Jump to content

Tsohon Birnin Hebron

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Tsohon Birnin Hebron


Wuri
Map
 31°31′31″N 35°06′30″E / 31.5253°N 35.1083°E / 31.5253; 35.1083
Occupied territory (en) FassaraWest Bank (en) Fassara
Governorate of the State of Palestine (en) FassaraHebron Governorate (en) Fassara
BirniHebron (en) Fassara
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 20.6 ha

Tsohon Birnin Hebron (Larabci: البلدة القديمة الخليل) birni ne mai tarihi na Hebron a Gabar Yammacin Kogin Jordan. Hebron na zamanin da masana ilimin kimiya na kayan tarihi suna tunanin cewa tun farko ya fara wani wuri, a Tel Rumeida, wanda ke da nisan kusan mita 200 (660 ft) yamma da Tsohon Garin yau, kuma ana tunanin asalin garin Kan'aniyawa ne. Tsohon birni na yau ya zauna a zamanin Girka ko Romawa (kimanin ƙarni na 3 zuwa 1st KZ). Ya zama tsakiyar cibiyar Hebron gabaɗaya a lokacin Khalifancin Abbasiyawa (wanda ya fara kusan 750 CE).

An amince da shi a matsayin Gidan Tarihi na Duniya na uku a cikin Jihar Falasdinu a cikin shekarar 2017.

An gina Tsohuwar Birni a kewayen Kogon Kakanni, wurin binne al'adun gargajiya na Ubanni da Ma'aurata na Littafi Mai Tsarki, kuma Yahudawa da Kirista da Musulmai suna girmama shi. Tsohon birni wuri ne mai mahimmanci a rikicin Isra'ila da Falasdinu a Hebron.

Binciken taswirar Palasdinu na birnin na 1940s

Tsohon birnin na yanzu an fara zama a cikin Girkanci ko kuma a ƙarshe ta zamanin Roman.[1] An zaunar da shi a cikin kwarin ƙasa daga Tel Rumeida, wanda ake ɗauka a matsayin tsakiyar Hebron na Littafi Mai Tsarki.[2] Sai da aka fara halifancin Abbasiyawa ne birnin na yanzu ya zama cibiyar Hebron, inda aka gina shi a kewayen kogon sarakunan gargajiya.[3]

Tsarin birni na Tsohon birnin Hebron ya kasance tun zamanin Mamluk, kuma ya kasance ba ya canzawa.[4] Yawancin gine-ginen zamanin Ottoman ne daga karni na sha takwas tare da wasu rabin dozin Dozin Tsarin Mamluk.[5] Tana kunshe da dakuna masu kama da tantanin halitta tare da tarkacen gidaje masu kagara wadanda ke aiki a matsayin iyaka ga kowane yanki, tare da kofofi a karshen manyan tituna.[6] Tana da kusan yanki na hekta 20.6 (kadada 51; 0.206 km2), tana da dubban mazauna.

Ya zama Gidan Tarihi na Duniya na uku a cikin Jihar Falasdinu a cikin 2017,[7] kuma an rubuta shi a cikin jerin abubuwan tarihi na duniya cikin haɗari a matsayin "Palestine, Hebron/Tsohon Garin Al-Khalil".[8]

