State of Palestine

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State of Palestine
دولة فلسطين (ar)
Flag of Palestine (en) Coat of arms of the Palestinian National Authority (en)
Flag of Palestine (en) Fassara Coat of arms of the Palestinian National Authority (en) Fassara

Take Fida'i (en) Fassara

Wuri
Map
 32°00′N 35°15′E / 32°N 35.25°E / 32; 35.25

Babban birni Jerusalem da Ramallah (en) Fassara
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 5,227,193 (2021)
• Yawan mutane 868.3 mazaunan/km²
Harshen gwamnati Larabci
Labarin ƙasa
Bangare na Gabas ta tsakiya da Yammacin Asiya
Yawan fili 6,020 km²
Sun raba iyaka da
Bayanan tarihi
Mabiyi Palestin autonomija
Wanda ya samar Palestine Liberation Organization (en) Fassara
Ƙirƙira 15 Nuwamba, 1988:  (Palestinian Declaration of Independence (en) Fassara)
Tsarin Siyasa
Majalisar zartarwa Palestin autonomija
Gangar majalisa Palestinian Legislative Council (en) Fassara
• President of the State of Palestine (en) Fassara Mahmoud Abbas
• Prime Minister of the State of Palestine (en) Fassara Mohammad Shtayyeh (en) Fassara (10 ga Maris, 2019)
Majalisar shariar ƙoli Palestinian Supreme Judicial Council (en) Fassara
Ikonomi
Nominal GDP (en) Fassara 18,109,000,000 $ (2021)
Kuɗi Jordanian dinar (en) Fassara
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
UTC+02:00 (en) Fassara
UTC+03:00 (en) Fassara
Suna ta yanar gizo .ps (en) Fassara
Tsarin lamba ta kiran tarho +970
Lambar ƙasa PS
wani yanki kenan na Palestine

Falasdinu (Larabci: فلسطين‎, romanized: Filasṭīn, pronounced [fɪ.lɪs.tˤiː.n]), a hukumance Ƙasar Falasdinu (Larabci: دولة فلسطين‎, romanized: Dawlat Filasṭīn), Jiha ce da ke Yammacin Asiya. Kungiyar 'yantar da Falasdinu (PLO) ce ke mulki a hukumance, tana da'awar Yammacin Kogin Jordan, ciki har da Gabashin Kudus, da Zirin Gaza a matsayin yankinta, duk da cewa Isra'ila ta mamaye gaba daya yankin tun daga yakin kwanaki shida na 1967. Sakamakon yarjejeniyar Oslo na 1993-1995, a halin yanzu an raba yankin Yammacin Kogin Jordan zuwa yankunan Falasdinawa 165 da ke karkashin mulkin Hukumar Falasdinawa ta PNA; sauran, ciki har da matsugunan Isra'ila 200, suna ƙarƙashin cikakken ikon Isra'ila. Kungiyar Hamas ce ke mulkin yankin Zirin Gaza, kuma tun a shekara ta 2007 ne Masar da Isra'ila suka yi mata takunkumi na dogon lokaci.

Bayan yakin duniya na biyu, a shekara ta 1947, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UN) ta amince da shirin raba kan Falasdinu, wanda ya ba da shawarar kafa kasashen Larabawa da Yahudawa masu cin gashin kansu da birnin Kudus. Yahudu sun yarda da wannan Tsarin Rarraba amma Larabawa suka ƙi. Nan da nan bayan Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da shirin a matsayin kuduri na 181, yakin basasa ya barke [1] kuma ba a aiwatar da shirin ba. Washegarin da aka kafa kasar Isra'ila a ranar 14 ga Mayu 1948, kasashen Larabawa da ke makwabtaka da su sun mamaye tsohon wajabcin Birtaniyya tare da shiga da sojojin Isra'ila a yakin Larabawa da Isra'ila na farko. [2] Bayan haka, Ƙungiyar Ƙasashen Larabawa ta kafa gwamnatin Gabaɗaya ta Falasdinu a ranar 22 ga watan Satumbar 1948 don gudanar da mulkin Falasdinu gaba ɗaya a zirin Gaza da Masar ta mamaye. Ba da dadewa ba duk mambobin kungiyar Larabawa sun amince da shi in banda Transjordan, wacce ta mamaye kuma daga baya ta mamaye gabar yammacin kogin Jordan ciki har da gabashin Kudus. A halin yanzu 138 daga cikin kasashe 193 na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UN) sun amince da Falasdinu. Ko da yake an ayyana ikon gwamnatin Falasdinu gaba daya don mamaye dukkanin tsohuwar Palastinu ta tilas, ikonta mai inganci ya takaita ne a zirin Gaza. [3] Daga baya Isra'ila ta kwace yankin Zirin Gaza da zirin Sinai daga Masar, Yammacin Kogin Jordan da Gabashin Kudus daga Jordan, da Tuddan Golan daga Syria a yakin kwanaki shida a watan Yunin 1967.

