

Ma'aikatar Tsaro ta Amurka ce ta fara aikin GPS a shekara ta 1973. An harba kumbon samfurin farko a shekarar 1978 kuma cikakken tauraron tauraron dan adam 24 ya fara aiki a shekarar 1993. Asalin asali don amfani da sojojin Amurka, an ba da izinin amfani da farar hula daga shekara ta 1980 biyo bayan umarnin zartarwa daga Shugaba Ronald Reagan bayan faruwar lamarin Jirgin Koriya ta Air Lines 007 . Ci gaban fasaha da sabbin buƙatu akan tsarin da ake da su yanzu sun haifar da ƙoƙarin sabunta GPS da aiwatar da ƙarni na gaba na GPS Block IIIA tauraron dan adam da Tsarin Kula da Ayyuka na gaba (OCX). wanda Majalisar Dokokin Amurka ta ba da izini a cikin shekara ta 2000.[3]

Tun daga farkon shekara ta 1990s, gwamnatin Amurka ta lalata daidaiton matsayi na GPS ta hanyar wani shiri mai suna Selective Availability, wanda zai iya zaɓe ko kuma hana damar shiga tsarin a kowane lokaci, kamar yadda ya faru da sojojin Indiya a 1999 a lokacin Kargil . Yaki . Duk da haka, an daina wannan aikin a ranar 1 ga Mayu, 2000, bisa ga wani lissafin da Shugaba Bill Clinton ya sanya wa hannu. Sakamakon haka, ƙasashe da yawa sun haɓaka ko kuma suna kan aiwatar da kafa wasu na'urorin kewaya tauraron dan adam na duniya ko na yanki.

Tsarin Tauraron Dan Adam na Duniya na Duniya (GLONASS ) an haɓaka shi tare da GPS, amma ya sha wahala daga rashin cikar ɗaukar hoto na duniya har zuwa tsakiyar shekara ta 2000s. Ana iya haɗa liyafar GLONASS ban da GPS a cikin mai karɓa ta haka yana ba da damar ƙarin tauraron dan adam da ke akwai don ba da damar gyare-gyaren matsayi da sauri da ingantaccen daidaito, zuwa tsakanin 2 metres (6.6 ft) . [4]

Tsarin tauraron dan adam na BeiDou na ƙasar Sin ya fara hidimar duniya a shekarar 2018, kuma ya kammala aikinsa a shekarar 2020. Hakanan akwai tsarin tauraron dan adam na Tarayyar Turai Galileo, da NavIC na Indiya. Tsarin tauraron dan adam na Quasi-Zenith na Japan (QZSS) shine tsarin haɓaka tauraron dan adam na GPS don haɓaka daidaiton GPS a cikin Asiya-Oceania, tare da kewayawa tauraron ɗan adam ba tare da GPS wanda aka tsara don 2023.

Lokacin da aka ɗaga zaɓin a cikin 2000, GPS yana da kusan 5 metres (16 ft) daidaito. Masu karɓar GPS waɗanda ke amfani da rukunin L5 suna da daidaito mafi girma, suna nuni zuwa tsakanin 30 centimetres (11.8 in), yayin da manyan masu amfani (yawanci aikin injiniya da aikace-aikacen binciken ƙasa) suna iya samun daidaito akan yawancin siginar bandwidth zuwa tsakanin santimita biyu, har ma da daidaiton ƙananan millimita don ma'auni na dogon lokaci. Na'urorin masu amfani, kamar wayowin komai da ruwan, na iya zama daidai kamar tsakanin 4.9 m (ko mafi kyau tare da sabis na taimako kamar saka Wi-Fi shima kunna). As of Mayu 2021 , 16 GPS tauraron dan adam suna watsa siginar L5, kuma ana ɗaukar siginar a matsayin riga-kafi, wanda aka tsara don isa tauraron dan adam 24 nan da kusan 2027.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

GPS taurari tsarin rayarwa

An ƙaddamar da aikin GPS a Amurka a cikin shekara ta 1973 don shawo kan iyakokin tsarin kewayawa na baya, haɗa ra'ayoyi daga magabata da yawa, gami da nazarin ƙirar injiniyan ƙira daga 1960s. Ma'aikatar tsaron Amurka ce ta kirkiri wannan tsarin, wanda tun da farko ya yi amfani da tauraron dan adam 24, don amfani da sojojin Amurka, kuma ya fara aiki gadan-gadan a shekarar 1995. An ba da izinin amfani da farar hula tun daga shekarun 1980. Roger L. Easton na Laboratory Research Naval, Ivan A. Samun Kamfanin Aerospace Corporation, da Bradford Parkinson na Laboratory Physics Laboratory ana yaba su da ƙirƙira shi. Aikin Gladys West an ƙididdige shi azaman kayan aiki don haɓaka dabarun ƙididdigewa don gano matsayi na tauraron dan adam tare da madaidaicin da ake buƙata don GPS.

Tsarin GPS ya dogara ne akan tsarin kewaya rediyo na tushen ƙasa, irin su LORAN da Decca Navigator, waɗanda aka haɓaka a farkon 1940s.

A cikin 1955, Friedwardt Winterberg ya ba da shawarar gwada alaƙar gabaɗaya—gano lokacin jinkiri a cikin wani fage mai ƙarfi ta amfani da ingantattun agogon atomic da aka sanya a cikin kewayawa cikin tauraron dan adam. Dangantaka na musamman da na gabaɗaya sun yi hasashen cewa agogon da ke kan tauraron dan adam na GPS, kamar yadda na duniya ke gani, suna tafiyar da microsecond 38 cikin sauri a kowace rana fiye da na duniya. Tsarin GPS yana gyara wannan bambanci; saboda ba tare da yin haka ba, wuraren da aka ƙididdige GPS zai tara kurakurai har zuwa 10 kilometres per day (6 mi/d) .

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • FAA GPS FAQ
  • GPS.gov - Gidan yanar gizon ilimin jama'a na gabaɗaya wanda Gwamnatin Amurka ta kirkira

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. United States Department of Transportation; Federal Aviation Administration (October 31, 2008). "Global Positioning System Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) Performance Standard" (PDF). p. B-3. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 27, 2017. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
  2. United States Department of Defense (September 2008). "Global Positioning System Standard Positioning Service Performance Standard - 4th Edition" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 27, 2017. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
  3. McDuffie, Juquai (June 19, 2017). "Why the Military Released GPS to the Public". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on January 28, 2020. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  4. Empty citation (help)