Zirin Gaza

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Zirin Gaza


Suna saboda Gaza City (en) Fassara
Wuri
Map
 31°27′N 34°24′E / 31.45°N 34.4°E / 31.45; 34.4
Territory claimed by (en) Fassara Isra'ila

Babban birni Gaza City (en) Fassara
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 2,098,389 (2023)
• Yawan mutane 5,749.01 mazaunan/km²
Labarin ƙasa
Bangare na Palestinian territories (en) Fassara
Yawan fili 365 km²
Wuri mafi tsayi Abu Auda (en) Fassara (105 m)
Sun raba iyaka da
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1949
Muhimman sha'ani
Tsarin Siyasa
• Gwamna Mahmoud Abbas
Ikonomi
Kuɗi new shekel (en) Fassara
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
UTC+02:00 (en) Fassara
Tsarin lamba ta kiran tarho +970
Israel lan tlatah Mediteran kidul-wétan

Zirin Gaza kamar yadda sunansa ya nuna, wani ɗan zirin yanki ne da ke gaɓar tekun mediteranian, wanda yake a ƙarƙashin mulkin ‘yan Hamas. Garin ya yi iyaka da ƙasar Misra daga kudu maso. yamma da kuma ƙasar Isra'ila ta ɓangaren Arewa da gabas. Gaba ɗaya tsawon garin bai wuce mil 25 ba, faɗinsa kuwa bai wuce mil 4-8 ba. Hukumar Falasɗinawa suna ikirarin mallakar wanannan ziri a matsayin wani, ɓangare na Falasdinu.

An kafa yankin Zirin Gaza ne a shekarar 1948, lokacin da Majalisar dinkin Duniya ta raba ƙasar Falasdinu gida biyu ta baiwa Yahudawa rabi. To mutanen da suke a ɓangaren da aka baiwa Isra'ila sune aka kwashe su aka kai su yankin da yanzu ake kira gaza a matsayin ‘yan gudun hijira.To tun daga wannan lokaci ne fa yankin zirin gaza ya tsinci kansa a wani hali na tsaka mai wuya. Kasancewar ƙasar Isra'ila wadda ta mulki wannan guri tun daga shekarun 1967-2005, ita ce har yanzu take da ikon tafiyar da harkokin sararin samaniyar zirin gaza da iyakar garin daga ɓangaren ruwa, da harkokin sufurin ruwa da kuma iyakar dake tsakanin imperial ɗin da Gaza.

Wannan iko da Izra'ila take da shi, wanda kuma Hamas take adawa da shi, shi ne ya baiwa Izra'ila damar nuna isa akan dukkan abubuwan shige-da fice a wannan yanki na Gaza, wanda ya haɗa da abinci. A duk lokacin da abinci ya yi ƙaranci to fa al'ummar Zirin Gaza ba su da wata dama illa ta dogaro da samun abinci ta hanyar Cibiyoyin agajin abinci na duniya dake aiki a wannan yanki.

Tun lokacin da aka kafa yankin Zirin na Gaza ya kasance ƙarƙashin kulawar ƙasar Misra, tun daga 1948-1967, kafin yaƙin 1967 wanda aka yi tsakanin Isra'ira da Larabawa inda Isra'ila ta mamaye Zirin Gaza. kuma a yau ita misiran ce take da ikon tafiyar da harkokin kan iyakarta da zirin gaza.

Yankin na Zirin Gaza dai ya samo sunan sa ne daga garin Gaza, wanda shi ne babban birni a wannan yanki. Zirin Gaza na da yawan al'umma da suka kai kimanin miliyan ɗaya da rabi.

Hukumar Falasdinawa ta samu ikon karɓar harkokin mulki a shekara ta 1994 a ƙarƙashin yarjejeniyar Birnin Osolo, wadda ta sa Isra'ila ta janye daga mulkin Zirin Gaza a 1994. To sai dai wannan yarjejeniya ta Osolo ta baiwa Isra'ila ikon ci-gaba da mallakar harkokin sararin samaniyar Gaza da ruwayen yankin da kuma harkokin ruwan, da harkokin rijistar ƙidaya da shige da ficen baƙi da shigar da kayayyaki da kuma fitar da su, sannan da harkokin kuɗin shiga.

A shekara ta 2006 aka gudanar da zaɓe a Falasdinu inda Hamas ta lashe wannan zaɓe da babban rinjaye, ta kayar da jam'iyyar Fatah da sauran tsirarun jam'iyyu, wanda hakan ya baiwa Isma'il Haniya damar zama zaɓaɓɓen Firaministan Falasdinu. To sai dai Izra'ila da Amurka ba su amince da wannan zaɓe da Falasɗinawa suka yiba, kasancewar su a wajensu Hamas ƙungiya ce ta ‘yan tarzoma. Wanda sakamakon haka yasa ƙasar Isra'ila da Amirka da Kanada da Tarayyar Turai suka dakatar da dukkan kuɗaɗen hukumar Falasɗinu. Inda rashin daidaituwar gwamnati da rashin kuɗi da kuma yunwa da ƙishirwa ta sa dole wasu daga cikin al'ummar Falasɗinu su kai hijira.