A ranar 15 ga watan Nuwamban shekarar 1988 a birnin Algiers, shugaban kungiyar ta PLO Yasser Arafat ya shelanta kafa kasar Falasdinu. Shekara guda bayan rattaba hannu kan yarjejeniyar Oslo a 1993, an kafa PNA don yin mulki (a cikin digiri daban-daban) yankunan A da B a Yammacin Kogin Jordan, wanda ya ƙunshi 165 enclaves, da Zirin Gaza. Bayan Hamas ta zama babbar jam'iyyar PNA a zabukan baya-bayan nan (2006), rikici ya barke tsakaninta da jam'iyyar Fatah, wanda ya kai ga mamaye Gaza a hannun Hamas a 2007 (shekaru biyu bayan ficewar Isra'ila).

Al'ummar Falasdinu a tsakiyar shekara a 2021 5,227,193 ne. Duk da cewa Falasdinu na ikirarin birnin Kudus a matsayin babban birnin kasar, amma birnin yana karkashin ikon Isra'ila; iƙirarin da Falasɗinawa da Isra'ila suka yi a birnin, galibin ƙasashen duniya ba su amince da shi ba. Falasdinu mamba ce ta kungiyar hadin kan kasashen Larabawa da kungiyar hadin kan kasashen musulmi ta G77 da kwamitin Olympics na duniya da kuma UNESCO da UNCTAD da kotun hukunta manyan laifuka ta duniya. A shekara ta 2012, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta kada kuri'ar amincewa da Falasdinu a matsayin kasa mai sa ido.

Asalin kalma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duk da cewa tunanin yankin Falasdinu da yanayinsa ya bambanta a tsawon tarihi, amma yanzu ana ganin kasar Isra'ila ta zamani ce, da yammacin kogin Jordan da zirin Gaza suka hada shi. [4] Gabaɗaya amfani da kalmar "Palestine" ko kalmomin da ke da alaƙa da yankin kudu maso gabas na Tekun Bahar Rum kusa da Siriya tarihi yana faruwa tun zamanin tsohuwar Girka, tare da Herodotus shine ɗan tarihi na farko da ya rubuta a karni na 5 BC a cikin The Histories na "yankin Siriya, wanda ake kira Palaistine" wanda Phoeniciyawa suka yi hulɗa da sauran mutanen teku. [5] Kalmar "Palestine" (a cikin Latin, Palæstina ) ana tsammanin kalma ce da Girkawa ta dā suka yi don yankin ƙasar da Filistiyawa suka mamaye, ko da yake akwai wasu bayanai. [6]

Kalmomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

masu neman yancin Falastinawa kenan

Wannan labarin yana amfani da kalmomin "Palestine", "Jihar Falasdinu", "yankin Falasdinawa da aka mamaye" (oPt ko OPT) a musayan ya danganta da mahallin. Musamman ma kalmar "Yankin Falasdinawa da ta mamaye" tana nufin gaba dayanta ga yankin Palasdinawa da Isra'ila ta mamaye tun shekarar 1967. A kowane hali, duk wani bayani game da ƙasa ko yanki yana nufin ƙasar da ƙasar Falasdinu ta ɗauka.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Article "History of Palestine", Encyclopædia Britannica (2002 edition), article section written by Walid Ahmed Khalidi and Ian J. Bickerton.
  2. Yoav Gelber, Palestine 1948, 2006 – Chap. 8 "The Arab Regular Armies' Invasion of Palestine".
  3. Gelber, Y. Palestine, 1948. pp. 177–78
  4. Rubin, 1999, The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: The Arab World, p. 186, at Google Books
  5. Herodotus, Volume 4. p. 21. 1806.
  6. Ancient History Encyclopædia, Mark, Joshua J., "Palestine"