Yarjejeniyar Hebron ta 1997, wani ɓangare na Yarjejeniyar Oslo, ta sanya tsohon birnin a yankin "H2", yana kula da ikon sojojin Isra'ila wanda yake ƙarƙashinsa tun 1967.[9] A cewar rahoton Btselem , yawan Falasdinawa a cikin Tsohon City ya ragu sosai tun lokacin da Isra'ila ta kasance. farkon shekarun 1980 saboda tasirin matakan tsaron Isra'ila, gami da tsawaita dokar hana fita, tsauraran takunkumin zirga-zirga da kuma rufe ayyukan kasuwancin Falasdinawa a kusa da yankunan mazauna, da kuma saboda cin zarafin mazauna.[10][11][12][13] Hukumar ta IDF ta mayar da martani ga rahoton inda ta ce, "Hukumar ta ce tana sane da cewa ana kallon dokar hana fita a matsayin tsauraran matakai, ba za a yi amfani da ita ba sai dai yanayin da ke da muhimmanci wajen kare rayukan fararen hula da sojoji ... Hebron ita ce kadai Palasdinawa. birnin da mazauna Isra'ila da Falasdinawa suke zama kafada da kafada, saboda haka, da kuma yawan hare-haren ta'addancin da ake kai wa mazauna Isra'ila da sojojin HKI da ke ba su kariya, birnin ya haifar da kalubalen tsaro mai sarkakiya."[10] Ƙoƙarin Kwamitin Gyaran Hebron da ke ba da kuɗi na duniya ya haifar da dawowar Falasɗinawa sama da 6,000 nan da shekarar 2015.[14] A cikin 2019, an kori kasancewar Haɗin Kan Duniya na ɗan lokaci a Hebron daga birnin.[15] Ta fitar da wani rahoto na sirri wanda ya gano cewa Isra'ila ta saba keta dokokin kasa da kasa a Hebron kuma tana cikin "tsanani mai tsanani kuma a kai a kai" na 'yancin nuna bambanci da aka shimfida a cikin yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa kan 'yancin jama'a da siyasa game da rashin 'yancin kai. motsi ga Falasdinawa mazauna Hebron.[16]

Gyaran Old City ya lashe kyautar Aga Khan don Architecture a 1998.[17]

Alamomin ƙasa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wuraren ibada

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Kogon Magabata da suka hada da Masallacin Al-Jawali, Masallacin Uthman ibn Affan da Gidan Ibrahim.
  • Masallacin Sheikh Ali al-Bakka
  • Masallacin Qazzazin
  • Avraham Avinu Synagogue

Gidajen tarihi

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Gidan tarihi na Tsohon Birni

Gundumomi da yankuna

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A ƙarshen karni na 19, an rubuta Old City kamar yadda aka raba zuwa kashi tara:[18]

  • Sheikh 'Aly Bakka quarter Larabci: حارة الشيخ علي البكا;
  • Zawiya quarter (Haret ez Zawieh) Larabci: حارة باب الزاوية;
  • Gilashi kwata (Haret Kezazin) Larabci: حارة القزازين (duba Gilashin Hebron);
  • el Akkabeh (kwata na hawan) Larabci: حارة العقّابة;
  • Haramun kwata Larabci: حارة الحرم;
  • Muheisin kwata (sunan iyali);
  • Cotton quarter (Haret Kotton) Larabci: حارة قيطون;
  • Gabas kwata (Haret Mesherky) Larabci: حارة المشارقة;
  • Sabon kwata na Larabci: حارة الجديد;

Tsohon birnin ya hada da ƙananan ƙauyuka uku na Isra'ila a gefenta - Beit Hadassah, Beit Romano, da Avraham Avinu - waɗanda aka kwatanta da kafa " unguwar Yahudawa maras kyau"[19] ko "Quarter Yahudawa".[20] Yankin Yahudawa a ƙarshen karni na 19 ya kasance a cikin kwata na Glassmakers (Haret Kezazin).[21][22]

  • An hana Falasdinawa amfani da titin Al-Shuhada, babban titin kasuwanci.[23][24]

Nadin UNESCO

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Amurka ba ta ba da wani tallafi ga UNESCO ba tun lokacin da aka shigar da Falasdinu a matsayin cikakkiyar mamba a 2011. Gwamnatin Obama ta ba da misali da wata doka da ta riga[25] ta kasance wacce ta haramta ba da gudummawa ga duk wata hukuma ko wata alaka da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da ke ba da cikakken mamba ga kasashen da ba na kasa ba,[26] wanda aka sanya a wurin. bayan da Falasdinu ta bukaci hukumar UNESCO da ta WHO a watan Afrilun 1989.[27][28] Amurka da Isra'ila na daga cikin kasashe 14 daga cikin 194 da suka kada kuri'ar kin amincewa da karbar Falasdinawa a shekarar 2011.[29]