Rikici ya ɓalle tsakanin Hamas da Fatah saboda halin da aka shiga na kiki-kaka, wanda hakan ya sa sai da ƙasar Saudiyya ta shiga tsakani, inda ta samar da yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya a tsakaninsu tare da kafa gwamnatin haɗin-gwiwa. Wannan yarjejeniya ce ta sa Isma'il Haniya ya yi murabus daga matsayinsa na zaɓaɓɓen firaministan Falasdinu a dimokuraɗiyyance, zuwa firaministan riƙon ƙwarya na gwamnatin haɗingwiwa. An kuma rantsar da shi a matsayin shugaban sabuwar gwamnati a ranar 18, ga Maris, 2007.

A ranan 14 ga Juni, 2007 shugaban Falsɗinawa Mahmoud Abbas ya kori Isma'il Haniya ya naɗa Salam Fayyad a matsayin Firaministan gwamnatin haɗin gwiwa, canjin da majalisar dokokin Falasɗinawa ta ce bata yarda da shi ba domin ya saɓa doka. Shugaban ƙasa na da ikon sauke firaminista amma ba shi da ikon naɗa wani sai da izinin majalisa. Wannan dalili ne ya sa Haniya ya koma Gaza ya ci-gaba da zama mai mulkin zirin-gaza.

Tun daga lokacin da Hamas ta karɓe mulkin Gaza kawo yau, wannan yanki na gaza yake cikin talala. Dukkan hanyoyin shiga gaza guda 5 da sukai iyaka da Izra'ila, Isra'ilan ta toshe su. Sai dai kawai idan taimakon gaggawa ko na agaji ya taso. Halin da ya sa al'ummar Falasɗinawa cikin halin ƙaƙanikayi.


Isra'ila dai tana iƙirarin cewa duk tana yin wannan ne, saboda Hamas ta ƙi yarda ta amince da ita a matsayin halattacciyar ƙasa, kuma Hamas ɗin tana harba rokoki a cikin ƙasar Isra'ilan. Isra'ilan ta ce matuƙar Hamas ta yarda da halaccin kafuwarta ta kuma daina harba mata rokoki, to za ta buɗe iyakokin Gaza ta kuma daina kai hare-haren da take kaiwa Falasɗinawa a Zirin Gaza.

Ita kuma Hamas tana iƙirarin cewa ba za ta amince da Isra'ila a matsayin Halattacciyar ƙasa ba, ba kuma za ta daina harba rokoki cikinta ba, har sai ta sakarwa Falasɗinawa mara, kuma sai ta janye daga inda ta mamaye zuwa inda yarjejeniyar 4 ga Yuni, 1967 ta amincewa Isra'ila, sannan kuma ta sakar musu harkokin shige-da fice da tattalin arziki ta kuma basu dama su gina filayen jiragen sama da na ruwa dadai sauransu. Su rayu cikin aminci kamar sauran al'ummar duniya.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

The Via Maris (ungu), King's Highway (abang), lan jalur dhagang Levantine kuno liyané, c. 1300 BCE

Gaza na cikin daular Usmaniyya kafin Ingila ta mamaye ta (1918 – 1948), Masar (1948 – 1967), sannan Isra’ila, wacce a shekarar 1993 ta baiwa hukumar Falasdinawa a Gaza ta takaita mulkin kai ta hanyar yarjejeniyar Oslo. Tun daga shekara ta 2007, yankin Gaza ke karkashin ikon Hamas, wanda ke ikirarin wakiltar kasar Falasdinu da al'ummar Palasdinu.

Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, kungiyoyin kare hakkin bil'adama na kasa da kasa, da kuma mafi yawan gwamnatoci da masu sharhi kan harkokin shari'a har yanzu suna la'akari da yankin da Isra'ila ta mamaye duk da janyewar Isra'ila daga Gaza a shekara ta 2005. [1] Isra'ila na kula da harkokin waje kai tsaye kan Gaza da kuma iko a kai tsaye kan rayuwa a cikin Gaza:

  • Isra'ila ce ke iko da sararin samaniyar Gaza da ta ruwa da kuma shida daga cikin mashigin kasa bakwai na Gaza.
  • Isra'ila tana da 'yancin shiga Gaza bisa ga so tare da sojojinta kuma tana da yankin da ba za a iya shiga ba a cikin yankin Gaza.
  • Gaza ta dogara ga Isra'ila don samar da ruwa, wutar lantarki, sadarwa, da sauran abubuwan amfani
  • An kafa iyakokin yankin arewaci da gabas na zirin Gaza a lokacin da aka dakatar da yaki a yakin 1948, wanda yarjejeniyar Isra'ila da Masar ta tabbatar a ranar 24 ga Fabrairun 1949. [2] Mataki na V na Yarjejeniyar ya bayyana cewa layin da ba zai zama iyakar kasa da kasa ba. Da farko Gwamnatin Falasdinu ce ke gudanar da Zirin Gaza a hukumance, wadda kungiyar hadin kan Larabawa ta kafa a watan Satumban 1948. Ana gudanar da dukkan Falasdinu a zirin Gaza a karkashin ikon soja na Masar, tana aiki a matsayin wata kasa, har sai da ta hade a hukumance zuwa Jamhuriyyar Larabawa kuma ta wargaje a shekara ta 1959. Daga lokacin rugujewar gwamnatin Falasdinu har zuwa shekarar 1967, wani gwamnan sojan Masar ne ke gudanar da yankin Gaza kai tsaye. sra'ila ta kwace Zirin Gaza daga Masar a yakin kwanaki shida a shekarar 1967. Bisa yarjejeniyar Oslo da aka rattabawa hannu a shekarar 1993, hukumar Palasdinawa ta zama hukumar gudanarwa da ke tafiyar da cibiyoyin al'ummar Falasdinu yayin da Isra'ila ke kula da sararin samaniya, yankunan ruwa da mashigar kan iyaka ban da kan iyakar kasa da Masar da ke karkashin ikon Masar. A shekara ta 2005, Isra'ila ta janye daga zirin Gaza a karkashin shirinta na kawar da kai.

1948 All-Palestine gwamnatin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A ranar 22 ga watan Satumban shekarar 1948, zuwa karshen yakin Larabawa da Isra'ila a shekara ta 1948, kungiyar hadin kan Larabawa ta ayyana gwamnatin Falasdinu baki daya a birnin Gaza da Masar ta mamaye. An ƙirƙiri wani ɓangare a matsayin yunƙurin Ƙungiyar Larabawa don iyakance tasirin Transjordan a Falasdinu. Cikin sauri shida daga cikin bakwai membobi na kungiyar Larabawa: Masar, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, da Yemen sun amince da Gwamnatin Gaba ɗaya, amma ba ta Transjordan ba. [3] Babu wata kasa da ta amince da ita a wajen kungiyar kasashen Larabawa.

A ranar 22 ga watan Satumban shekarar 1948, zuwa karshen yakin Larabawa da Isra'ila a shekara ta 1948, kungiyar hadin kan Larabawa ta ayyana gwamnatin Falasdinu baki daya a birnin Gaza da Masar ta mamaye. An ƙirƙiri wani ɓangare a matsayin yunƙurin Ƙungiyar Larabawa don iyakance tasirin Transjordan a Falasdinu. Cikin sauri shida daga cikin bakwai membobi na kungiyar Larabawa: Masar, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, da Yemen sun amince da Gwamnatin Gaba ɗaya, amma ba ta Transjordan ba. [4] Babu wata kasa da ta amince da ita a wajen kungiyar kasashen Larabawa.

An bai wa Falasdinawa da ke zaune a zirin Gaza ko Masar fasfo din Falasdinu baki daya. Masar ba ta ba su takardar zama dan kasa ba. Daga karshen 1949, sun sami taimako kai tsaye daga UNRWA . A lokacin rikicin Suez (1956), sojojin Isra'ila sun mamaye yankin Zirin Gaza da yankin Sinai, wadanda suka janye sakamakon matsin lambar kasa da kasa. An zargi gwamnatin Falasdinu da zama wani abin rufe fuska ga Masarautar Masar, tare da tallafi ko tasiri mai zaman kanta. Daga baya ta koma Alkahira kuma ta rushe a cikin 1959 bisa umarnin shugaban Masar Gamal Abdul Nasser

1959-1967 Masarautar Masar[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan rugujewar gwamnatin Falasdinu a shekara ta 1959, a karkashin uzurin kasashen Larabawa, Masar ta ci gaba da mamaye zirin Gaza har zuwa shekara ta 1967. Masar ba ta taba mamaye zirin Gaza ba, a maimakon haka ta dauke shi a matsayin yanki mai iko da kuma gudanar da shi ta hannun gwamnan soja. [5] Fiye da 'yan gudun hijira sama da 200,000 daga tsohuwar Falasdinawa ta tilas, kusan kashi ɗaya bisa huɗu na waɗanda suka yi gudun hijira ko aka kore su daga gidajensu a lokacin, kuma bayan yaƙin Larabawa da Isra'ila na 1948 zuwa Gaza [6] ya haifar da raguwa sosai a cikin matsayin rayuwa. Saboda gwamnatin Masar ta hana zirga-zirga zuwa ko daga Zirin Gaza, mazaunanta ba za su iya neman wani wuri don samun aikin yi ba.

Mamayar Isra'ila 1967[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Multiple sources:
  2. Egypt Israel Armistice Agreement UN Doc S/1264/Corr.1 23 February 1949[dead link]
  3. Empty citation (help)
  4. Empty citation (help)
  5. "How has the Gaza Strip influenced the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?" Error in Webarchive template: Empty url. entry at ProCon.org citing "An Historical Encyclopedia of the Arab–Israeli Conflict"
  6. Elisha Efrat, The West Bank and Gaza Strip: A Geography of Occupation and Disengagement, Error in Webarchive template: Empty url. Routledge, 2006 pp.74–75.