Takaitacciyar, Rubutun Zaɓuɓɓuka, Annexes da Taswirori (duk fayilolin da ke nan) takaddun ne da Falasɗinu ta gabatar zuwa Cibiyar Tarihi ta Duniya a ranar 30 ga Janairu 2017 kuma ta nemi a hanzarta yin la'akari a ranar 21 ga Mayu, 2017.[30] Majalisar kasa da kasa kan Monuments da Shafuka Bayan haka (ICOMOS) ya nemi shiga tsohon birnin Hebron amma Isra’ila ta ki shiga saboda “A mataki na dabaru da ka’ida, kasar Isra’ila ba za ta shiga ciki ba, kuma ba za ta halasta duk wani yunkuri na siyasa na Falasdinu a karkashin tsarin al’adu da al’adu ba."[31]

Da yake ba da rahoto game da rahoton ICOMOS, Jerusalem Post ya lura cewa "haɗin Hebron tare da al'ummomin Yahudawa da na Kirista na farko ba a ba da izini kaɗan ba, kuma Faɗa Rumeida [yankin Hebron na Littafi Mai-Tsarki] da sauran rukunin yanar gizon an cire su daga kan iyakoki," kuma " da PA ta yi mafi kyau tare da faɗaɗa tsarin lokaci da yanki mafi girma na birnin, wanda zai iya yin magana game da muhimmancinsa ga ci gaban addinan tauhidi guda uku tun daga shekara ta 2200 KZ." yayin da kuma rubuta cewa "Rashin ziyarar filin wasa, da taƙaitaccen bayani na rahoton Falasɗinawa, yana nufin cewa ICOMOS" ba zai iya yin cikakken kimantawa " shawarar ba ko kuma tabbatar da cewa shafin ya cika ka'idojin rubutu." da kuma cewa "Ainihin rubutun yanke shawara ya nuna cewa ICOMOS ba ta iya yin cikakken kimanta shafin ba saboda rashin ziyarar filin." da "Barazana da cin zarafi suna nuna yanayin siyasa mai daɗaɗɗa kuma mai sarƙaƙiya" da ke buƙatar "masanin siyasa".[32] Farfesa kuma marubuci Lynn Meskell ya kwatanta tattaunawar da aka jera Hebron tare da batun Battir, yana mai cewa Falasdinu ta rubuta ayyukan barna, lalata wurare da sauran hare-hare a kan kadarorin kuma Falasdinawa sun bukaci sakatariyar da ta sanya sunayen masu hadari don tabbatar da kariya da kuma kasa da kasa. matsayin kiyayewa.[33][lower-alpha 1]

Orly Noy, yana rubutawa ga +972 Magazine, ta ce UNESCO ta yi la’akari da ko rukunin yanar gizon ya cancanci sakawa a cikin jerin da kuma wace ƙasa ce ta ƙasa, cewa ƙudurin bai ƙaryata dangantakar Yahudawa da Hebron ko Kabarin Magabata ba da kuma ƙuduri. game da Hebron gane gaskiyar cewa birnin mai tsarki ne ga Yahudanci, Kiristanci, da Musulunci;[35][36][37] amma Firayim Ministan Isra'ila Benjamin Netanyahu ya bayyana cewa an hana wata alaƙar Yahudawa da wurin.[38][39] A cikin wani shiri na gabatar da sunayen Falasdinawa, a cikin watan Fabrairun 2010 gwamnatin Isra'ila ta amince da aikin wuraren tarihi na kasa da suka hada da kogon sarakunan gargajiya da sauran wuraren Palasdinawa; Gwamnatin Obama[40] ta yi kakkausar suka ga matakin, kuma an bayyana shi a matsayin "yin watsi da yawancin al'adun gargajiyar ƙasar da ba za a iya kwatanta su da Yahudawa kaɗai ba".[41]

Daga baya a cikin 2017, Amurka ta sanar da cewa za ta fice daga UNESCO saboda nuna kyama ga Isra'ila kuma Isra'ila ta bi sawu. Wannan ya biyo bayan kudurori kan Urushalima a cikin 2016 da jigon wannan labarin. Bashin da ake bin Washington a lokacin ya haura dala miliyan 500. Ficewar tasu ta fara aiki ne a karshen shekarar 2018.[29] Kamar yadda Daniel Marwecki ya kammala a cikin wani bincike na 2019 na dalilin da ya sa Amurka da Isra'ila suka bar UNESCO, "Abin da ke faruwa a halin yanzu a cikin wasan kwaikwayo na diflomasiyya na yadda rikicin Isra'ila da Falasdinu ya bayyana a mataki na UNESCO ya buƙaci. za a iya gani a tarihi kuma dangane da sauye-sauyen dabarun Amurka da hangen nesa ga MDD."[42]

  1. Achim Lichtenberger, Juden, Idumäer und „Heiden“. Die herodianischen Bauten in Hebron und Mamre, in: L.- M. Günther (ed.), Herodes und Rom (Stuttgart 2007), p.59: "Die hellenistisch-römische Stadt lag im Tal dazwischen"
  2. Shahin & Bert Geith 2017, p. 54.
  3. Shahin & Bert Geith 2017, p. 19: "Soon after the first Islamic Period (Umayyad Period), Al-Ibrahimi Mosque/The Tomb of Patriarchs became the focal point around which the town was built and strongly influenced its development, similar to the Haram al-Sharif in Jerusalem. Today, the historic town centre is dominated by the Mamluk architecture style built between 1250 and 1517... Mamluk architecture is predominant in Hebron/Al-Khalil’s historic centre. The urban fabric (street network and quarters), the ahwash (living units), the public buildings, the souks and the traditional way of life still retain the original spirit of the town. Most of the public and religious buildings that are still intact date back to this period. They are lavishly decorated with ornamental motifs such as muqarnas (stalactites or alveoles), ablaq (inlaid coloured marble panels), monumental inscriptions, etc."
  4. UNESCO Nomination Executive Summary: "The existing urban structure dates back to the Mamluk period... The boundaries of the proposed site correspond to the boundaries of the continuous fabric of Hebron/Al-Khalil Town during the Mamluk Period... Since the Mamluk era, the morphological configration of the old town and the spatial organisation of the urban fabric have remained mostly- unchanged, and the main distinctive attributes have been retained."
  5. Vitullo 2003, p. 68.
  6. PEF Survey, volume III, p.305
  7. Unesco Declares Hebron’s Core as Palestinian World Heritage Site
  8. Decision : 41 COM 8C.1 Update of the List of World Heritage in Danger (Inscribed Properties)
  9. "Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron". United Nations Information System on the Question of Palestine. Non-UN document. January 17, 1997. Archived from the original on October 24, 2007.
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Israeli NGO issues damning report on situation in Hebron". Agence France-Presse. ReliefWeb. August 19, 2003. Archived from the original on 2007-10-21.
  11. "Hebron, Area H-2: Settlements Cause Mass Departure of Palestinians" (PDF). B'Tselem. August 2003. "In total, 169 families lived on the three streets in September 2000, when the intifada began. Since then, seventy-three families—forty-three percent—have left their homes."
  12. "Palestine Refugees: a challenge for the International Community". United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East. ReliefWeb. October 10, 2006. Archived from the original on October 17, 2006. Settler violence has forced out over half the Palestinian population in some neighborhoods in the downtown area of Hebron. This once bustling community is now eerily deserted, and presents a harrowing existence for those few Palestinians who dare to remain or who are too deep in poverty to move elsewhere.
  13. "Ghost Town: Israel's Separation Policy and Forced Eviction of Palestinians from the Center of Hebron". B'Tselem. May 2007.
  14. A ghost city revived: the remarkable transformation of Hebron
  15. "Israeli police report reveals truth about expulsion of observers in Hebron". MEMO. December 21, 2019. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
  16. "Confidential 20-year monitoring report: Israel regularly breaks int'l law in Hebron". haaretz.com. 2018-12-17. Retrieved 2018-12-17.
  17. Dumper 2007, pp. 164–167.
  18. Schick, 1898, p.238
  19. Auerbach, Jerold S. (16 July 2009). Hebron Jews: Memory and Conflict in the Land of Israel. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 110–. ISBN 978-0-7425-6617-0.
  20. Neuman 2018, p. 3.
  21. PEF Survey of Palestine, volume III, p.306: "The place is divided into three principal divisions: 1st, including the Haret el Haram (or el Kulah) and Haret Bab er Zawieh, the main part, with the Haram in the centre; 2nd, Haret esh Sheikh, so called from the mosque of Sheikh 'Aly Bukka, which is in it ; 3rd, Haret el Mesherky, which is towards the east, on the west side of the main road. The town extends for 3/4 mile parallel to the valley. The houses are well built of stone, with flat roofs having domes in the middle. The most prominent object is the Haram enclosure, standing over the houses. The mosque within and the upper portion of the great enclosing wall were newly whitewashed in 1874, and presented a very dazzling appearance. Since 1875 the town has grown, so that these various quarters are almost connected, and the Jews' quarter especially has been enlarged. To the four quarters named above must be added six others, viz., Haret el Kezazin, the Jews' quarter, north-west of the Haram ; Haret Beni Dar, just west of the Haram; Haret el 'Akkabeh and Haret el Kerad, on the hill behind the Haram ; Haret el Muhtcsbin, south-east of the Haram and of the great pool; and Haret es Suwakineh, north of the Haram, east of the Jews' quarter."
  22. Biblical Researches in Palestine, volume II, p.446: "The Jewish dwellings are in the N.W. part of the main quarter of the town".
  23. Janine Zacharia (March 8, 2010). "Letter from the West Bank: In Hebron, renovation of holy site sets off strife". The Washington Post.
  24. Hope in Hebron. David Shulman, New York Review of Books, 22 March 2013: ″Those who still live on Shuhada Street can’t enter their own homes from the street. Some use the rooftops to go in and out, climbing from one roof to another before issuing into adjacent homes or alleys. Some have cut gaping holes in the walls connecting their homes to other (often deserted) houses and thus pass through these buildings until they can exit into a lane outside or up a flight of stairs to a passageway on top of the old casba market. According to a survey conducted by the human-rights organization B’Tselem in 2007, 42 per cent of the Palestinian population in the city center of Hebron (area H2)—some 1,014 families—have abandoned their homes and moved out, most of them to area H1, now under Palestinian control.″
  25. The laws originated in Samfuri:USBill and Samfuri:USBill; for further details see committee discussions at: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations (1989). The PLO's Efforts to Obtain Statehood Status at the World Health Organization and Other International Organizations: Hearing and Markup Before the Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, on H.R. 2145, May 4, 1989. U.S. Government Printing Office.. The text of the House and Senate resolutions were subsequently put into the following laws: Samfuri:USBill (which produced Samfuri:USPL), Samfuri:USBill, Samfuri:USBill and finally Samfuri:USBill (which produced Samfuri:USPL). See also: Beattie, Kirk (3 May 2016). Congress and the Shaping of the Middle East. Seven Stories Press. p. 287 online. ISBN 978-1-60980-562-3. ...1989 Senate and House efforts like... Senate Resolution 875 and House Resolution 2145, both of which contained language similar to that found in the public laws of 1990 and 1994. Sen. Robert Kasten, Jr. (R-Wl) was the primary sponsor of S 875, and Rep. Tom Lantos sponsored HR 2145. In a nutshell, recognition by any UN body of the Palestinians' right to statehood or their achievement of statehood status would trigger a suspension of US funding to the "offending" UN body under these laws. (I'll just note in passing that it was Sen. Kasten who was to be a major recipient of campaign funds that AIPAC's President David Steiner was soliciting from one Haim Katz. Katz surreptitiously taped and released to the public the conversation, much to AIPAC's embarrassment. The conversation can be found on-line and makes for an interesting read.)
  26. "U.S. stops UNESCO funding over Palestinian vote". Reuters. October 31, 2011. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  27. Shadi Sakran (26 November 2019). The Legal Consequences of Limited Statehood: Palestine in Multilateral Frameworks. Taylor & Francis. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-1-00-076357-7.
  28. Request for the admission of the State of Palestine to UNESCO as a Member State, UNESCO Executive Board, 131st, 1989
  29. 29.0 29.1 "U.S., Israel quit U.N. heritage agency citing bias". Reuters. October 12, 2017. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  30. "Palestine: UNESCO Votes the Old City of Hebron a World Heritage Site". ARCP. July 2017. Archived from the original on November 10, 2020. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
  31. "U.S., Israel quit U.N. heritage agency citing bias". Times of Israel. June 25, 2017. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  32. "UNESCO experts: Hebron heritage request too focused on Muslim history". Jerusalem Post. July 2, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  33. Lynn Meskell (1 June 2018). A Future in Ruins: UNESCO, World Heritage, and the Dream of Peace. Oxford University Press. pp. 196–. ISBN 978-0-19-064836-7.
  34. ICOMOS: Hebron/Al-Khalil Old town (Palestine) No 1565, page 10
  35. "There's nothing anti-Semitic about UNESCO's Hebron vote". +972 Magazine. July 9, 2017. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  36. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/in/rest/annotationSVC/DownloadWatermarkedAttachment/attach_import_e3fbd099-269a-433d-994d-84b71c739c1f?_=248900eng.pdf&to=56&from=1#pdfjs.action=download, Section 30.III, "Reaffirms that the two concerned sites located in Al-Khalil/Hebron and in Bethlehem are an integral part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory, and shares the conviction affirmed by the international community that the two sites are of religious significance for Judaism, Christianity and Islam;"
  37. 2017 Nomination Text p.19: "As a pilgrimage site for the three monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity and Islam"; p.25: "The quarters defined by the community’s religion, such as the Christian quarter (harat al-Nasara, mentioned by Mujir al-Din) and the Jewish quarter (harat al-Yahud, mentioned in the 16th century Ottoman tax registers and by the Jewish travellers dur- ing the same period), or the bothare, which is no longer existing."; p.59: "Jewish families living in Hebron left the city after the eruption of violence in 1929 and mainly after 1948 war."
  38. Ahren, Raphael; Agencies. "At stormy meet, UNESCO declares Hebron an endangered Palestinian site". Times of Israel (in Turanci). Retrieved 2020-02-25.
  39. Rosenfeld, Alvin H. (2019-01-09). Anti-Zionism and Antisemitism: The Dynamics of Delegitimization (in Turanci). Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-03872-2.
  40. "US slams Israel over designating heritage sites". Haaretz. 2010-02-25.
  41. Gori, Maja. (2013). "The Stones of Contention: The Role of Archaeological Heritage in Israeli–Palestinian Conflict." Archaeologies. 9. 10.1007/s11759-013-9222-7. p.222
  42. "Why Did the U.S. And Israel Leave UNESCO?". E-International Relations. February 14, 2019. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  43. West Bank B&B in Hebron's Old City fully booked

Ci gaba da karatu

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]


Cite error: <ref> tags exist for a group named "lower-alpha", but no corresponding <references group="lower-alpha"/> tag was found